Culture CUA1, Theories of Second Lanugage Grammar and Acquisition, Western Governoor's University Task #1
SLO1 -Theories of
Acquisition and Grammar
This Webinar will direct you to places where you can get
information, help, and answers.
It will give some of the main ideas to know under each
topic, and distinguish some easily confused terms.
Please raise your hand, or ask, if you want further
clarification or have questions.
Inside the COS in “Your Learning Resources”.
Topic menu is on the left.
the study of forming words from morphemes.
im perfect tion
Morphology – the study of forming words from morphemes. An
Introduction to Language, ch. 3, How Language Works, “Morphemes”.
Morpheme=the smallest unit of linguistic
meaning or function.
Allomorph= alternative morpheme (the changing
end sound in hats/frogs/kisses).
Free morpheme=single morpheme that can be a
word all by itself (hit/wish/bat)
Bound morpheme= can only occur attached to
other morphemes in words (hidden/watched).
Inflectional morpheme=has a strict grammatical
Derivational morpheme= may be needed to
create an adjective or other part of speech
sentence structure, and the study of it.
Syntax – sentence structure, and the study of it. An Introduction
to Language, ch’s 1, 2, & 4. Teaching ESL/EFL Listening and Speaking: ch’s
2 & 3. Online Guide to Grammar and Writing.
Think: word order
How do we order words to make a question? (use “question
words” at the beginning, add “do” to a sentence (Do you want a
cookie?), move a be verb to the front (Are you going?)
Forming complex verbs:
Present progressive: be verb+(verb) “ing”(You are shoveling
“Ing” does not automatically = present progressive tense, it could
be a Gerund! (What an amazing concept!)
Don’t ignore the articles/adjectives (a/an/some, the, one/two…)
Sapir-Wharf Hypothesis: in ch. 1, the belief that our language
either determines or effects our thinking and perception of the
◦ Linguistic Relativism----Linguistic Determinism
the study of the ways that language structures meaning in words and sentences.
doing the action?
What do we need
to know about
What is the
• What needs to be
said about the
Semantics – the study of the ways that language structures
meaning in words and sentences. An Introduction to Language, ch. 5,
Teaching ESL/EFL Listening and Speaking: ch’s 5 & 8. Additional web pages
Discourse= a linguistic unit of more than
one sentence on a topic.
Phrasal verbs= verbs+prepositions-an
English phenomenon? Turn up/turn
down/turn into/turn around/turn on/turn
off/…. “The plane is taking off.” “Is the
plane going to take off?” “I want you to
take the hat off.”
deixis- “she left it over there”.
Keep this in mind-
Our brains get used to receiving and
giving meaning in a certain order.
Language learners have to train their
brains to accept meaning in a different
order. Learning the rules of syntax does
not necessarily re-train our brain’s
Think of it as doing mental gymnastics.
Different theorists = different theories
Language Acquisition - An Introduction to Language,
ch’s 2, 8 & 9. Teaching ESL/EFL Listening and Speaking: ch’s 4, 6 & 8. Teachscape
Module: Second Language Acquisition Theory and Policy Part 1.
Learning our L1
Noam Chomsky- The Innateness
Hypothesis: LAD, UG
Pragmatics= the appropriate use of
language in context
L2 Acquisition and teaching methods
◦ TPR, Monitor Model, CALLA, BICS & CALP…
A rose by any other name would smell as sweet…
Sociolinguistics and Language
Change –There’s more to communication than the words! An
Introduction to Language: ch 10, 11. Other websites.
Descriptive vs. prescriptive linguistics
Dialect= a language variety used by any
particular group of speakers.
Regional dialect=when the dialect is used in a
Social dialect=a dialect shared largely/only by
speakers of the same social status
Pidgin=a language developed by speakers of
different languages to communicate with each
Creole=a language begun as a “pidgin” that has
evolved into a “native tongue” that is learned as
the first language of the speakers’ children.
The way it looks on screen…on paper…a scroll…papyrus…in stone…
Writing Systems- An Introduction to Language, ch’s 12
& 6. The Diversity Kit, Part I, pgs. 25-65, and Part II, pgs. 1-30. Several
additional web pages.
Logographic=a symbol represents a whole word or
Syllabic= a symbol represents a syllable.
Consonantal=consonants are represented by symbols, and
vowels are represented by diacritical marks.
Alphabetic=a symbol (or combination of symbols)
represents a vowel or consonant (English, European
Pictogram=symbols resemble the objects they represent.
Ideogram=symbols that represent ideas.
Logogram-symbols represent words or morphemes
The Rebus Principle=allows for the evolution of ideographic
writing systems by using one symbol for multiple
homophones. Think of license plate messages, “BI2U”, or
“4sale”. Works in Chinese, evolution of ancient Phoenician.
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