Table of Contents <ul><li>Section 1   An Interconnected Planet </li></ul><ul><li>Section 2   Environmental Issues </li></u...
Objectives <ul><li>Explain   the importance of the study of environmental science. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe   Earth’s ma...
Earth’s Layers <ul><li>Earth’s  geosphere, hydrosphere,  and  atmosphere  are interconnected in many ways.  </li></ul><ul>...
Earth’s Layers,  continued <ul><li>Atmosphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Important parts of the atmosphere are greenhouse gases...
Earth’s Layers,  continued <ul><li>Climate and Atmosphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The atmosphere’s ability to trap heat in t...
The Greenhouse Effect Section 1  An Interconnected Planet
Earth’s Layers,  continued <ul><li>Hydrosphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A very small portion of the  hydrosphere  is fresh wa...
Earth’s Layers,  continued <ul><li>Geosphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The   geosphere   exchanges materials with the atmosphe...
Earth’s Layers,  continued <ul><li>Biosphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The   biosphere   includes all parts of Earth where lif...
Biodiversity <ul><li>Biodiversity   refers to the variety of life found in an area. </li></ul>Section 1  An Interconnected...
Biodiversity,  continued <ul><li>Measuring Biodiversity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biodiversity   can be measured in different ...
Biodiversity,  continued <ul><li>Valuing Biodiversity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biodiversity is valued for various reasons. </...
Objectives <ul><li>Describe   major consequences of air pollution. </li></ul><ul><li>Relate   air pollution to effects on ...
Pollution <ul><li>Over a short time period, human activities have affected global ecosystems in ways that harm humans and ...
Pollution,  continued <ul><li>Ozone Thinning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial chemicals called chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) ...
Ozone “Hole” Over Antarctica Section 2  Environmental Issues
Ozone and Ecosystems Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept Section 2  Environmental Issues
Pollution,  continued <ul><li>Global Warming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The correlation of increasing atmospheric CO 2  and ris...
Global Warming Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept Section 2  Environmental Issues
Pollution,  continued <ul><li>Acid Precipitation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Certain air pollutants cause  acid precipitation , ...
Pollution,  continued <ul><li>Land and Water Pollution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The release of toxic chemicals, such as DDT, ...
Biological Magnification of DDT Section 2  Environmental Issues
Biological Magnification of Toxins Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept Section 2  Environmental Issues
Ecosystem Disruption,  continued <ul><li>Extinction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human impacts on the environment are causing an ...
Ecosystem Disruption,  continued <ul><li>Ecosystem Imbalances </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Species such as the sea otter that aff...
Human Resource Use <ul><li>Current levels of human resource use are probably not sustainable. </li></ul>Section 2  Environ...
World Population Growth Patterns Section 2  Environmental Issues
Objectives <ul><li>State   the goals of conservation and restoration biology. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe   examples of eff...
Conservation and Restoration Biology <ul><li>Conservation biologists  are concerned with identifying and maintaining ecosy...
Conservation and Restoration Biology,  continued <ul><li>Species and Habitats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A  bioindicator   is a...
Conservation and Restoration Biology,  continued <ul><li>Case Study: Saving the Whooping Crane </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Popul...
Protecting Ecosystems <ul><li>Biodiversity Hotspots </li></ul><ul><ul><li>International and cooperative efforts to preserv...
Governments and Laws <ul><li>Environmental problems can be addressed through the efforts of governments and laws. </li></u...
Private Efforts and Cooperation <ul><li>Environmental problems can be addressed through the combined efforts of government...
Conservation Case Study: The Everglades <ul><li>The Everglades restoration project is the most ambitious ecosystem-wide re...
Your Role in the Environment <ul><li>No one can predict our environment’s future, but it is clear that individuals can mak...
Conservation Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept Section 3  Environmental Solutions
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Humsns And The Environment

