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Ddm Workshop Summary 052810

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Direct Digital Workshop Summary of Results

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Ddm Workshop Summary 052810

  1. 1. Direct Digital Manufacturing of Metallic Components (Affordable, Durable, and Structurally Efficient Airframes) Summary of Results William E. Frazier May 2010 Workshop Held on 11-12 May 2010 Holiday Inn, Solomon Island, MD
  2. 2. Workshop Focus The overarching goal is to enhance Operational Readiness, and reduce Total Ownership Cost, and enable Parts-on-Demand Manufacturing. The workshop focused on Identifying the opportunities and the technical challenges the research approaches associated with using DDM of metallic components. The intent is to use this information to help the Navy formulate a robust R&D program . We tasked the workshop participants to assist us in developing a path to the answer.
  3. 3. Outline <ul><li>Overview </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizers, Chairpersons, and Plenary Speakers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concept of Operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plenary: Technology Needs Summary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Innovative Structural Design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance and Repair </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Qualification and Certification Methodology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DDM Science and Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recommendations </li></ul>
  4. 4. Workshop Organizers <ul><li>Organizers </li></ul><ul><li>William E. Frazier, Ph.D. Chief Scientist, Air Vehicle Engineering, NAVAIR </li></ul><ul><li>Malinda Pagett Program Officer, Office of Naval Research </li></ul><ul><li>Sponsors </li></ul><ul><li>ONR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Malinda Pagett </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Navy Metalworking Center(NMC) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Daniel Winterscheidt, Ph.D </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Denise Piastrelli </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chairpersons </li></ul><ul><li>Innovative Structural Design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thomas Meilius, NAVAIR, AIR-5.2 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maintenance and </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Robert Kestler, NAVAIR CP 4.0T </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brian Boyette, NAVAIR CP </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  Qualification and Certification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Madan Kittur, NAVAIR, AIR-4.3 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  DDM Science and Technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jeffrey Waldman, Sc.D. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contract Support </li></ul><ul><li>NAVMAR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Irving Shaffer </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Plenary Speakers <ul><li>Mr. Garry Newton, Deputy Commander Fleet Readiness Centers, NAVAIR </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. Richard Gilpin , Director, Air Vehicle Engineering Department, NAVAIR </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. Greg Kilchenstein , Senior Sustainment Technology Policy Analyst, OSD(AT&L) </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. Mike Deitchman, Deputy Chief of Naval Research, Naval Air Warfare and Weapons Science and Technology Department ONR </li></ul><ul><li>Ms. Karen Taminger, Senior Materials Research Engineer, PI for Materials and Structures for the Subsonic Fixed Wing Aircraft, NASA Langley Research Center </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Thomas Donnellan, Associate Director for Materials and Manufacturing, ARL Penn State. </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. Blake Slaughter, Boeing Research and Technology. </li></ul><ul><li>Prof. Dave Bourell, University of Texas Austin </li></ul>
  6. 6. Working Group CONOPS <ul><li>Five Discussion Groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Innovative Structural Design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance and Repair </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Qualification and Certification Methodology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DDM Science and Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Led by Facilitator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Selected audience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guided the discussion </li></ul></ul>GOAL TECHNICAL OBJECTIVES TECHNICAL CHALLENGES RESEARCH APPROACHES GOTChA Process Navy Defined Navy Defined, Workshop Validated Workshop Developed <ul><li>Prioritized list of technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Viable approaches listed and prioritized for the near, mid, and far term. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>< 5yrs; 5-10 yrs; > 10 yrs </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Product Generation Plenary Working Groups Idea Generation & Prioritization Post Workshop Analysis & Synthesis Technical Needs, Challenges, and Approaches
  8. 8. <ul><li>Group output was consensus of experts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Industry, Government, Academia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Validated list of technical objectives </li></ul><ul><li>For each Objective, specific challenges were defined </li></ul><ul><li>For each challenge, potential technology approaches were proposed </li></ul>Working Group Outputs
