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La standardisation du livre

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  • DOWNLOAD THIS BOOKS INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT (2019 Update) ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... Download Full PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... eBook is an electronic version of a traditional print book THIS can be read by using a personal computer or by using an eBook reader. (An eBook reader can be a software application for use on a computer such as Microsoft's free Reader application, or a book-sized computer THIS is used solely as a reading device such as Nuvomedia's Rocket eBook.) Users can purchase an eBook on diskette or CD, but the most popular method of getting an eBook is to purchase a downloadable file of the eBook (or other reading material) from a Web site (such as Barnes and Noble) to be read from the user's computer or reading device. Generally, an eBook can be downloaded in five minutes or less ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks .............................................................................................................................. Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .....BEST SELLER FOR EBOOK RECOMMEND............................................................. ......................................................................................................................... Blowout: Corrupted Democracy, Rogue State Russia, and the Richest, Most Destructive Industry on Earth,-- The Ride of a Lifetime: Lessons Learned from 15 Years as CEO of the Walt Disney Company,-- Call Sign Chaos: Learning to Lead,-- StrengthsFinder 2.0,-- Stillness Is the Key,-- She Said: Breaking the Sexual Harassment Story THIS Helped Ignite a Movement,-- Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones,-- Everything Is Figureoutable,-- What It Takes: Lessons in the Pursuit of Excellence,-- Rich Dad Poor Dad: What the Rich Teach Their Kids About Money THIS the Poor and Middle Class Do Not!,-- The Total Money Makeover: Classic Edition: A Proven Plan for Financial Fitness,-- Shut Up and Listen!: Hard Business Truths THIS Will Help You Succeed, ......................................................................................................................... .........................................................................................................................
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  • DOWNLOAD THIS BOOKS INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT (2019 Update) ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... Download Full PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... eBook is an electronic version of a traditional print book THIS can be read by using a personal computer or by using an eBook reader. (An eBook reader can be a software application for use on a computer such as Microsoft's free Reader application, or a book-sized computer THIS is used solely as a reading device such as Nuvomedia's Rocket eBook.) Users can purchase an eBook on diskette or CD, but the most popular method of getting an eBook is to purchase a downloadable file of the eBook (or other reading material) from a Web site (such as Barnes and Noble) to be read from the user's computer or reading device. Generally, an eBook can be downloaded in five minutes or less ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks .............................................................................................................................. Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .....BEST SELLER FOR EBOOK RECOMMEND............................................................. ......................................................................................................................... Blowout: Corrupted Democracy, Rogue State Russia, and the Richest, Most Destructive Industry on Earth,-- The Ride of a Lifetime: Lessons Learned from 15 Years as CEO of the Walt Disney Company,-- Call Sign Chaos: Learning to Lead,-- StrengthsFinder 2.0,-- Stillness Is the Key,-- She Said: Breaking the Sexual Harassment Story THIS Helped Ignite a Movement,-- Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones,-- Everything Is Figureoutable,-- What It Takes: Lessons in the Pursuit of Excellence,-- Rich Dad Poor Dad: What the Rich Teach Their Kids About Money THIS the Poor and Middle Class Do Not!,-- The Total Money Makeover: Classic Edition: A Proven Plan for Financial Fitness,-- Shut Up and Listen!: Hard Business Truths THIS Will Help You Succeed, ......................................................................................................................... .........................................................................................................................
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  • DOWNLOAD THIS BOOKS INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT (2019 Update) ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... Download Full PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... eBook is an electronic version of a traditional print book THIS can be read by using a personal computer or by using an eBook reader. (An eBook reader can be a software application for use on a computer such as Microsoft's free Reader application, or a book-sized computer THIS is used solely as a reading device such as Nuvomedia's Rocket eBook.) Users can purchase an eBook on diskette or CD, but the most popular method of getting an eBook is to purchase a downloadable file of the eBook (or other reading material) from a Web site (such as Barnes and Noble) to be read from the user's computer or reading device. Generally, an eBook can be downloaded in five minutes or less ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks .............................................................................................................................. Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .....BEST SELLER FOR EBOOK RECOMMEND............................................................. ......................................................................................................................... Blowout: Corrupted Democracy, Rogue State Russia, and the Richest, Most Destructive Industry on Earth,-- The Ride of a Lifetime: Lessons Learned from 15 Years as CEO of the Walt Disney Company,-- Call Sign Chaos: Learning to Lead,-- StrengthsFinder 2.0,-- Stillness Is the Key,-- She Said: Breaking the Sexual Harassment Story THIS Helped Ignite a Movement,-- Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones,-- Everything Is Figureoutable,-- What It Takes: Lessons in the Pursuit of Excellence,-- Rich Dad Poor Dad: What the Rich Teach Their Kids About Money THIS the Poor and Middle Class Do Not!,-- The Total Money Makeover: Classic Edition: A Proven Plan for Financial Fitness,-- Shut Up and Listen!: Hard Business Truths THIS Will Help You Succeed, ......................................................................................................................... .........................................................................................................................
