Making Bellevue’s Sidewalks Accessible for Everyone        TRB 2012 Annual Meeting Paper: 12-1439                         ...
ADA Culture of Compliance
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)Title II – Government Services: Must ensure that individualswith disabilities are not...
Title II Elements
Bellevue ADA Sidewalk & Curb Ramp          Self Evaluation
Sidewalk & Curb Ramp Inventory Overview                            Top Landing                       Moveable ObstructionA...
Guidance for Conducting an ADA Inventory  FHWA (1999)    PROWAAC (2007)     Texas DOT            Maryland Highway AASHTO (...
Bellevue’s Approach1                       2                       3    Data Collection         Database Analysis       Ba...
Data Collection
ADA Curb Ramp Inventory
ADA Sidewalk InventoryOn January 22, 2004, in the case of Barden v. Sacramento, the 9thCircuit Court ruled that sidewalks ...
Technology Development Partnership  Project assessed  the applicability of  inertial profiling  technologies in  identifyi...
ULIP Technology       Sensor box includes:       1. a displacement laser          (texture/profile/height),       2. three...
ULIP Data Transfer                  Data Capture                Data AcquisitionGIS Integration                  Data Proc...
Quality Assurance/Quality Control
Attribute Accuracy of DataField technicians check the slope and grade of sidewalksegment with smart level for QAQC validat...
Validation Report: Smart Level/ULIP                                                          Cross Slope Data Verification...
ULIP Path Repeatability for Grade                             ULIP Grade (4 runs) vs Smart Level          9          8    ...
ULIP Path Repeatability for Cross Slope                              ULIP Cross Slope (4 Runs) vs Smart Level             ...
Change in Level Output ReportsField Validation Mode   ASCII text file   Data in City’s GIS                           QA/QC
Positional Accuracy of Data        Streaming GPS              Sensor-based inertial navigationBellevue testing with global...
Roadway Grade Analysis
Measurement of GradeMaximum grade is defined as a limited section of path thatexceeds the typical running grade.
Raw Data Allows for Infinite Re-analysis                                      Averaging Window SIze Effect on Grade (%)   ...
User-Specified Window SizeFHWA guidance on grade and cross-slope:“should be measured over 2 ft intervals, the approximatel...
Grade Compliance CriteriaAn accessible route with a running slope greater than 1:20 (5%)is a ramp and shall comply with AD...
Running Slope Analysis Allow sidewalk running slope to match roadway grade. - PROWAG (not ADAAG)                      Digi...
Digital Elevation Model Calculation134 miles
Digital Elevation Model Calculation134 miles95 miles
Digital Elevation Model Calculation134 miles95 miles39 miles
Driveway Cross Slope Analysis
Driveway Standards       Slope down at   (8.3%)           1:12                         2% cross-slope   Apron, may be any ...
Bellevue Design ManualBellevue employs a number of accessible driveway designs to maintain anacceptable cross slope and fa...
Project ApproachDriveway crossings without landings confront wheelchair users withsevere and rapidly changing slopes at th...
Cross Slope Findings1. Over 50% of Bellevue’s 8+ percent cross slope measurements are   attributable to driveway aprons.2....
ADA Viewer Interface
Identify/ Print                             ADA Viewer Window   Navigation    Extents Locate by            Toggle Bar     ...
Barrier Ranking Analysis
Compliance vs. AccessibilityADA tells us which features are non-standard …... But it doesn’t tell us which of these non-st...
Community Outreach                       Engaged people with disabilities to ensure to that we                       fully...
Barrier Ranking Analysis             Land             Use                RampsStreets              Paths          Census  ...
Legend
Legend
Legend
For More InformationThe ADA Sidewalk and Curb Ramp Self-Evaluation Report islocated at: http://www.bellevuewa.gov/accessib...
Thank youFranz LoewenherzSenior Transportation PlannerCity of Bellevue450 110th Ave. NEBellevue, WA 98009floewenherz@belle...
Trb paper 12 1439 (11-23-12)
Trb paper 12 1439 (11-23-12)
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Trb paper 12 1439 (11-23-12)

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Transportation Research Board (TRB) 91st Annual Meeting
Washington, D.C., January 22-26, 2012

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Trb paper 12 1439 (11-23-12)

  1. 1. Making Bellevue’s Sidewalks Accessible for Everyone TRB 2012 Annual Meeting Paper: 12-1439 Franz Loewenherz Senior Transportation Planner City of Bellevue (WA)
  2. 2. ADA Culture of Compliance
  3. 3. Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)Title II – Government Services: Must ensure that individualswith disabilities are not excluded from programs, services, andactivities (pedestrian facilities are an example of a program).