  9. 9. Attendance <ul><li>Engaged discussion with 72 technical experts </li></ul>Government Industry Industry Academia <ul><li>NAVAIR ( 4.1, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.7, 4.8, 5.2, 6.7) </li></ul><ul><li>FRC </li></ul><ul><li>NASA </li></ul><ul><li>Air Force </li></ul><ul><li>OPNAV </li></ul><ul><li>OSD </li></ul><ul><li>ONR </li></ul><ul><li>PEOs </li></ul><ul><li>Bell Helicopter </li></ul><ul><li>Boeing </li></ul><ul><li>CalRam </li></ul><ul><li>CTC </li></ul><ul><li>GE Aviation </li></ul><ul><li>Lockheed Martin </li></ul><ul><li>Morris Technology </li></ul><ul><li>NAVMAR </li></ul><ul><li>Navy Metalworking Center </li></ul><ul><li>Northrop Grumman </li></ul><ul><li>Sikorsky </li></ul><ul><li>Stratasys </li></ul><ul><li>TRI </li></ul><ul><li>Wyle </li></ul><ul><li>Honeywell </li></ul><ul><li>Sciaky </li></ul><ul><li>Innovati </li></ul><ul><li>Pratt & Whitney </li></ul><ul><li>University of Texas, Austin </li></ul><ul><li>North Carolina State University </li></ul><ul><li>University of Michigan </li></ul><ul><li>California Institute of Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Penn State University </li></ul><ul><li>National Center for Manufacturing Science </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Vision State for DDM <ul><li>Qualification and certification methods </li></ul><ul><li>Materials Science </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid reverse engineering methods </li></ul><ul><li>Innovative structural designs using DDM </li></ul><ul><li>Technology fusion, i.e., laser scanning, database, design tools, and DDM </li></ul>Technology Challenge Areas
  11. 11. Plenary Summary <ul><li>DoD-Navy’s Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Accelerate trend towards multi-mission, unmanned systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased emphasis on reducing the cost of Defense Department’s Operation: acquisition and sustainment </li></ul><ul><li>The Average age of our Navy’s aircraft is 19.18yrs. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As aircraft age, parts that were never expected to break or fail do. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supply Chain does not have the ability to repair of produce new parts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The country is at war and Naval aviation must respond quickly and effectively to warfighter needs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increased demand for one-off parts, crash damage repair, and rapid solutions to Red Stripes. </li></ul>Direct Digital Manufacturing is an Agile and Viable Source of Manufacturing and Repair
  12. 12. Plenary Summary of Needs <ul><li>Accelerated qualification and certification methods </li></ul><ul><li>Part-to-part and machine-to-machine variability and repeatability </li></ul><ul><li>Fatigue properties comparable to wrought materials </li></ul><ul><li>Technology fusion, i.e., laser scanning, database, design tools, and database </li></ul><ul><li>Computationally guided processes and closed loop control </li></ul><ul><li>Hybrid deposition processes </li></ul><ul><li>Integration of sensors into process control systems to enable real-time NDE during processing </li></ul><ul><li>New structural design & analysis tools - stiffeners that follow load paths </li></ul><ul><li>Post fabrication processes to enhance fatigue properties </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced surface roughness of parts - NDE for inspection through rough surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Process modeling </li></ul><ul><li>Accurate, predictive process models for microstructure and properties </li></ul><ul><li>Functionally graded, locally controlled features </li></ul><ul><li>Alloys designed for DDM fabrication </li></ul>
  13. 13. Innovative Structural Design <ul><li>Goal: </li></ul><ul><li>Enhance operational readiness, and reduce total ownership cost, and enable parts-on-demand manufacturing. </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce structural weight by 25% with no increase in acquisition cost.. </li></ul><ul><li>Enable complex part fabrication with a 50% reduction in cost. (DDM processes with competitive properties and lower cost compared to how build today) </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce the design, engineering, build, test & qualification time cycle by 60%. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Innovative Structural Design <ul><li>Short Term (0-5 yrs) </li></ul><ul><li>Design optimization software tool to take advantage of the DDM process to reduce structural weight. Integrated knowledge based design and structural optimization tools. Interoperable software tools </li></ul><ul><li>Develop handbook of rules and tools for designing with DDM </li></ul><ul><li>Database of DDM fabricated material properties. Must account for non-isometric, directionally dependent properties and the type of DDM system employed </li></ul><ul><li>Materials and process standards for DDM that are readily accessible to the design, manufacturing, and certification community. </li></ul><ul><li>Methods to eliminate need for heat treatments/thermal stress relief </li></ul><ul><li>Commercially available drop-in replacement materials, i.e., substitute for Ti-6Al-4V. </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate health monitoring sensors for inspection </li></ul>
