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General Community Colleges


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General Community Colleges

  1. 1. Community Colleges: Making Winners out of Ordinary People<br />Observations From Higher Learning in America edited by Arthur Levine<br />Summarized by Fred Cosgrove, Spring 2009<br />
  2. 2. Overview of community colleges<br />Since end of WW II – “public Community Colleges have grown faster than any other sector of higher ed.”<br />Serve 33% of American higher education students<br />Employ more than 33% of American college faculty.<br />CC ‘s serve “Broad array” 1st generation college students to senior citizens<br />“The major point of entry into higher education for low income youth, underrepresented ethnic minorities , & new immigrants – Serving nontraditional students seeking specific skills in nondegree programs.”<br />“Tied to their communities” – “responsive” more than any other postsecondary education sector.<br />
  3. 3. Community Colleges (CC) economically serve a variety of needs in various locations.<br />
  4. 4. Dramatic Changes in the 1980’s<br />Incredible growth & development in community colleges until the early 80s/<br />Change in student profiles and decreased preparedness.<br />Enrollment rate fell from 200% in 70s to 19% in early 80’s<br />Growth of colleges went from 85% to 4%.<br />Number of associate degrees awarded went from 81 %to 9%<br />Decline of college age youth and drop in HS graduates<br />(1979 – 4.3 million 18 year olds) (early 90’s 3.2 million)<br />But enrollments in CC have risen – Why?<br /> More kids go straight to CC’s & Bigger % of women go to CC <br />More adults beyond traditional college age – than ever.<br />
  5. 5. Cooperative education & retraining <br />More adults turned to CC to address changes on their jobs.<br />Changing technology<br />Combating Layoffs – increasing efficiency<br />Shift out of manufacturing economy <br />CC signed retraining agreements with employers, local govts, emphasized presence on worksite, courting econ development & enticing new employer relocation<br />
  6. 6. Example from author’s area (California) of CC locations to serve educational needs by area and population. Some areas shown have no educational institution other than a community college (CC).<br />
  7. 7. Unique Abilities led to major changes<br />CC could attract students when other institutions could not – due to the following characteristics of CC’s:<br />Class location flexibility – go to worksites & geographic areas<br />Class time flexibility – adjust scheduled class times to meet demand of the student populations<br />Willingness to meet needs of their students – flexibility of time & location and provide day care.<br />Became integral in providing retraining and helping mothers off welfare and into employment<br />Average age of students grew & number of part time students increased in eighties.<br />
  8. 8. CC roles and programs changed with students served<br />CC made their career programs “more responsive to employment trends”.<br /> Their unique capabilities suggest CC’s will be most responsive to the changes in the demands of the American work force. <br />Attention to local markets, changes in curriculum to meet actual needs in the workplace. <br />Examples of creating curriculum to prepare students for specific practical & actual employment opportunities.<br />
  9. 9. Outdoor Leadership ProgramThe Outoor Leadership Program at San Juan College is designed to provide students with education in adventure and outdoor recreation leadership that is up-to-date with industry standards. The program will host a custom Master Educator course for key individuals in Farmington, NM, a community that includes several Native American reservations. <br />
  10. 10. Discussion Question<br />How can community colleges fit with the changes facing our higher education community – with more diverse population, decreasing government funding for students, and higher college costs?<br />
  11. 11. CC’s seek to tie offerings to surrounding schools<br />CC’s offer opportunities to high school and 4 year students.<br />CC’s have seen greater number of students transferring from CC to 4 year institutions and “have instituted transfer alliances” to minimize any loss of credits. <br />Also provide preparation & guidance for obtaining a 4 year degree.<br />CC’s created programs in conjunction with HS’s to facilitate “challenged” students into college and to improve college preparation. Some programs begin at grade school level.<br />
  12. 12. Example of the author’s comments regarding community colleges and credit transferability.<br />“Many degrees transfer to four-year institutions”<br />
  13. 13. CC’s serve play bigger role in serving immigrant populations<br />Programs adapted to local area demand and students – geared to local ethnic populations.<br />Teaching immigrants basic English<br />Remedial classes and employment specific programs in conjunction with community.<br />CC have biggest role of educational institutions in preparing underrepresented minorities – 24% of 2 year college enrollments<br />
  14. 14. San Juan CC “…serve the needs of its minority students that are not necessarily tailored to the needs of a specific minority group…”<br />Which schools offer programs in Instrumentation & Controls Technology? Many local community colleges and technical schools offer such programs. As members of the Industrial Instrumentation & Controls Technology Alliance, employers and faculty are working together to assure that program graduates possess the skills and knowledge necessary for success in the workplace. <br />
  15. 15. CC’s serve the “cooling out” function<br />CC’s are criticized for not supporting the traditional college ladder – but needs of local community combined with available funding may require the CC serve local employment & demand.<br />CC only educational option for students who realize traditional college options won’t work – cooling out - where expectations don’t match ability or ambition.<br />
