Energy And Enzymes Notes New


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Energy And Enzymes Notes New

  1. 1. Chemical Reactions <ul><li>A chemical reaction breaks down some substances and builds other substances </li></ul><ul><li> 2H 2 + O 2 ------> 2H 2 O </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical reactions can occur when reactants collide with enough energy to react </li></ul><ul><li>The amount of energy needed for a particular reaction to occur is called activation energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some reactions must absorb energy to start, often this is in the form of heat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some reactions give off energy in the form of heat or light </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biochemical reactions allow organisms to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grow -- Develop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproduce -- Adapt </li></ul></ul>Reactants Products
  2. 2. Chemical Reaction <ul><li>Certain conditions can affect the rate at which a chemical reaction will occur </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature – gaining or losing heat energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pH – most organisms need to be kept in a small range of acidity for reactions to properly occur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Buffers within an organism regulate pH so homeostasis is maintained </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A small change in pH can disrupt cell processes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Catalysts – a substance that changes the rate of reaction or allows the reaction to occur at a lower temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Catalysts are not consumed or altered in a reaction, can be used over and over </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enzymes are catalysts in living organisms </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Energy and Enzymes <ul><li>Enzymes are made up of proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymes are a type of catalyst : a material that lowers the activation energy required for a reaction to occur </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymes speed up chemical reactions that otherwise would occur too slowly at the body’s temperature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reactions are able to occur at lower temperatures </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Enzyme Functions <ul><li>Functions in the body: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Help with digestion of food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help with energy storage and release </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Burning glucose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help with molecule synthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Building proteins and fats </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Enzyme Names <ul><li>Enzymes will often end in the suffix – ase </li></ul><ul><li>The beginning of the name often tells you the substrate of the enzyme </li></ul><ul><li>Substrate : what an enzyme acts upon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Amylase breaks down amylose (a component of starch ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lactase breaks down lactose (a sugar in dairy products) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lactose intolerant people lack the enzyme lactase </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Enzyme Action <ul><li>Enzymes act on a specific substrate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fit like a lock and key </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Substrate fits at the active site </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enzyme-substrate complex </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The product is released from the enzyme </li></ul><ul><li>Enzyme is back to its original shape and ready to act again </li></ul>
  7. 7. Factors that Effect Enzyme Activity <ul><li>Temperature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each type of enzyme has a temperature range at which they like to work. Enzyme activity increases as the environment reaches that ideal temperature and slows outside of that range. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>pH </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As with temperature, there is a specific pH range at which an enzyme will work </li></ul></ul><ul><li>At extreme an temperature or pH, an enzyme can denature (change shape and become ineffective ) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Factors that Effect Enzyme Activity <ul><li>Enzyme Concentration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If the amount of substrate stays the same , the rate of reaction will increase if the enzyme concentration increases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reaction rate will level off if it runs out of substrate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Substrate Concentration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If the amount of enzyme stays the same, the rate of reaction will increase if the substrate concentration increases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reaction rate will level off when all of the enzymes are working </li></ul></ul>Constant enzyme concentration
  9. 9. ATP <ul><li>ATP stands for adenosine triphosphate </li></ul><ul><li>ATP is the molecule that supplies energy that can be used quickly and easily by cells </li></ul><ul><li>ATP could be used for many things: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contracting muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmitting signals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Move flagella </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moving materials in the cell </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. ATP Structure <ul><li>ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is made up of three parts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A nitrogen base (adenine) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A sugar (ribose) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three phosphate groups that are held together with high energy bonds </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. ATP  ADP <ul><li>ATP releases energy by losing a phosphate group and becoming ADP </li></ul><ul><li>adenosine tri phosphate becomes adenosine di phosphate </li></ul><ul><li>When it transfers a phosphate , it transfers energy </li></ul><ul><li>This energy drives the cell’s metabolism . </li></ul><ul><li>ADP can later bind with another phosphate and start all over again. </li></ul>
  12. 12. ATP  ADP <ul><li>To supply cells with energy, the high energy ATP bond is broken . ADP is formed and energy is released. </li></ul><ul><li>ATP  ADP + Phosphate + Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Energy is used (and stored ) by reattaching a phosphate group to ADP forming ATP to be used later. </li></ul><ul><li>ADP + Phosphate + Energy  ATP </li></ul><ul><li>Less energy is used to make ATP than is released when it is broken </li></ul>