Piero Fraternali
Politecnico di Milano, Italy
piero.fraternali@polimi.it
The evolution of the net
The mobile web
How many of us use a mobile terminal?
The social web
What do people do online?
Cosa succede in un minuto su
internet
How can we make good use
of all this?
Maybe helping computers help
people
Problems computers cannot solve
When computers were human
Gaspard De Prony, 1794,
hires hires hairdressers
(unemployed after
French revolution; knew
only ...
Human computation
Normally the user queries the computers
What about the computer querying the user?

...or a "crowd "of u...
Early example: CAPTCHA
• Stands for “Completely Automated Public
Turing test to tell Computers and Humans
Apart”
• Luis vo...
The disciplines of HC
Forms of HC: crowdsourcing
• Crowdsourcing is a distributed model that
assigns tasks traditionally undertaken by
employees...
Paid Crowdsourcing: Amazon Mechanical Turk
Forms of HC: GWAPS
• Games with a Purpose (GWAPs)
– Exploiting the billions of hours that people spend
online playing with...
Types of Games
[Luis von Ahn and Laura Dabbish, CACM 2008]

Three generic game structures
• Output agreement:
– Type same ...
Output Agreement: ESP Game
• Players look at common input
• Need to agree on output
Input Agreement: TagATune
• Sometimes difficult to type identical output
(e.g., “describe this song”)
• Show same or diffe...
Inversion Problem: Peekaboom
•
•
•
•

Non-symmetric players
Input: Image with word
Player 1 slowly reveals pic
Player 2 tr...
Linguistic games
Life science games
• Combinatorial problems with
intractable solutions spaces, in
which humans can help the
heuristic core...
Forms of HC: social mobilization
• Social Mobilization
– Problems with time constraints, where the
efficiency of task spre...
HC & public resource management
• Objectives
–
–
–
–

Collect and validate data
Extract information from data
Involve peop...
Extracting: population dynamics
from twitter data
• Problem: obtaining impact of population on territory at high temporal
...
Predicting: snow fall with Flickr
images
• Problem: predicting the incidence of natural
phenomena using user generated con...
Involving: social deliberation tools
for participatory planning
• Problem: letting a large
crowd of citizens propose
solut...
Geographical Information Systems
(GIS) + Crowd
• GeoWeb 2.0: the tools,
infrastructures and services
for the management of...
Citizens' territory managment
Monitoring waterways: CreekWatch
• Problem: obtain simple yet useful parameters on water shed
conditions in a vast territo...
Other community-based PGIS

http://harassmap.org/en/

Participatory zoning project
by the Ahorani
people, Tiputini Ecuador
Urban games
• "Urban gaming" or
"Street Games" are
typically multi-player
location-based games
played out on city
streets ...
U-GWAPS Examples
• Critical City Upload
– Encourage people to make new
journeys, use public transportation
in a different ...
Open problems
• Humans, like machines, can make errors
– Cognitive bias, fatigue

• Unlike machines humans can cheat
– Cla...
Example of ongoing projects
Politecnico di Milano
CUbRIK Project
• FP7 Integrating Project
• Goals:
– Advance the architecture
of multimedia search
– Exploit the human
cont...
Click-workers + expert crowd for
digital humanities research
GWAP for image object extraction
PeakWatch
• Exploiting User
Generated Content
for Mountain Peak
Detection
• Peaks automatically
identified from Flickr
pho...
PoliCrowd: a Web 3D
PGIS
– Born to promote tourism and cultural heritage
– Interaction with user mobile devices for upload...
Step 1: find a POI & take a
picture of it
Step 2: report the details
Step 3: view your report in 2d
.. and in 3d
Step 4: enrich with multimedia
material
Step 6: add layers and share your
projects
The CrowdSearcher crowd
engagement framework
• Post tasks to the
crowd of your
choice
• Gather & analyze
results
Human task design:
Tips on workplaces from friends
Human task execution with
Facebook, Twitter, Doodle ..
Urbanopoly
• Buy venues, earn money and collect information about your
city by playing with the neighborhood around you in...
Web sites
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

http://www.iapad.org/multimedia.htm
www.osgeo.org
http://www.centerforcommunitymapping.org/
http:...
References
• Managing Crowdsourced Human Computation, Panos
Ipeirotis, New York University Praveen
Paritosh, Google
• [LvA...
References
• Galen Pickard, Iyad Rahwan, Wei Pan, Manuel Cebrian, Riley
Crane, Anmol Madan, and Alex Pentland. Time critic...
Human computation and participatory systems
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Human computation and participatory systems

