Introduction To Ecology

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Introduction To Ecology

  1. 1. Table of Contents <ul><li>Section 1 Introduction to Ecology </li></ul><ul><li>Section 2 Ecology of Organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Section 3 Energy Transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Section 4 Ecosystem Recycling </li></ul>Introduction to Ecology
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Identify a key theme in ecology. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe an example showing the effects of interdependence upon organisms in their environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the importance of models to ecology. </li></ul><ul><li>State the five different levels of organization at which ecology can be studied. </li></ul>Section 1 Introduction to Ecology
  3. 3. Interdependence: A Key Theme in Ecology <ul><li>Organisms and Their Environments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Species interact with both other species and their nonliving environment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interdependence is a theme in ecology—one change can affect all species in an ecosystem. </li></ul></ul>Section 1 Introduction to Ecology
  4. 4. Ecological Models <ul><li>Ecological models help to explain the environment. </li></ul>Section 1 Introduction to Ecology
  5. 5. Making an Ecosystem Model Section 1 Introduction to Ecology
  6. 6. Levels of Organization <ul><li>Ecologists recognize a hierarchy of organization in the environment: biosphere, ecosystem, community, population, and organism. </li></ul>Section 1 Introduction to Ecology
  7. 7. Levels of Organization Section 1 Introduction to Ecology
  8. 8. Levels of Organization, continued <ul><li>The Biosphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The broadest, most inclusive level of organization is the biosphere, the volume of Earth and its atmosphere that supports life. </li></ul></ul>Section 1 Introduction to Ecology
  9. 9. Levels of Organization, continued <ul><li>Ecosystems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The biosphere is composed of smaller units called ecosystems. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An ecosystem includes all of the organisms and the nonliving environment found in a particular place. </li></ul></ul>Section 1 Introduction to Ecology
  10. 10. Levels of Organization, continued <ul><li>Communities, Populations, and Organisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A community is all the interacting organisms living in an area. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Below the community level of organization is the population level, where the focus is on the individual organisms of a single species. </li></ul></ul>Section 1 Introduction to Ecology
  11. 11. Objectives <ul><li>Compare abiotic factors with biotic factors, and list two examples of each. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe two mechanisms that allow organisms to survive in a changing environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the concept of the niche. </li></ul>Section 2 Ecology of Organisms
  12. 12. Ecosystem Components <ul><li>Biotic and Abiotic Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Both biotic , or living, factors and abiotic , or nonliving, factors influence organisms. Examples of abiotic factors are climate, sunlight, and pH. </li></ul></ul>Section 2 Ecology of Organisms
  13. 13. Comparing Biotic and Abiotic Factors Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept Section 2 Ecology of Organisms
  14. 14. Organisms in a Changing Environment <ul><li>Acclimation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some organisms can adjust their tolerance to abiotic factors through the process of acclimation. </li></ul></ul>Section 2 Ecology of Organisms
  15. 15. Organisms in a Changing Environment, continued <ul><li>Control of Internal Conditions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conformers are organisms that do not regulate their internal conditions; they change as their external environment changes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulators use energy to control some of their internal conditions. </li></ul></ul>Section 2 Ecology of Organisms
  16. 16. Organisms in a Changing Environment, continued <ul><li>Escape from Unsuitable Conditions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some species survive unfavorable environmental conditions by becoming dormant or by migrating. </li></ul></ul>Section 2 Ecology of Organisms
  17. 17. The Niche <ul><li>A niche is a way of life, or a role in an ecosystem. </li></ul>Section 2 Ecology of Organisms
  18. 18. Niche Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept Section 2 Ecology of Organisms
  19. 19. Objectives <ul><li>Summarize the role of producers in an ecosystem. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify several kinds of consumers in an ecosystem. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the important role of decomposers in an ecosystem. </li></ul><ul><li>Compare the concept of a food chain with that of a food web. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain why ecosystems usually contain only a few trophic levels. </li></ul>Section 3 Energy Transfer
  20. 20. Producers <ul><li>Most producers are photosynthetic and make carbohydrates by using energy from the sun. </li></ul>Section 3 Energy Transfer
  21. 21. Producers, continued <ul><li>Measuring Productivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gross primary productivity is the rate at which producers in an ecosystem capture the energy of sunlight by producing organic compounds. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The rate at which biomass accumulates is called net primary productivity. </li></ul></ul>Section 3 Energy Transfer
  22. 22. Consumers <ul><li>Consumers obtain energy by eating other organisms and include herbivores, omnivores, carnivores, detritivores, and decomposers. </li></ul>Section 3 Energy Transfer
  23. 23. Comparing Consumers and Producers Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept Section 3 Energy Transfer
  24. 24. Energy Flow <ul><li>Food Chains and Food Webs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A single pathway of energy transfer is a food chain. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A network showing all paths of energy transfer is a food web. </li></ul></ul>Section 3 Energy Transfer
  25. 25. Food Chain in an Antarctic Ecosystem Section 3 Energy Transfer
  26. 26. Food Web in an Antarctic Ecosystem Section 3 Energy Transfer
  27. 27. Energy Flow, continued <ul><li>Energy Transfer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecosystems contain only a few trophic levels because there is a low rate of energy transfer between each level. </li></ul></ul>Section 3 Energy Transfer
  28. 28. Energy Transfer Through Trophic Levels Section 3 Energy Transfer
  29. 29. Objectives <ul><li>List four major biogeochemical cycles. </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize three important processes in the water cycle. </li></ul><ul><li>Outline the major steps in the carbon cycle. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the role of decomposers in the nitrogen cycle. </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize the major steps of the phosphorus cycle. </li></ul>Section 4 Ecosystem Recycling
  30. 30. The Water Cycle <ul><li>Key processes in the water cycle are evaporation, transpiration, and precipitation. </li></ul>Section 4 Ecosystem Recycling
  31. 31. Water Cycle Section 4 Ecosystem Recycling
  32. 32. Water Cycle Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept Section 4 Ecosystem Recycling
  33. 33. The Carbon Cycle <ul><li>Photosynthesis and cellular respiration are the two main steps in the carbon cycle. </li></ul>Section 4 Ecosystem Recycling
  34. 34. Carbon Cycle Section 4 Ecosystem Recycling
  35. 35. Carbon Cycle Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept Section 4 Ecosystem Recycling
  36. 36. Nitrogen Cycle <ul><li>Nitrogen-fixing bacteria are important in the nitrogen cycle because they change nitrogen gas into a usable form of nitrogen for plants. </li></ul>Section 4 Ecosystem Recycling
  37. 37. Nitrogen Cycle Section 4 Ecosystem Recycling
  38. 38. Nitrogen Cycle Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept Section 4 Ecosystem Recycling
  39. 39. Phosphorus Cycle <ul><li>In the phosphorus cycle, phosphorus moves from phosphate deposited in rock, to the soil, to living organisms, and finally to the ocean. </li></ul>Section 4 Ecosystem Recycling

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