Flooring systemsThe Effects of Composition and Application                                             1610 East Morehead ...
Flooring systems The Effects of Composition and Application                                                              P...
Flooring systems The Effects of Composition and Application Concrete (substrate)                                          ...
Flooring systems The Effects of Composition and Application •	 Type IV – Minimization of heat generated                   ...
Flooring systems The Effects of Composition and Application CONCRETE BEHAVIOR                                             ...
Flooring systems The Effects of Composition and Application SPALLING                                                      ...
Flooring systems The Effects of Composition and Application •	 Amine Adducts                                              ...
Flooring systems The Effects of Composition and Application SPECIAL FLOOR SYSTEM APPLICATION                              ...
Flooring systems The Effects of Composition and Application The negatives of this system are that the thickness of the app...
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2 Flooring Systems; The Effects of Composition and Application

  1. 1. Flooring systemsThe Effects of Composition and Application 1610 East Morehead Suite 200 Charlotte, NC 28203
  2. 2. Flooring systems The Effects of Composition and Application PREFACE Problem The food processing economy is growing steadily and you have determined that the addition of a new facility will best help you meet the increased demand. You have toured existing facilities and you are concerned that the flooring systems in these buildings do not provide protection from the typical forms of floor abuse within a food processing facility. You have acquired a site that provides the required acreage for current and future demands, transportation access to major thoroughfares and appropriate space for staff parking. With the construction of a new facility, your goal is to incorporate a flooring system that will provide the characteristics needed to achieve protection from the everyday production challenges. What concrete substrate should be used? Should the floor have an epoxy or polyurethane finish? How is the floor finish applied? Solution In order to design and construct the floor system within a food processing facility, you must understand a floor’s composition, characteristics, reactions to finishes and applications before choosing the correct system. www.amkingconstruction.com 1
  3. 3. Flooring systems The Effects of Composition and Application Concrete (substrate) FLY ASH The use of volcanic ash, known as pozzolanic, was introduced as a The intent of this investigation is to determine which industrial flooring component of the ancient Roman aqueducts and building structures. system is best suited to meet the needs of a specific food processing Fly ash, having similar properties to the ancient pozzolanic, greatly facility. It is important to understand that it is the concrete substrate improves the strength and durability of concrete. Also known as flue- and its exposure to chemical, mechanical and thermal aggressions ash, fly ash is a residue generated during the combustion of coal. The that will determine which flooring system should be used to provide ash that does not rise is known as bottom ash and the ash that rises and the highest level of protection. Because the concrete substrate is the is caught in an electrostatic precipitator or particle filtration equipment building component at risk, an understanding of its composition and before reaching the chimney is named fly ash. behavior will be reviewed. There are two classes of fly ash: Class F fly ash and Class C fly ash. Concrete is the mixture of water, large and small aggregate, and The primary difference between the two classes is the percentage of Portland cement. Portland cement mixed with water creates a paste calcium, silica, alumina and iron. Class F fly ash can have a volatile that coats the surfaces of the aggregates, hardens and gains strength effect on the entrained air content in concrete, reducing its resistance as it dries. The strength and durability of the rock-like mass is achieved to the freeze/thaw damage. Class F fly ash also contains less than 20 by the proportional mixing of ingredients. If the amount of paste is percent lime and requires the use of an activator. For these reasons, not great enough to fill the voids between the aggregate, the finished Class F is seldom used. Class C fly ash has more than 20 percent lime concrete will produce a honeycomb surface and be porous. However, and does not require the addition of an activator. if there is more paste than required, the surface will be smooth but the concrete will be likely to shrink and require frequent patching, which As a result, Class C fly ash is the primary additive to Portland cement. could be a costly error. While its spherical shape increases the workability of the cement and reduces the amount of water needed, it also has the ability to increase While the proportion of the basic ingredients is the key to providing the the concrete’s strength, chemical resistance and durability. Fly ash can correct composition, there are a variety of other components within the be substituted for up to 30 percent of the standard Portland cement concrete that will change and provide the characteristics needed for a content of concrete. specific condition. The amount of time to set, the release of heat during the cure process, the introduction of microscopic air pockets to combat There are five basic types of Portland cement. a freeze/thaw effect and the introduction of fly ash into the Portland cement mix all provide different qualities that address the needs of a • Type I – General purpose specific facility or application. The composition of Type I is suitable for all uses where special properties are not required. An example of a special property would be a need for temperature control during the hydration of the concrete. CONCRETE INGREDIENTS • Type II – Precaution against moderate sulfate action WATER When concrete is located in a structure that comes in contact with The use of potable water in mixing the concrete batch is not necessary; groundwater drainage containing sulfate concentrations, the composition however, the use of water with excessive impurities might affect both of Type II is most appropriate. The moderate speed at which the heat is the setting time and strength. The water should be tested to verify released during the hydration stage is less than that of Type I. Type II is that levels of