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  • DOWNLOAD THIS BOOKS INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT (2019 Update) ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... Download Full PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... eBook is an electronic version of a traditional print book THIS can be read by using a personal computer or by using an eBook reader. (An eBook reader can be a software application for use on a computer such as Microsoft's free Reader application, or a book-sized computer THIS is used solely as a reading device such as Nuvomedia's Rocket eBook.) Users can purchase an eBook on diskette or CD, but the most popular method of getting an eBook is to purchase a downloadable file of the eBook (or other reading material) from a Web site (such as Barnes and Noble) to be read from the user's computer or reading device. Generally, an eBook can be downloaded in five minutes or less ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks .............................................................................................................................. Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .....BEST SELLER FOR EBOOK RECOMMEND............................................................. ......................................................................................................................... Blowout: Corrupted Democracy, Rogue State Russia, and the Richest, Most Destructive Industry on Earth,-- The Ride of a Lifetime: Lessons Learned from 15 Years as CEO of the Walt Disney Company,-- Call Sign Chaos: Learning to Lead,-- StrengthsFinder 2.0,-- Stillness Is the Key,-- She Said: Breaking the Sexual Harassment Story THIS Helped Ignite a Movement,-- Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones,-- Everything Is Figureoutable,-- What It Takes: Lessons in the Pursuit of Excellence,-- Rich Dad Poor Dad: What the Rich Teach Their Kids About Money THIS the Poor and Middle Class Do Not!,-- The Total Money Makeover: Classic Edition: A Proven Plan for Financial Fitness,-- Shut Up and Listen!: Hard Business Truths THIS Will Help You Succeed, ......................................................................................................................... .........................................................................................................................
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La standardisation du livre

  1. 1. La standardisation du livre Frédéric Kaplan frederic.kaplan@ep!.ch twitter: @frederickaplanTuesday, October 25, 11
  2. 2. L’histoire du livre est l’histoire d’un processus de standardisation.Tuesday, October 25, 11
  3. 3. Une histoire similaire à celle des cartes.Tuesday, October 25, 11
  4. 4. The Gough Map is the oldest extant map of the roads of medieval Britain. It is about 115 x 56cm large 1360 and was made around 1360. It is named after Richard Gough, who donated the map to the Bodleian Library in 1809. East is on the top. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:GoughMap_ca_1360.jpgTuesday, October 25, 11
  5. 5. 1520 Piri Reis map of Europe, the Mediterranean Sea and North Africa from his Kitab-ı Bahriye (Book of Navigation), 1521-1525 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Piri_Reis_map_of_Europe_and_the_Mediterranean_Sea.jpgTuesday, October 25, 11
  6. 6. 2006 Global land and undersea elevation. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Elevation.jpgTuesday, October 25, 11
  7. 7. 2011 http://maps.google.comTuesday, October 25, 11
  8. 8. La standardisation procède toujours en deux étapes successives : 1. La standardisation des règles de production 2. La standardisation des règles d’usage.Tuesday, October 25, 11
  9. 9. Un système dont la production et l’usage sont standardisés est une machine.Tuesday, October 25, 11
  10. 10. Historiquement, un livre désigne d’abord un ensemble de pages reliées ensemble.Tuesday, October 25, 11
  11. 11. Un livre permet d’organiser un discours dans un volume.Tuesday, October 25, 11
  12. 12. Cette transformation 1D vers 3D est le processus de mise en page.Tuesday, October 25, 11
  13. 13. Ce processus de mise en page s’est standardisé au "l du temps.Tuesday, October 25, 11
  14. 14. Tuesday, October 25, 11
  15. 15. Tuesday, October 25, 11
  16. 16. Tuesday, October 25, 11
  17. 17. Au "l de ce processus de standardisation de nouveaux modèles économique sont apparus.Tuesday, October 25, 11
  18. 18. Aujourd’hui, un livre numérique est la description numérique standard du contenu d’un livre.Tuesday, October 25, 11
  19. 19. Ce contenu standard permet de produire un livre papier ou un livre lu sur écran.Tuesday, October 25, 11
  20. 20. Ce contenu standard peut être distribué depuis un serveur.Tuesday, October 25, 11
  21. 21. Tuesday, October 25, 11
  22. 22. Le livre cesse d’être un objet pour devenir une ressource.Tuesday, October 25, 11