  1. 1. Piero Fraternali Politecnico di Milano, Italy piero.fraternali@polimi.it
  2. 2. The evolution of the net
  3. 3. The mobile web How many of us use a mobile terminal?
  4. 4. The social web
  5. 5. What do people do online?
  6. 6. Cosa succede in un minuto su internet
  7. 7. How can we make good use of all this? Maybe helping computers help people
  8. 8. Problems computers cannot solve
  9. 9. When computers were human Gaspard De Prony, 1794, hires hires hairdressers (unemployed after French revolution; knew only addition and subtraction) to create logarithmic and trigonometric tables. He managed the process by splitting the work into very detailed workflows. (Hairdressers better than mathematicians in arithmetic!)
  10. 10. Human computation Normally the user queries the computers What about the computer querying the user? ...or a "crowd "of users?
  11. 11. Early example: CAPTCHA • Stands for “Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart” • Luis von Ahn et al. coined the term in 2000 • A Program that can tell whether a user is a human or a computer • Humans and machines have complementary skills
  12. 12. The disciplines of HC
  13. 13. Forms of HC: crowdsourcing • Crowdsourcing is a distributed model that assigns tasks traditionally undertaken by employees or contractors to an undefined crowd – Split the task into micro-tasks – Assign them to performers in the crowd – Collect partial results into the final one
  14. 14. Paid Crowdsourcing: Amazon Mechanical Turk
  15. 15. Forms of HC: GWAPS • Games with a Purpose (GWAPs) – Exploiting the billions of hours that people spend online playing with computer games to solve complex problems that involve human intelligence [vA06,LvA09]. – Useful tasks are embedded in a playful experience where human judgment is exploited consciously or unconsciously
  16. 16. Types of Games [Luis von Ahn and Laura Dabbish, CACM 2008] Three generic game structures • Output agreement: – Type same output • Input agreement: – Decide if having same input • Inversion problem: – P1 generates output from input – P2 looks at P1-output and guesses P1-input
  17. 17. Output Agreement: ESP Game • Players look at common input • Need to agree on output
  18. 18. Input Agreement: TagATune • Sometimes difficult to type identical output (e.g., “describe this song”) • Show same or different input, let users describe, ask players if they have same input
  19. 19. Inversion Problem: Peekaboom • • • • Non-symmetric players Input: Image with word Player 1 slowly reveals pic Player 2 tries to guess word
  20. 20. Linguistic games
  21. 21. Life science games • Combinatorial problems with intractable solutions spaces, in which humans can help the heuristic core in pruning – Protein folding: Proteins fold from long chains into small balls, each in a very specific shape – Shape is the lower-energy setting, which the most stable – Fold shape is very important to understand interactions with out molecules – Extremely expensive computationally! (too many degrees of freedom) • A Mason-Pfizer monkey virus retroviral protease was modeled by FoldIT gamers in just three weeks
  22. 22. Forms of HC: social mobilization • Social Mobilization – Problems with time constraints, where the efficiency of task spreading and of solution finding is essential – An example of the problem and of the techniques employed to face it is the Darpa Network Challenge [PRP+10] – The solution comes from the nature of the reward mechanism and social ties of humans
  23. 23. HC & public resource management • Objectives – – – – Collect and validate data Extract information from data Involve people in resource usage planning and management Change people’s behavior • Approaches – Passive: mine information from existing user’s activity traces – Active: engage people in ad hoc tasks • Ultimate goals – Obtain “better data” for predictive models, planning and management tool: more accurate, at finer time/space resolution, in real time … – Take “better decisions”: more participative, less conflicting, capable of promoting social change
  24. 24. Extracting: population dynamics from twitter data • Problem: obtaining impact of population on territory at high temporal resolution • Can be used to detect events, estimate water consumption bursts, waste production, etc • Solution: using low cost geo-localized data sources (e.g., tweets) together with structured and high cost sources (e.g., mobile phone traces) http://www.streamreasoning.org/demos/london2012
  25. 25. Predicting: snow fall with Flickr images • Problem: predicting the incidence of natural phenomena using user generated content • Solution: using Flickr photos tagged with “snow” to estimate snow fall (precision 100% with 7 snow photos) – H Zhang, M Korayem, DJ Crandall, G LeBuhn: Mining photo-sharing websites to study ecological phenomena. WWW 2012
  26. 26. Involving: social deliberation tools for participatory planning • Problem: letting a large crowd of citizens propose solutions or deliberate on proposals about public goods • Solution: large scale deliberation and idea management tools – IdeaScale.com, MIT’s Deliberatorium …
  27. 27. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) + Crowd • GeoWeb 2.0: the tools, infrastructures and services for the management of GIS over the Web • Volunteered Geo Information (VGI): the vision of humans as sensors that voluntarily create, assemble and disseminate Web geo data. • Participatory GIS (PGIS): points to the social role of GIS to promote the goals of NGOs and groups, especially in developing countries • Public PGIS: the practice of exploiting GIS to support public participation into decision-making processes, especially in developed countries