  4. 4. Title II Elements
  5. 5. Bellevue ADA Sidewalk & Curb Ramp Self Evaluation
  6. 6. Sidewalk & Curb Ramp Inventory Overview Top Landing Moveable ObstructionAbsence of level landing Tactile WarningFixed Obstruction Heaving Ramp cross slope Bottom Landing No Ramp Ramp Transition
  7. 7. Guidance for Conducting an ADA Inventory FHWA (1999) PROWAAC (2007) Texas DOT Maryland Highway AASHTO (2004) NCHRP (2008) City of Sacramento Florida DOTReference reports Inventory tools
  8. 8. Bellevue’s Approach1 2 3 Data Collection Database Analysis Barrier Ranking Disability Community Participation
  9. 9. Data Collection
  10. 10. ADA Curb Ramp Inventory
  11. 11. ADA Sidewalk InventoryOn January 22, 2004, in the case of Barden v. Sacramento, the 9thCircuit Court ruled that sidewalks were a "program" under ADA andmust be made accessible to persons with disabilities.Running Slope Cross Slope Displacement Protrusions Obstructions1:20 (5%) max 1:50 (2%) max 1/4 inch max 4” max (27” - 80”) 36” clear width ADAAG 4.8 ADAAG 4.3.7 ADDAG 4.5.2 ADDAG 4.4 ADDAG 4.3.3 FHWA guidance on grade and cross-slope: “should be measured over 2 ft intervals, the approximate length of a wheelchair wheelbase, or a single walking pace.”
  12. 12. Technology Development Partnership Project assessed the applicability of inertial profiling technologies in identifying existing sidewalk and ramp facilities that limit access for persons with disabilities. Coordinated staffing & funding commitment from three agencies from three levels of government.
  13. 13. ULIP Technology Sensor box includes: 1. a displacement laser (texture/profile/height), 2. three accelerometers (inertial profiling), 3. a gyroscope (pitch, roll, yaw), 4. optical trigger (reference), 5. GPS (general location), and 6. a DMI (travel distance system). Computer and data acquisition card are used for data capture.
  14. 14. ULIP Data Transfer Data Capture Data AcquisitionGIS Integration Data Processing
  15. 15. Quality Assurance/Quality Control
  16. 16. Attribute Accuracy of DataField technicians check the slope and grade of sidewalksegment with smart level for QAQC validation of ULIP data. Cross Slope Running Slope Data Acquisition
  17. 17. Validation Report: Smart Level/ULIP Cross Slope Data Verification 10 8 Cross Slope % 6 Smart Level Reading ULIP Survey 4 ADAAG Compliance 2 0 0 8 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 Distance (ft.) ULIP data consistently Running Slope Data Verification follows with the Smart 14 Level’s peaks and 12 Running Slope% 10 Smart Level Reading troughs at test sites. 8 ULIP Survey 6 ADAAG Compliance 4 Rise versus Running 2 Distance compared to 0 0 8 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 ADAAG. Distance (ft)
  18. 18. ULIP Path Repeatability for Grade ULIP Grade (4 runs) vs Smart Level 9 8 7 1024 6 1026 1027Grade % 5 1028 SL 4 3 2 1 0 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 Feet
  19. 19. ULIP Path Repeatability for Cross Slope ULIP Cross Slope (4 Runs) vs Smart Level 4 3.5 3 Cross Slope % 2.5 2 1.5 1024 1 1026 1027 1028 0.5 SL 0 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 FeetSite was a sidewalk with two successive driveway crossings.
  20. 20. Change in Level Output ReportsField Validation Mode ASCII text file Data in City’s GIS QA/QC
  21. 21. Positional Accuracy of Data Streaming GPS Sensor-based inertial navigationBellevue testing with global Start/end points for each datanavigation satellite system collection run entered on an(GPS) found the accuracy of ortho-photo image on the ULIP’slatitude/longitude data degraded notebook computer screen. Thein areas with tall buildings or gyroscope and distancethick tree canopies. measurement instrument were used to compute path of travel.
  22. 22. Roadway Grade Analysis
  23. 23. Measurement of GradeMaximum grade is defined as a limited section of path thatexceeds the typical running grade.
  24. 24. Raw Data Allows for Infinite Re-analysis Averaging Window SIze Effect on Grade (%) 9 1G 8 2G 7 3G 4G 6 5G 10 G 5 20 G 30 G 4 Grade % 40 G 50 G 3 2 1 0 1325 1330 1335 1340 1345 1350 1355 1360 1365 1370 1375 -1 -2 -3 Distance (Feet)Grade and Cross Slope Averaging Window Size:• In the ULIP Geometry Equation, the user specifies the grade and cross slope window size in feet to be applied in a moving average computation.• The graph illustrates the effect of moving average window size. The larger the value, the more dampened out the features.
  25. 25. User-Specified Window SizeFHWA guidance on grade and cross-slope:“should be measured over 2 ft intervals, the approximatelength of a wheelchair wheelbase, or a single walking pace.” Original profile Current position Smoothed profile Average height of shaded area B
  26. 26. Grade Compliance CriteriaAn accessible route with a running slope greater than 1:20 (5%)is a ramp and shall comply with ADAAG 4.8. (ADAAG 4.3.7) level surface of landing ramp  Maximum slope 8.33% level  Maximum rise for any run shall be 30” landing  Minimum clear width shall be 36”  Level landings at bottom and top of30” max. horizontal projection each ramp rise or run Slope Maximum Rise (inches) Construction Type 1:20 to 1:16 (5% to 6.3%) 30 New const. & modifications 1:16 to 1:12 (6.3% to 8.3%) 30 New const. & modifications 1:12 to 1:10 (8.3% to 10%) 6 Modifications only 1:10 to 1:8 (10%- 12.5%) 3 Modifications only
  27. 27. Running Slope Analysis Allow sidewalk running slope to match roadway grade. - PROWAG (not ADAAG) Digital Elevation Model 134 miles of our sidewalk facilities exceed 5% grade standard. 95 miles are attributable to the adjacency of the roadway grade. 39 miles of non-standard grade sidewalk surfaces are referenced in the City’s Transition Plan document.
  28. 28. Digital Elevation Model Calculation134 miles
  29. 29. Digital Elevation Model Calculation134 miles95 miles
  30. 30. Digital Elevation Model Calculation134 miles95 miles39 miles
  31. 31. Driveway Cross Slope Analysis
  32. 32. Driveway Standards Slope down at (8.3%) 1:12 2% cross-slope Apron, may be any acceptable grade Slope up at 1:12 (8.3%) Certain grades and slopes must be maintained. 2% cross-slope, 8.33% max ramp slopes if used.
  33. 33. Bellevue Design ManualBellevue employs a number of accessible driveway designs to maintain anacceptable cross slope and facilitate wheelchair movement at driveways.As reflected in DEV-7D above, securing additional right-of-way from theadjacent property is a good strategy for improving pedestrian access onnarrow sidewalks. This design allows pedestrians to maintain a level pathas they cross the driveway.
  34. 34. Project ApproachDriveway crossings without landings confront wheelchair users withsevere and rapidly changing slopes at the driveway flare.A series of driveway apron flares The driveway analysis is based on ULIPwith 11% cross slope recordings taken by field staff at the centermeasurements at 130th Avenue points of driveways. Using GIS, any non-SE & SE 26th Street. standard cross slope values within buffer are attributed to the driveway aprons.
  35. 35. Cross Slope Findings1. Over 50% of Bellevue’s 8+ percent cross slope measurements are attributable to driveway aprons.2. Number increases as cross slope values increase, with 70% of 10+ percent cross slope measurements attributable to driveway aprons.3. Overall, 19% of all non-standard cross slope measurements are attributable to driveway aprons constructed like ramps, with steep, short side flares.
  36. 36. ADA Viewer Interface
  37. 37. Identify/ Print ADA Viewer Window Navigation Extents Locate by Toggle Bar Navigation AddressLegend/ LayersLocation Map
  38. 38. Barrier Ranking Analysis
  39. 39. Compliance vs. AccessibilityADA tells us which features are non-standard …... But it doesn’t tell us which of these non-standard features should be replaced first.
  40. 40. Community Outreach Engaged people with disabilities to ensure to that we fully understood their challenges and priorities.  December 2007: 3 Focus Groups  April 2009: Field tour in partnership with King County  May 2009: ADA Accessibility Open House  June 2009: Written survey with more than 100 responsesPoster at Open House Mail-Back Survey Ramp Assessments
  41. 41. Barrier Ranking Analysis Land Use RampsStreets Paths Census Islands Activity Impedance Barrier Score Score Ranking
  42. 42. Legend
  43. 43. Legend
  44. 44. Legend
  45. 45. For More InformationThe ADA Sidewalk and Curb Ramp Self-Evaluation Report islocated at: http://www.bellevuewa.gov/accessibility-reports.htm “Efforts such as those at the City of Bellevue, Washington, that rely on the collection of large datasets at extremely fine spatial and temporal disaggregation levels have the potential to significantly automate the identification of non- compliant locations in the field.” NCHRP 20-07 Task 249 - Texas Transportation Institute
  46. 46. Thank youFranz LoewenherzSenior Transportation PlannerCity of Bellevue450 110th Ave. NEBellevue, WA 98009floewenherz@bellevuewa.govPhone: 425.452.4077

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