  23. 23. Le lecteur achète un droit d’accès et d’usage sur cette ressource.Tuesday, October 25, 11
  24. 24. L’achat d’un livre papier constitue un cas particulier d’achat de droits d’accès et d’usage.Tuesday, October 25, 11
  25. 25. Dans certains cas, le lecteur peut acheter un droit d’accès sur plusieurs supports.Tuesday, October 25, 11
  26. 26. Tuesday, October 25, 11
  27. 27. ? ?Tuesday, October 25, 11
  28. 28. La chaine du livre va progressivement se réorganiser autour de ce nouveau modèle.Tuesday, October 25, 11
  29. 29. Chacune des fonctions de la chaîne existe encore auteur, éditeur, imprimeur, distributeur, libraire...Tuesday, October 25, 11
  30. 30. Imprimeur Déplacer des objets "chiers livres "chiers livres livres livres stocks %$ %$ %$ $ transmet les cond. de ventes propose un livre passe "xe présente commande conseille les objectifs le catalogue Auteur Editeur Distributeur Libraire Lecteur Di!useurTuesday, October 25, 11
  31. 31. Gérer des droits d’accès outils espace de de stockage interfaces de interfaces de de conception vente de lecture et outils de distribution "chiers %$ %$ %$ $ transmet les cond. de ventes propose un livre passe "xe présente commande conseille les objectifs le catalogue Auteur Editeur Distributeur Libraire Lecteur Di!useurTuesday, October 25, 11
  32. 32. Mais la gestion directement depuis le nuage tend à étendre l’in!uence de certains acteurs sur l’ensemble de la chaîne.Tuesday, October 25, 11
  33. 33. 3 plateformes se livrent une guerre économique Google Apple AmazonTuesday, October 25, 11
  34. 34. Un autre acteur un peu caché mais présent à tous les niveaux de la chaîne (logiciel d’édition, serveurs, logiciel de lecture, DRM) : AdobeTuesday, October 25, 11
  35. 35. Comme toujours, cette guerre économique est en grande partie une guerre de standards.Tuesday, October 25, 11
  36. 36. 3 familles d’interfaces de lecture complémentaires Les ordinateurs Les smartphones Les tablettes et les liseusesTuesday, October 25, 11
  37. 37. Ordres de grandeur Ordinateurs portables 2 Milliards X5 Smartphone : 500 Millions X 10 Tablettes : 50 Millions X2 eBook Readers 25 Millions http://lafeuille.blog.lemonde.fr/2010/04/01/les-supports-du-livre-numerique/Tuesday, October 25, 11
  38. 38. Le cas des tablettes Entre 3 et 4 millions d’iPad vendus par mois dans le monde.Tuesday, October 25, 11
  39. 39. Le cas des tablettes 2010 iPad 80%, Android 14% 2011 iPad 73%, Android 17% (Source Gartner sept 2011) http://www.gartner.com/it/page.jsp?id=1800514Tuesday, October 25, 11
  40. 40. Smartphones: des divisions sociologiquesTuesday, October 25, 11
  41. 41. 3 familles de formats en compétition PDF, PS : anciens standards en perte de vitesse. ePub, TEI : standardisés, en expansion. Apps : encore peu standardisées, mais plus puissantes.Tuesday, October 25, 11
  42. 42. Standard futur du livre numérique AppsTuesday, October 25, 11
  43. 43. Le processus de standardisation se développe sur trois niveaux complémentaires.Tuesday, October 25, 11
  44. 44. (1/3) Des formats standards pour décrire le contenu d’un livre se mettent en placeTuesday, October 25, 11
  45. 45. A partir de ces descriptions standardisées, il est possible de produire plusieurs mises en pages selon les interfaces de lecture utiliséesTuesday, October 25, 11
  46. 46. Les textes et les images utilisées peuvent elles aussi être associés à “noeuds sémantiques” bien dé"nis - des lieux bien dé"nis - des personnes bien dé"nies - des citations bien dé"nies Ces noeuds sémantiques servent de pivots entre les livres standardisés. (2/3) La décomposition se poursuit au plan sémantiqueTuesday, October 25, 11
  47. 47. De nouveaux formats ouverts sont aujourd’hui à l’étude pour décrire les chemins de lecture, les notes, les prêts de livres entre lecteurs. Toute la trajectoire de vie d’un livre standardisé va elle-même être décrite de manière standard. Ces “reading analytics” vont sans doute constituer un minerai de valeur exploitable économiquement. (3/3) La décomposition se poursuit en incluant l’usage des livresTuesday, October 25, 11
  48. 48. http://www.flickr.com/photos/cogdog/3314955517 Le terme “digitalisation” décrit en fait une extraction et standardisation du contenu de millions de livres. Ces livres deviennent des données d’une immense base de données qui intègre également de nombreuses autres informations sur nos pratiques de lecteur et plus généralement sur nos vies. La standardisation est couplée à une “digitalisation” massiveTuesday, October 25, 11
  49. 49. http://www.flickr.com/photos/cogdog/3314955517 La standardisation conduit à la création de continents documentaires et de nouveaux services.Tuesday, October 25, 11
  50. 50. Tuesday, October 25, 11
  51. 51. Tuesday, October 25, 11
  52. 52. Tuesday, October 25, 11
  53. 53. Tuesday, October 25, 11
  54. 54. http://www.flickr.com/photos/cogdog/3314955517 ... tout comme ce fut le cas avec les cartes.Tuesday, October 25, 11
  55. 55. Tuesday, October 25, 11

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