  28. 28. Citizens' territory managment
  29. 29. Monitoring waterways: CreekWatch • Problem: obtain simple yet useful parameters on water shed conditions in a vast territory at low cost • Solution: geo localized mobile+Web application – Developed at IBM Research Almaden, 4000+ users, 25 countries – The city of San Jose, CA, uses it to prioritize pollution cleanup efforts • Collected data are found to have good quality
  30. 30. Other community-based PGIS http://harassmap.org/en/ Participatory zoning project by the Ahorani people, Tiputini Ecuador
  31. 31. Urban games • "Urban gaming" or "Street Games" are typically multi-player location-based games played out on city streets and built up urban environments [Wikipedia • • • • • • • • • Find points of interest Social analysis Security analysis Healthcare Traffic analysis Environment analysis Collect hidden stories Behavioral analysis …
  32. 32. U-GWAPS Examples • Critical City Upload – Encourage people to make new journeys, use public transportation in a different way, explore new areas – Extra bonus points for missions, team work, discover mysteries, etc. • Ecopath – track user's locations of green activities (riding a bike or recycling trash), connecting these sites to define "paths" of sustainability. – users compete with friends over territory defined by their paths, thus adding a social gaming context to their actions as they make environmentally responsible choices
  33. 33. Open problems • Humans, like machines, can make errors – Cognitive bias, fatigue • Unlike machines humans can cheat – Classification of attacks – Spammer detection • Quality of output improvement techniques are in use • Voting schemes • Workers quality modeling and vote weighing (requires ground truth or machine learning models and iterative / selective labeling of data) • Micro-flows, worker’s pre-task testing • Task to worker assignment, active learning
  34. 34. Example of ongoing projects Politecnico di Milano
  35. 35. CUbRIK Project • FP7 Integrating Project • Goals: – Advance the architecture of multimedia search – Exploit the human contribution in problem solving & social innovation – Promote open-source components – Start up a search business ecosystem • http://www.cubrikproject.eu 36
  36. 36. Click-workers + expert crowd for digital humanities research
  37. 37. GWAP for image object extraction
  38. 38. PeakWatch • Exploiting User Generated Content for Mountain Peak Detection • Peaks automatically identified from Flickr photos and digital terrain model • Snow and water availability prediction 46° 0’ 48.51” N 7° 48’ 6.62” E
  39. 39. PoliCrowd: a Web 3D PGIS – Born to promote tourism and cultural heritage – Interaction with user mobile devices for uploading Points Of interest (POIs) – POIs three-dimensional visualization on World Wind virtual globe – User collaborative contribution in POIs characterization – Creating, saving and sharing customized maps with the community – Winner at the NASA World Wind EU Challenge 2013
  40. 40. Step 1: find a POI & take a picture of it
  41. 41. Step 2: report the details
  42. 42. Step 3: view your report in 2d
  43. 43. .. and in 3d
  44. 44. Step 4: enrich with multimedia material
  45. 45. Step 6: add layers and share your projects
  46. 46. The CrowdSearcher crowd engagement framework • Post tasks to the crowd of your choice • Gather & analyze results
  47. 47. Human task design: Tips on workplaces from friends
  48. 48. Human task execution with Facebook, Twitter, Doodle ..
  49. 49. Urbanopoly • Buy venues, earn money and collect information about your city by playing with the neighborhood around you in Urbanopoly. • Venues are real places selected from OpenStreetMap: shops, restaurants, monuments, etc.; visit them and discover if they are free. If the venue is free and you have enough money, you can buy it; otherwise, if the venue is owned by another player, you spin the wheel to see what's your destiny.
  50. 50. Web sites • • • • • • • http://www.iapad.org/multimedia.htm www.osgeo.org http://www.centerforcommunitymapping.org/ http://geomobile.como.polimi.it/policrowd http://www.cefriel.com/urbanopoly http://www.cubrikproject.eu http://www.sketchness.com
  51. 51. References • Managing Crowdsourced Human Computation, Panos Ipeirotis, New York University Praveen Paritosh, Google • [LvA09] Edith Law and Luis von Ahn. Input-agreement: a new mechanism for collecting data using human computation games. In Proc. CHI 2009, 2009. • [vA06] Luis von Ahn. Games with a purpose. Computer, 39:92{94, 2006. • [vAMM+08] Luis von Ahn, Ben Maurer, Colin McMillen, David Abraham, and Manuel Blum. recaptcha: Human-based character recognition via web security measures. Science, 321(5895):1465~1468, 2008.[
  52. 52. References • Galen Pickard, Iyad Rahwan, Wei Pan, Manuel Cebrian, Riley Crane, Anmol Madan, and Alex Pentland. Time critical social mobilization: The darpa network challenge winning strategy. CoRR, abs/1008.3172, 2010. • Trant J., Exploring the potential for social tagging and folksonomy in art museums: proof of concept. New Rev. Hypermed. Multimed. 12(1), 83–105 • Firas Khatib et al, Crystal structure of a monomeric retroviral protease solved by protein folding game players, NATURE, 2011 • S. Kim, C. Robson, T. Zimmerman, J. Pierce, and E. M. Haber. Creek watch: pairing usefulness and usability for successful citizen science. In Proceedings of the 29th Int Conf on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pages 2125–2134, New York, NY, 2011.

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