chloride, sulfates, alkalis and solids are within approved best suited for structures of considerable mass such as retaining walls. ranges to prevent concrete failures such as efflorescence, corrosion of reinforcement, staining, volume instability and reduced durability. • Type III – Achieves high strength quickly Type III is similar to Type I but contains a slightly higher amount of gypsum AGGREGATES and a finer grind. When compared to type I and II, this modification Coarse aggregate (gravel or crushed stone) and fine aggregate (sand) obtains the seven day compressive strength in just three days and its comprise 60 to 75 percent of the concrete’s volume. Desired thickness twenty-eight day compressive strength in just seven. Because of this and end use will determine the type and size of the aggregate used. reduction in time, the long-term strength is reduced. Type III is typically used for the construction of precast concrete products because of its PORTLAND CEMENT quick turnover time. In 1824 Joseph Aspdin, an English mason, named his recently patented cement product ‘Portland’ cement. The term ‘Portland’ was chosen • Type IA, IIA, IIIA – Air Entraining because he felt that the color of the mixture resembled the natural This modified version of Types I, II and III introduces an air-entraining limestone located on the Isle of Portland in the English Channel. agent that produces microscopic air bubbles which create air pockets allowing space for the concrete to expand and contract during the This appearance is achieved by combining calcium, silicon, aluminum freeze/thaw process. These air pockets comprise 9 to 10 percent of and iron. Gypsum is then added in the final grinding process to regulate the concrete volume. the setting time of the concrete. The raw materials used to create the cement are limestone, shells, chalk (or marl) shale, clay, slate (or blast furnace slag), silica sand and iron ore. www.amkingconstruction.com 2
  4. 4. Flooring systems The Effects of Composition and Application • Type IV – Minimization of heat generated CURING Type IV should be used in massive concrete structures such as a Once the concrete has hardened enough to resist disfiguring marks and gravity dam where the temperature rise during the curing period is a blemishes, known as marring, the process of curing will begin. Curing is critical factor. The speed of heat loss during the hydration period is low the prevention of evaporation that can be achieved by applying moisture and the strength of the composition is developed at a slower rate than retaining fabrics such as burlap or cotton mats, sprinkling of water Type I. fog, or sealing the surface with a plastic or special curing compound to ensure that the hydration process continues. Much of the hydration • Type V – Precaution against severe sulfate action and strength gain occurs within the first month of the concrete life Type V is sulfate-resistant, and should be used when the concrete is cycle and will be governed by the specific mixture proportions, climate exposed to high levels of sulfate typically located in the adjacent soils temperature, moisture conditions and scheduling parameters. and groundwater. CHEMICAL ADMIXTURES CONCRETE PRODUCTION WATER-REDUCING PROPORTIONING The traditional water-reducing agent reduces the amount of water Water, large aggregate, small aggregate and Portland cement comprise needed by 5 to 10 percent, which increases the concrete’s strength the mix that, when designed properly, provides a workable concrete without increasing the amount of cement, thereby reducing the water- that is both durable and strong. Typically, the mix is 15 to 20 percent cement ratio. The development of a mid-range admixture reduces the water, 60 to 75 percent aggregate and 10 to 15 percent cement. If an water content by 8 percent and provides a more consistent setting time air-entrained agent is included, it will make up 9 to 10 percent of the within a wider range of temperatures. concrete volume. (Figure 1) RETARDING While having the additional ability to act as a water-reducing admixture, 6% air the primary function of a retarding agent is to counteract the acceleration rate of the concrete that occurs in hot weather conditions. 11% Portland cement ACCELERATING Typically used in cold weather conditions, this agent increases the rate 41% course aggregate of strength development and reduces the time needed for curing, which (gravel or crushed stone) allows the finishing operations to begin earlier. SUPERPLASTICIZER The addition of this agent reduces the water content by 12 to 30 percent and can be added on the job site to make a high-slump flowing 20% fine aggregate concrete. The effect on the concrete is an increase in fluidity rendering it (sand) workable and able to be placed with little to no vibration or compaction. 16% water Also referred to as a plasticizer or high range water reducer (HRWR), the chemical reaction remains active for only 30 to 60 minutes, and the Figure 1: Concrete basics (approximate percentages) concrete becomes unworkable quickly. The workability of the concrete is determined by the quality of the paste. AIR-ENTRAINING The strength of the paste depends on the ratio of water to cement. This This surface-active agent stabilizes the microscopic air bubbles that are ratio is the weight of the water divided by the weight of the cement. created by the shearing action of the mixture and aggregates during the Obtaining a high quality concrete is produced by lowering the water- concrete’s plastic stage. When mixed properly, the presence of these cement ratio without sacrificing the workability of the concrete. Typically, voids will increase the durability when exposed to moisture during the using less water produces a higher quality concrete but only if it is cycles of freezing and thawing and improve the resistance to surface properly placed, consolidated and cured. scalling caused by chemical deicers. HYDRATION Variations in the air content is often a disadvantage when using this The setting and hardening of the concrete mixture begins with the agent and several of the common causes to be aware of are the quality introduction of water to the Portland cement. This process, known as and proportions of the materials; method and duration of the mixing; hydration, is the chemical reaction that begins when a node forms on and the placing and finishing methods used. the surface of each cement particle. As the nodes expand and adhere to the adjacent aggregate, the process of progressive stiffening, hardening and strength development creates a workable mixture that will become a water-insoluble concrete. www.amkingconstruction.com 3
  5. 5. