L. Elliot<br />New Discoveries in Bird Migration Using Geolocators : Questions & Challenges<br />Kevin Fraser & Bridget St...
L. Elliot<br />MarieRead<br />Migratory Songbird Declines<br />Wood Thrush<br />Bobolink<br />
Geolocators<br />1.5g<br />
Key Questions<br />Seasonal carry-over effects (life history tradeoffs)<br />Connectivity between breeding and wintering p...
Key Questions<br />Seasonal carry-over effects (life history tradeoffs)<br />Connectivity between breeding and wintering p...
(4) Challenges<br />
2. Migratory Connectivity<br />High Connectivity<br />Low Connectivity<br />
Where does a single breeding population over-winter? <br />n = 23<br />Stanley et al., in prep.<br />
Where does a single wintering population come from?<br />n = 15<br />n = 1<br />Belize<br />Costa Rica<br />
High Connectivity & Demographics<br />Stanley et al., in prep.<br />
Stopover Connectivity<br />Spring Migration<br />Fall Migration<br />
Connectivity in Purple Martins<br />38 geos retrieved to date, 237 deployed 2011 <br />
31 Aug<br />25 Apr<br />5 Sept – 1 Oct<br />20 Apr<br />13 Oct<br />12 Apr<br />
31 Aug<br />25 Apr<br />5 Sept – 1 Oct<br />20 Apr<br />13 Oct<br />12 Apr<br />Fall: <br />304 km/d<br />Spring:<br />577...
Low Breeding-Wintering Connectivity<br />
male<br />female<br />
Implications for Demographics<br />Purple Martin<br />Wood Thrush<br />High Connectivity<br />Low Connectivity<br />
3. Programmed vs PlasticMigration Strategy<br />Rigid migration schedules imply genetically <br />controlled, or programme...
Geographic Variation in Migration Route<br />Purple Martin<br />
But Fall Departure Date DoesPredict Winter Arrival Date<br />
3 Populations Similar Fall Migration Pace<br />Zone 1<br />Zone 2<br />Zone 3<br />
Male and female pace similar<br />Bill Dalton<br />
L. Elliot<br />Fast vs Slow Fall Migration Strategy<br />Wood<br />Thrush<br />
Plasticity in Wood Thrush<br />Relocate mid-summer<br />Rapid Fall Migration<br />Long Spring Stop<br />Long Fall Stop<br ...
Plasticity in Wood Thrush<br />1801-85920<br />07-08<br />08-09<br />09-10<br />Relocate mid-summer<br />Rapid Fall Migrat...
L. Elliot<br />Omnivore<br />Winter territory<br />6-8000 km annual journey<br />1 hemisphere <br /><ul><li>High connectivity
Fall departure date does not predict arrival date
High plasticity						</li></ul>Aerial insectivore<br />Winter flocks<br />12-14 000 km annual journey<br />2 hemispheres <...
Fall departure date does predict winter arrival
Programmed?</li></li></ul><li>Rigid control of (very) long-distance migration strategy<br />12 - 14 000 km<br />VERSUS<br ...
4. Challenges<br />Influence on behaviour?<br />Retrieval = sample size<br />Habitat shading <br />Data only for survivors...
4. Challenges<br />Influence on behaviour?<br />Retrieval = sample size<br />Habitat shading <br />Data only for survivors...
Influence on behaviour?<br />Typical return rates = 50-60%<br />2008 = 10% <br />Bill Dalton<br />
Influence on behaviour?<br />Typical return rates = 50-60%<br />2008 = 10% <br />Reduced load by 30%<br />2009 = 15%<br />
Influence on behaviour?<br />Typical return rates = 50-60%<br />2008 = 10% <br />Reduced load by 30%<br />2009 = 15%<br />...
Influence on behaviour?<br />Typical return rates = 50-60%<br />2008 = 10% <br />Reduced load by 30%<br />2009 = 15%<br />...
Sample Size<br />Low return rates – particularly for naïve migrants<br />Solution – colonially nesting purple martins<br /...
Sample Size<br />Combine with stable-isotope analyses – do geolocator coordinates match isotope assignments?<br />
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Fraser&stutchbury geolocatorsymposiumeou2011latvia

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Fraser&stutchbury geolocatorsymposiumeou2011latvia

  1. 1. L. Elliot<br />New Discoveries in Bird Migration Using Geolocators : Questions & Challenges<br />Kevin Fraser & Bridget Stutchbury<br />
  2. 2.
  3. 3. L. Elliot<br />MarieRead<br />Migratory Songbird Declines<br />Wood Thrush<br />Bobolink<br />
  4. 4. Geolocators<br />1.5g<br />
  5. 5. Key Questions<br />Seasonal carry-over effects (life history tradeoffs)<br />Connectivity between breeding and wintering populations (songbird declines, demographics)<br />Migration strategy (phenotypic plasticity)<br />
  6. 6. Key Questions<br />Seasonal carry-over effects (life history tradeoffs)<br />Connectivity between breeding and wintering populations (songbird declines, demographics)<br />Migration strategy (phenotypic plasticity)<br />
  7. 7. (4) Challenges<br />
  8. 8. 2. Migratory Connectivity<br />High Connectivity<br />Low Connectivity<br />
  9. 9. Where does a single breeding population over-winter? <br />n = 23<br />Stanley et al., in prep.<br />
  10. 10. Where does a single wintering population come from?<br />n = 15<br />n = 1<br />Belize<br />Costa Rica<br />
  11. 11. High Connectivity & Demographics<br />Stanley et al., in prep.<br />
  12. 12. Stopover Connectivity<br />Spring Migration<br />Fall Migration<br />
  13. 13. Connectivity in Purple Martins<br />38 geos retrieved to date, 237 deployed 2011 <br />
  14. 14. 31 Aug<br />25 Apr<br />5 Sept – 1 Oct<br />20 Apr<br />13 Oct<br />12 Apr<br />
  15. 15. 31 Aug<br />25 Apr<br />5 Sept – 1 Oct<br />20 Apr<br />13 Oct<br />12 Apr<br />Fall: <br />304 km/d<br />Spring:<br />577 km/d<br />
  16. 16. Low Breeding-Wintering Connectivity<br />
  17. 17. male<br />female<br />
  18. 18. Implications for Demographics<br />Purple Martin<br />Wood Thrush<br />High Connectivity<br />Low Connectivity<br />
  19. 19. 3. Programmed vs PlasticMigration Strategy<br />Rigid migration schedules imply genetically <br />controlled, or programmed, migration<br />Conklin et al. 2010<br />
  20. 20. Geographic Variation in Migration Route<br />Purple Martin<br />
  21. 21. But Fall Departure Date DoesPredict Winter Arrival Date<br />
  22. 22. 3 Populations Similar Fall Migration Pace<br />Zone 1<br />Zone 2<br />Zone 3<br />
  23. 23. Male and female pace similar<br />Bill Dalton<br />
  24. 24. L. Elliot<br />Fast vs Slow Fall Migration Strategy<br />Wood<br />Thrush<br />
  25. 25. Plasticity in Wood Thrush<br />Relocate mid-summer<br />Rapid Fall Migration<br />Long Spring Stop<br />Long Fall Stop<br />Spring Circum-Gulf<br />Late Breeding Arrival<br />
  26. 26. Plasticity in Wood Thrush<br />1801-85920<br />07-08<br />08-09<br />09-10<br />Relocate mid-summer<br />Rapid Fall Migration<br />Long Spring Stop<br />Long Fall Stop<br />Spring Circum-Gulf<br />Late Breeding Arrival<br />
  27. 27. L. Elliot<br />Omnivore<br />Winter territory<br />6-8000 km annual journey<br />1 hemisphere <br /><ul><li>High connectivity
  28. 28. Fall departure date does not predict arrival date
  29. 29. High plasticity </li></ul>Aerial insectivore<br />Winter flocks<br />12-14 000 km annual journey<br />2 hemispheres <br /><ul><li>Low connectivity
  30. 30. Fall departure date does predict winter arrival
  31. 31. Programmed?</li></li></ul><li>Rigid control of (very) long-distance migration strategy<br />12 - 14 000 km<br />VERSUS<br />6 - 8 000 km<br />> 30 000 km<br />
  32. 32. 4. Challenges<br />Influence on behaviour?<br />Retrieval = sample size<br />Habitat shading <br />Data only for survivors<br />Equinox and latitude<br />
  33. 33. 4. Challenges<br />Influence on behaviour?<br />Retrieval = sample size<br />Habitat shading <br />Data only for survivors<br />Equinox and latitude<br />
  34. 34. Influence on behaviour?<br />Typical return rates = 50-60%<br />2008 = 10% <br />Bill Dalton<br />
  35. 35. Influence on behaviour?<br />Typical return rates = 50-60%<br />2008 = 10% <br />Reduced load by 30%<br />2009 = 15%<br />
  36. 36. Influence on behaviour?<br />Typical return rates = 50-60%<br />2008 = 10% <br />Reduced load by 30%<br />2009 = 15%<br />Reduced stalk length (20 mm to 5-8mm, 15° angle)<br />2010 = 50%<br />
  37. 37. Influence on behaviour?<br />Typical return rates = 50-60%<br />2008 = 10% <br />Reduced load by 30%<br />2009 = 15%<br />Reduced stalk length (20 mm to 5-8mm, 15° angle)<br />2010 = 50%<br />Geo stalks create drag during flight (Bowlin et al. 2010) - Not an issue for Wood Thrush<br />
  38. 38. Sample Size<br />Low return rates – particularly for naïve migrants<br />Solution – colonially nesting purple martins<br /> 26% return rate<br />
  39. 39. Sample Size<br />Combine with stable-isotope analyses – do geolocator coordinates match isotope assignments?<br />
  40. 40. Habitat Shading – Geo design<br />Short stalk = most days unuseable<br />Longer stalk = better resolution<br />*WOTH – stalk length did not influence return rates<br />
  41. 41. L. Elliot<br />Summary<br />Geolocators provide new insights into connectivity and migration strategy<br />Contrast WOTH & PUMA<br />Can reduce challenges by effective study and geo design <br />
  42. 42. Questions?<br />Kevin Fraser:<br />fraserkev@gmail.com<br />Postdoc at Stutchbury lab:<br />http://www.yorku.ca/bstutch/<br />Bill Dalton<br />

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