Table of Contents <ul><li>Section 1   Understanding Populations </li></ul><ul><li>Section 2   Measuring Populations </li><...
Objectives <ul><li>Describe   the main properties that scientists measure when they study populations. </li></ul><ul><li>C...
Properties of Populations <ul><li>A   population   is a group of organisms that belong to the same species and live in a p...
Population Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept Section 1  Understanding Populations
Properties of Populations,  continued <ul><li>Population  Size </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A population’s size is the number of ...
Properties of Populations,  continued <ul><li>Population  Density </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Density is a measure of how crowde...
Properties of Populations,  continued <ul><li>Dispersion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dispersion   describes the distribution of ...
Three Patterns of Population Dispersion Section 1  Understanding Populations
Characteristics of Populations Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept Section 1  Understanding Populations
Population Dynamics <ul><li>Age Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A population’s  age structure  indicates the percentage of...
Population Dynamics,  continued <ul><li>Patterns of Mortality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Populations show three patterns of mor...
Survivorship Curves Section 1  Understanding Populations
Objectives <ul><li>Identify   the four processes that determine population growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Compare   the exponen...
Population Growth Rate <ul><li>Demographers, scientists who study population dynamics, define the   growth rate   of a pop...
Population Growth Rate,  continued <ul><li>Population Size </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Birth rate - death rate = growth rate </l...
The Exponential Model <ul><li>The  exponential model  describes perpetual growth at a steady rate in a population.  </li><...
Exponential Growth Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept Section 2  Measuring Populations
The Logistic Model <ul><li>In the   logistic model,   birth rates fall and death rates climb as the population grows. </li...
Logistic Model Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Section 2  Measuring Populations Visual Concept
Two Population Growth Models Section 2  Measuring Populations
Population Regulation <ul><li>Population-limiting factors, such as competition, are   density-dependent   because the effe...
Population Regulation, continued <ul><li>Population-limiting factors, such as bad weather and fires, are   density-indepen...
Comparing Density-Dependent and Density-Independent Factors Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept Sectio...
Population Regulation,  continued <ul><li>Population Fluctuations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All populations fluctuate in size....
Population Regulation,  continued <ul><li>Perils of Small Populations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small populations have low gen...
Objectives <ul><li>Explain   how the development of agriculture changed the pattern of human population growth. </li></ul>...
History of Human Population Growth <ul><li>The Development of Agriculture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>About 10,000 to 12,000 yea...
History of Human Population Growth,  continued <ul><li>The Population Explosion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Around 1650, improve...
History of Human Population Growth,  continued <ul><li>Population Growth Today </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Today, developing cou...
Human Population Growth Section 3  Human Population Growth
Demographic Transition <ul><li>Human populations have undergone rapid growth, yet in some developed countries, populations...
Demographic Transition Model Section 3  Human Population Growth
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Populations

  1. 1. Table of Contents <ul><li>Section 1 Understanding Populations </li></ul><ul><li>Section 2 Measuring Populations </li></ul><ul><li>Section 3 Human Population Growth </li></ul>Populations
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Describe the main properties that scientists measure when they study populations. </li></ul><ul><li>Compare the three general patterns of population dispersion. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the measurements used to describe changing populations. </li></ul><ul><li>Compare the three general types of survivorship curves. </li></ul>Section 1 Understanding Populations
  3. 3. Properties of Populations <ul><li>A population is a group of organisms that belong to the same species and live in a particular place at the same time. </li></ul><ul><li>Populations can be measured in terms of size, density, dispersion, growth rate, age structure, and survivorship. </li></ul>Section 1 Understanding Populations
  4. 4. Population Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept Section 1 Understanding Populations
  5. 5. Properties of Populations, continued <ul><li>Population Size </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A population’s size is the number of individuals that the population contains. </li></ul></ul>Section 1 Understanding Populations
  6. 6. Properties of Populations, continued <ul><li>Population Density </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Density is a measure of how crowded the population is. </li></ul></ul>Section 1 Understanding Populations
  7. 7. Properties of Populations, continued <ul><li>Dispersion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dispersion describes the distribution of individuals within the population and may be random, uniform, or clumped. </li></ul></ul>Section 1 Understanding Populations
  8. 8. Three Patterns of Population Dispersion Section 1 Understanding Populations