  15. 15. Innovative Structural Design <ul><li>Mid Term (5-10 yrs) </li></ul><ul><li>Processes and techniques to improve the mechanical properties of DDM parts in-situ and thus eliminate need for HIP, heat treatments, and thermal stress relief. </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate multiple processes (new forming processes in combination with DDM) for improved properties and lower cost net-shape manufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>Robust modeling & simulation tools to streamline the design process, reduce, testing, and qualification time. </li></ul><ul><li>Long Term (10-15 yrs) </li></ul><ul><li>Develop new alloys specifically for DDM. </li></ul><ul><li>Explore and develop biological structures, bio-mimicry, as a means of using DDM to produce integrated, structurally efficient designs. </li></ul><ul><li>Surface engineering for multi-functionality (such as gradient structures for corrosion resistance) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Innovative Structural Design Robust modeling & simulation tools. Develop processes and techniques to improve the mechanical properties of DDM parts in-situ Bio-Mimicry: Develop structures based upon biological examples Integrated structural and material design optimization tool for DDM Knowledge based design combined with structural optimization Material and process standards and specifications A shared Database of Material Properties for DDM accounting for anisotropy and fabrication system New alloys specifically designed for DDM . Near Term (1 – 5 yrs) Mid Term (5 -10 yrs) Far Term (10 yrs +)
  17. 17. Maintenance and Repair <ul><li>Goal: </li></ul><ul><li>Enhance operational readiness, and reduce total ownership cost, and enable parts-on-demand manufacturing. </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce time to acquire-out-of-production parts by 90% </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce total energy content by 60% </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce logistic foot print by 20% </li></ul>
  18. 18. Maintenance and Repair <ul><li>Short Term (0-5 yrs) </li></ul><ul><li>Establish a robust test program in support of a qualification-by-similarity </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct a top-level energy content audit for various DDM processes & materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Assess ability of DDM machines to read multiple data formats </li></ul><ul><li>Develop feedstock & process specs </li></ul><ul><li>Mid Term (5-10 yrs) </li></ul><ul><li>Pursue non-Hip alternative to achieving full density and wrought fatigue properties. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a qualification-by-similarity approach to part certification. </li></ul><ul><li>Improve surface finish and dimensional accuracy: no post fabrication processing needed </li></ul><ul><li>NDI for rough surface inspection. NDI methods for the detection of, kissing bonds, micro-porosity, inclusions, etc </li></ul><ul><li>Versatile DDM systems that perform multiple processes / geometries and can use either wire or powder </li></ul><ul><li>Repair with dissimilar materials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced logistics footprint - A single feed stock alloy could be used to repair parts made of different alloys </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Investigate alternative methods of powder manufacture </li></ul>
  19. 19. Maintenance and Repair <ul><li>Long Term (10-15 yrs) </li></ul><ul><li>Develop robust, validated, structure-property-processing models in order to enable accurate material performance predictions in support of accelerated the qualification process, </li></ul><ul><li>Develop in-situ NDI technology for monitoring the DDM process. </li></ul><ul><li>Improved modeling capabilities for optimizing process efficiency (long term) </li></ul><ul><li>Develop non-layered processes to minimize effect of layering on surface finish </li></ul>
  20. 20. Maintenance and Repair Validated, structure-property-processing models for predicting material performance Improve surface finish and dimensional accuracy Non-Hip alternative to achieving full density and wrought fatigue properties Develop qualification-by-similarity approach to part DDM part certification Establish a robust test program in support of a qualification-by-similarity Conduct a top-level energy content audit for various DDM processes & materials Versatile DDM systems. Performs multiple processes / geometries and use wire or powder Near Term (1 – 5 yrs) Mid Term (5 -10 yrs) Far Term (10 yrs +)
  21. 21. Qualification and Certification Methodology <ul><li>Goal: </li></ul><ul><li>Enhance operational readiness, and reduce total ownership cost, and enable parts-on-demand manufacturing. </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Qualification of DDM fabrication processes </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate the need to qualify each part individually </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce the time & cost of qualification by 90% </li></ul>
  22. 22. Qualification and Certification Methodology <ul><li>Short Term (0-5 yrs) </li></ul><ul><li>Industry standards for DDM processes </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced, in-process monitoring and controls </li></ul><ul><li>Machine-to-machine output must be compared, variability understood, and controlled. </li></ul><ul><li>Key DDM process variables must be identified. Control limits must be developed for each DDM technique, manufacturer, and material </li></ul><ul><li>Use of similar approach used for castings (multiple processes accepted for identical alloys in MMPDS) </li></ul><ul><li>Mid Term (5-10 yrs) </li></ul><ul><li>Develop alternatives to conventional qualification methods combining validated models, probabilistic methods, and part similarities to reduce risk. </li></ul><ul><li>Industry specifications and standards for DDM processed aerospace alloys </li></ul><ul><li>Complete generation of material property databases for Ti, Al, and Ni base alloys </li></ul>