  16. 16. CC’s marketing to all students – traditional and nontraditional <br />Can you afford college?<br />Ask yourself whether you can afford NOT to go to college. College graduates earn an average annual income of $57,000, while high school graduates earn $32,000 on average. Is college worth the price? Learn more here.<br />This website will help you understand college costs and financial aid as well as give you tools to develop your own college financing plan.<br />Check out the information below. If you continue to have questions, be sure to contact the college campuses you are interested in attending.<br />How Much Does College Cost?<br />College costs include fees and tuition, books and supplies, and living expenses. Find out how much college in California costs and how financial aid can help you and your family meet these costs.<br />How Can I Pay for College?<br />Help is available if you and your parents feel you need it.<br />Sample Financing Plans<br />See sample financing plans for students in a variety of financial circumstances. <br />Apply for Financial Aid (FAFSA)<br />Learn how to apply for financial aid, including scholarships, grants, and loans, and where to go if you need more help.<br />What If I Have Special Circumstances?<br />Special assistance may be available to you.<br />Is College Worth the Price?<br />Find out what a college education can mean for your future.<br />Financial Aid FAQs<br />Get answers to frequently asked questions about financial aid.<br />Glossary and Program Details<br />Definitions and program details.<br />
  17. 17. CC’s faculty grown in professionalism / diversification.<br />More faculty see CC work as a professional goal – not a stepping stone to 4 year universities. <br />More instructors with doctoral degrees teach in CC’s – continuing trend.<br />More part time but exceptionally experienced instructors working in CC’s.<br />Increasing women and ethnic diversification in CC staff & faculty is a developing trend.<br />
  18. 18. CC build prestige and stronger faculty & staff<br />
  19. 19. CC feel fiscal pressures and challenges<br />While CC had been “all things to all people”, shrinking financial base forced CC’s to prioritize, often eliminate noncredit community, elderly, and disabled oriented classes.<br />CC’s researching and polling in their geography to determine best use of their funding – services / classes to offer<br />CC’s seeking funding through partnering with private sector, government, identified needs.<br />CC’s presenting and defining their impact & successes to funding agencies & legislatures – defining their roles in education & community.<br />
  20. 20. CC identifying their role and need for financing through partnering with other institutions and meeting needs. <br />COMMUNITY COLLEGES TO PROVIDE PROGRAMS OF STUDY FOR LATERAL ENTRY TEACHERS<br />Governor Easley Signs Lateral Entry Teacher Bill Into Law<br /> <br />RALEIGH - H. Martin Lancaster, president of the North Carolina Community College System, joined Gov. Mike Easley, key legislators and a host of top education officials today (TUESDAY, JULY 19) as the Governor signed into law House Bill 563. <br />  "This is an historic day for North Carolina," said Lancaster. "North Carolina's community colleges have always been in the business of workforce development. When communities identify a need, our colleges try to fill it. Local school superintendents came to our colleges with this need, and they have been among our strongest allies in working for this legislation."<br />"These programs will be particularly important in rural areas that have no four-year colleges or universities. The job of meeting the teacher shortage is big enough for everyone to have an important part to play. We look forward to working with our partners in independent and public universities and the public schools."<br />Lateral entry programs prepare adults who already have baccalaureate degrees in other fields to become certified teachers.<br /> The governor said that the need for the legislation is clear.<br /> "North Carolina must hire more than 11,000 new teachers every year," Easley said. "This bill expands options for when and where potential teachers can receive their training so we can put motivated, qualified, well-trained teachers in all areas of the state, especially in more rural areas."<br /> In recent years, the North Carolina Community College System has been addressing the teacher shortage. Sandhills Community College in Pinehurst and Central Piedmont Community College in Charlotte have experience with lateral entry.<br /> Across the state, community colleges are already working with universities on "2+2" partnerships that allow students to remain in their home communities, take university education courses on community college campuses and earn their teaching degrees. Coastal Carolina Community College in Jacksonville and the University of North Carolina at Wilmington established one of the first successful programs. <br /> Appalachian State University and 10 community colleges make up the Appalachian Learning Alliance. East Carolina University has established the Wachovia Partnership East with 17 community colleges. Surry Community College's strong partnership with Lees-McRae College is just one example of several collaborations with independent colleges and universities.<br /> <br />
  21. 21. CC challenges – “Making winners out of ordinary people”<br />Today’s elementary & High School students’ challenges are the challenges of CC’s in the future. Diversity is challenge.<br />Increased minority populations with educational challenges – requiring mainstreaming, basic skills, remedial education, & preparation.<br />Educating more ethnic minorities and increasing their representation in CC administration & faculty.<br />Serving educational needs of low-income students & immigrants not met by four year colleges. <br />Providing vocational, career, and transfer education to all these groups.<br />Increasing their share of government funding. CC ‘s educate 43% of nation’s undergraduates but receive 19% of state education funding & less than 10% of federal education money.<br />
  22. 22. Community Colleges promote their role in education with lawmakers <br />February 1, 2008<br />2008 Salute to Legislators <br />Hundreds of state representatives, senators and high-ranking officials attended the 2008 Salute to Legislators reception; an annual event held in late January at the Capitol Plaza Hotel in Jefferson City. The event provided an opportunity to inform Missouri's legislators about issues and projects that concern southwest Missouri. <br />
  23. 23. What changes can we expect from popular conceptions about the higher education process?<br />What (if any) more significant role can we expect community colleges to play?<br />