  9. 9. Characteristics of Populations Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept Section 1 Understanding Populations
  10. 10. Population Dynamics <ul><li>Age Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A population’s age structure indicates the percentage of individuals at each age. </li></ul></ul>Section 1 Understanding Populations
  11. 11. Population Dynamics, continued <ul><li>Patterns of Mortality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Populations show three patterns of mortality or survivorship curves : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Type I (low mortality until late in life) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Type II (constant mortality throughout life) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Type III (high mortality early in life followed by low mortality for the remaining life span). </li></ul></ul></ul>Section 1 Understanding Populations
  12. 12. Survivorship Curves Section 1 Understanding Populations
  13. 13. Objectives <ul><li>Identify the four processes that determine population growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Compare the exponential model and the logistic model of population growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate between density-dependent and density-independent regulation of populations. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain why small populations are more vulnerable to extinction. </li></ul>Section 2 Measuring Populations
  14. 14. Population Growth Rate <ul><li>Demographers, scientists who study population dynamics, define the growth rate of a population as the amount by which a population’s size changes in a given time. </li></ul>Section 2 Measuring Populations
  15. 15. Population Growth Rate, continued <ul><li>Population Size </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Birth rate - death rate = growth rate </li></ul></ul>Section 2 Measuring Populations
  16. 16. The Exponential Model <ul><li>The exponential model describes perpetual growth at a steady rate in a population. </li></ul><ul><li>The model assumes constant birth and death rates and no immigration or emigration. </li></ul>Section 2 Measuring Populations
  17. 17. Exponential Growth Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept Section 2 Measuring Populations
  18. 18. The Logistic Model <ul><li>In the logistic model, birth rates fall and death rates climb as the population grows. </li></ul><ul><li>When the carrying capacity is reached, the number of individuals the environment can support is reached and population growth becomes stable. </li></ul>Section 2 Measuring Populations
  19. 19. Logistic Model Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Section 2 Measuring Populations Visual Concept
  20. 20. Two Population Growth Models Section 2 Measuring Populations
  21. 21. Population Regulation <ul><li>Population-limiting factors, such as competition, are density-dependent because the effect on each individual depends on the number of other individuals present in the same area. </li></ul>Section 2 Measuring Populations
  22. 22. Population Regulation, continued <ul><li>Population-limiting factors, such as bad weather and fires, are density-independent because the effect on each individual does not depend on the number of other individuals present in the same area. </li></ul>Section 2 Measuring Populations
  23. 23. Comparing Density-Dependent and Density-Independent Factors Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept Section 2 Measuring Populations
  24. 24. Population Regulation, continued <ul><li>Population Fluctuations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All populations fluctuate in size. </li></ul></ul>Section 2 Measuring Populations
  25. 25. Population Regulation, continued <ul><li>Perils of Small Populations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small populations have low genetic diversity and are subject to inbreeding, so they are less likely to adapt to environmental changes. </li></ul></ul>Section 2 Measuring Populations
  26. 26. Objectives <ul><li>Explain how the development of agriculture changed the pattern of human population growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe changes in human population size in the past 10,000 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Compare observed patterns of population growth in developed and developing countries. </li></ul>Section 3 Human Population Growth
  27. 27. History of Human Population Growth <ul><li>The Development of Agriculture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>About 10,000 to 12,000 years ago, the development of agriculture increased the growth rate of the human population. </li></ul></ul>Section 3 Human Population Growth
  28. 28. History of Human Population Growth, continued <ul><li>The Population Explosion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Around 1650, improvements in hygiene, diet, and economic conditions further accelerated population growth. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After World War II, the human population grew at the fastest rate in history, largely because of better sanitation and medical care in poorer countries. </li></ul></ul>Section 3 Human Population Growth
  29. 29. History of Human Population Growth, continued <ul><li>Population Growth Today </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Today, developing countries have faster human population growth and lower standards of living than developed countries do. </li></ul></ul>Section 3 Human Population Growth
  30. 30. Human Population Growth Section 3 Human Population Growth
  31. 31. Demographic Transition <ul><li>Human populations have undergone rapid growth, yet in some developed countries, populations have stopped growing. </li></ul><ul><li>The demographic transition model shows how these population changes happen. </li></ul>Section 3 Human Population Growth
  32. 32. Demographic Transition Model Section 3 Human Population Growth

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