  23. 23. Qualification and Certification Methodology Complete generation of material property databases for Ti, Al, and Ni base alloys Advanced, in-process monitoring and controls Machine-to-machine output must be compared, variability understood, and controlled. Industry standards for DDM processes Industry specifications and standards for DDM processes and DDM processed aerospace for alloys Develop alternatives to conventional qualification methods. validated models, probabilistic methods, and part similarities Near Term (1 – 5 yrs) Mid Term (5 -10 yrs) Far Term (10 yrs +)
  24. 24. DDM Science and Technology <ul><li>Goal: </li></ul><ul><li>Enhance operational readiness, and reduce total ownership cost, and enable parts-on-demand manufacturing. </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Static and fatigue performance equivalent to wrought </li></ul><ul><li>Achieve Statistically Repeatable and Predictable Processes </li></ul><ul><li>Surface Finish / Minimize Assembly and Post Deposition Processing </li></ul>
  25. 25. DDM Science and Technology <ul><li>Short Term (0-5 yrs) </li></ul><ul><li>Validated predictive structure-property-processing models </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the relationship between processing parameters (deposition rate, powder type, etc.) and part surface finish. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop and integrate sensing technology into the machine design (e.g. part position, compensate for part distortion, adaptive registration, and monitoring of deposit height, width, etc). </li></ul><ul><li>Sensor technology to measure and control temperature profile of the part being processed in order to control its microstructure. </li></ul><ul><li>Post-fabrication processing, e.g., post deposition heat treat </li></ul>
  26. 26. DDM Science and Technology <ul><li>Mid Term (5-10 yrs) </li></ul><ul><li>Physics based models that help us understand what causes defects and correlate defect size/type to resulting properties </li></ul><ul><li>Develop hybrid DDM processes (e.g., electron beam and laser) in order to achieve wrought material properties from as-fabricated parts. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop the means of working the material during deposition e.g., vibration, friction stir processing, laser shock peening, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop closed-loop monitoring and control fabrication systems; integrate sensor data into process control algorithms. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop non-traditional coating and surface modification processes to enhance the quality (smoothness) of as-fabricated internal surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Long Term (10-15 yrs) </li></ul><ul><li>Design alloys to be used specifically with DDM in order to achieve the desired microstructure and mechanical properties. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop real time process NDT and then correct flaw during rather than after build </li></ul>
  27. 27. DDM Science and Technology Surface finish: process parameter effects Physics based models that help us understand what causes defects and correlate defect size/type to resulting properties Develop hybrid DDM processes (e.g., electron beam and laser) Develop and integrate sensing technology into the machine design Develop a means of working the material during deposition e.g., vibration, friction stir processing, laser shock peening, etc. Validated predictive structure-property-processing models Alloys designed specifically for DDM Closed-loop monitoring & control fabrication systems; integrates sensor data into process control algorithms. Near Term (1 – 5 yrs) Mid Term (5 -10 yrs) Far Term (10 yrs +)
  28. 28. Recommended R&D Areas <ul><li>Science </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physics based models for microstructure, properties, and defects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control of surface roughness (internal and external) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hybrid DDM processes (e.g., electron beam and laser) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop in situ DDM processes to achieve full density and wrought fatigue properties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DDM specific alloy development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology Fusion: Integration of ”Vision State” component technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reversed engineering technology development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Process Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop and integrate in-process, sensing, monitoring, and control technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industry specifications and standards for DDM processed aerospace alloys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Machine-to-machine output must be compared, variability understood, and controlled </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Qualification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternative to conventional qualification methods based upon validated models, probabilistic methods, and part similarities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industry specifications and standards for DDM and processed aerospace for alloys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DDM NDE techniques </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Innovative Structural Design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrate structural and material design tool for DDM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared DDM database (material properties & anisotropy and fabrication system) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Educate design community </li></ul></ul>

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