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Humsns And The Environment

  1. 1. Table of Contents <ul><li>Section 1 An Interconnected Planet </li></ul><ul><li>Section 2 Environmental Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Section 3 Environmental Solutions </li></ul>Humans and the Environment
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Explain the importance of the study of environmental science. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe Earth’s major layers. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the natural functions of the ozone layer and greenhouse effect. </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize the ways in which biologists measure biodiversity. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the value of biodiversity. </li></ul>Section 1 An Interconnected Planet
  3. 3. Earth’s Layers <ul><li>Earth’s geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere are interconnected in many ways. </li></ul><ul><li>Together, these parts make up the biosphere, the part of the Earth where life exists. </li></ul>Section 1 An Interconnected Planet
  4. 4. Earth’s Layers, continued <ul><li>Atmosphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Important parts of the atmosphere are greenhouse gases, which trap heat on Earth, and the ozone layer, which shields Earth from UV radiation. </li></ul></ul>Section 1 An Interconnected Planet
  5. 5. Earth’s Layers, continued <ul><li>Climate and Atmosphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The atmosphere’s ability to trap heat in this way is called the greenhouse effect. </li></ul></ul>Section 1 An Interconnected Planet
  6. 6. The Greenhouse Effect Section 1 An Interconnected Planet
  7. 7. Earth’s Layers, continued <ul><li>Hydrosphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A very small portion of the hydrosphere is fresh water, and much of this fresh water is not easily usable. </li></ul></ul>Section 1 An Interconnected Planet
  8. 8. Earth’s Layers, continued <ul><li>Geosphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The geosphere exchanges materials with the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. </li></ul></ul>Section 1 An Interconnected Planet
  9. 9. Earth’s Layers, continued <ul><li>Biosphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The biosphere includes all parts of Earth where life exists. </li></ul></ul>Section 1 An Interconnected Planet
  10. 10. Biodiversity <ul><li>Biodiversity refers to the variety of life found in an area. </li></ul>Section 1 An Interconnected Planet
  11. 11. Biodiversity, continued <ul><li>Measuring Biodiversity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biodiversity can be measured in different ways, including by species richness, species evenness, and genetic diversity. </li></ul></ul>Section 1 An Interconnected Planet
  12. 12. Biodiversity, continued <ul><li>Valuing Biodiversity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biodiversity is valued for various reasons. </li></ul></ul>Section 1 An Interconnected Planet
  13. 13. Objectives <ul><li>Describe major consequences of air pollution. </li></ul><ul><li>Relate air pollution to effects on global climate. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe how chemical pollutants may undergo the process of biological magnification. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the primary causes of modern extinctions. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain why extinctions and ecosystem disruption are of concern to humans. </li></ul><ul><li>Relate human resource use to its impacts on ecosystems. </li></ul>Section 2 Environmental Issues
  14. 14. Pollution <ul><li>Over a short time period, human activities have affected global ecosystems in ways that harm humans and other species. </li></ul><ul><li>Human impacts range from local pollution to global change in ecosystems. </li></ul>Section 2 Environmental Issues
  15. 15. Pollution, continued <ul><li>Ozone Thinning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial chemicals called chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) act as catalysts in chemical reactions that break down O 3 molecules in the ozone layer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most countries have banned CFCs, and the ozone layer seems to be recovering. </li></ul></ul>Section 2 Environmental Issues
  16. 16. Ozone “Hole” Over Antarctica Section 2 Environmental Issues
  17. 17. Ozone and Ecosystems Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept Section 2 Environmental Issues
  18. 18. Pollution, continued <ul><li>Global Warming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The correlation of increasing atmospheric CO 2 and rising global temperature suggests a cause-and-effect relationship. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Considering several types of evidence, many scientists have concluded that increased CO 2 levels have caused warmer surface temperatures on Earth. </li></ul></ul>Section 2 Environmental Issues
  19. 19. Global Warming Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept Section 2 Environmental Issues
  20. 20. Pollution, continued <ul><li>Acid Precipitation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Certain air pollutants cause acid precipitation , which harms or kills many organisms. </li></ul></ul>Section 2 Environmental Issues
  21. 21. Pollution, continued <ul><li>Land and Water Pollution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The release of toxic chemicals, such as DDT, into the biosphere can impact ecosystems in many ways, especially when chemicals undergo biological magnification. </li></ul></ul>Section 2 Environmental Issues
  22. 22. Biological Magnification of DDT Section 2 Environmental Issues
  23. 23. Biological Magnification of Toxins Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept Section 2 Environmental Issues
  24. 24. Ecosystem Disruption, continued <ul><li>Extinction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human impacts on the environment are causing an increasing number of extinctions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Important causes of extinctions are habitat destruction, the transfer of invasive species to new habitats, harvesting, and hunting. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This loss of species has both known and unknown effects on ecosystems. </li></ul></ul>Section 2 Environmental Issues
  25. 25. Ecosystem Disruption, continued <ul><li>Ecosystem Imbalances </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Species such as the sea otter that affect many other species in a community are called keystone species. </li></ul></ul>Section 2 Environmental Issues
  26. 26. Human Resource Use <ul><li>Current levels of human resource use are probably not sustainable. </li></ul>Section 2 Environmental Issues
  27. 27. World Population Growth Patterns Section 2 Environmental Issues
  28. 28. Objectives <ul><li>State the goals of conservation and restoration biology. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe examples of efforts to protect species and their habitats. </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize international strategies for protecting entire ecosystems. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the roles of governments and laws in addressing environmental problems. </li></ul><ul><li>List several things that individuals can do to help solve environmental problems. </li></ul>Section 3 Environmental Solutions
  29. 29. Conservation and Restoration Biology <ul><li>Conservation biologists are concerned with identifying and maintaining ecosystems, while restoration biologists are usually involved with repairing badly damaged ecosystems. </li></ul>Section 3 Environmental Solutions
  30. 30. Conservation and Restoration Biology, continued <ul><li>Species and Habitats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A bioindicator is a species that is especially sensitive to ecological change. </li></ul></ul>Section 3 Environmental Solutions
  31. 31. Conservation and Restoration Biology, continued <ul><li>Case Study: Saving the Whooping Crane </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Populations of many migratory birds, such as the whooping crane, are in decline because of human activities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, some populations are recovering as a result of legal protection, breeding programs, habitat restoration, and international partnerships. </li></ul></ul>Section 3 Environmental Solutions
  32. 32. Protecting Ecosystems <ul><li>Biodiversity Hotspots </li></ul><ul><ul><li>International and cooperative efforts to preserve habitat and prevent extinctions include identifying biodiversity hotspots, making debt-for-nature swaps, and promoting ecotourism. </li></ul></ul>Section 3 Environmental Solutions
  33. 33. Governments and Laws <ul><li>Environmental problems can be addressed through the efforts of governments and laws. </li></ul>Section 3 Environmental Solutions
  34. 34. Private Efforts and Cooperation <ul><li>Environmental problems can be addressed through the combined efforts of governments, scientists, businesses, and individuals. </li></ul>Section 3 Environmental Solutions
  35. 35. Conservation Case Study: The Everglades <ul><li>The Everglades restoration project is the most ambitious ecosystem-wide restoration project attempted in the United States. </li></ul>Section 3 Environmental Solutions
  36. 36. Your Role in the Environment <ul><li>No one can predict our environment’s future, but it is clear that individuals can make a difference in its fate. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, it is important for you, as an individual, to understand your role in the environment and to take responsibility for that role. </li></ul>Section 3 Environmental Solutions
  37. 37. Conservation Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept Section 3 Environmental Solutions

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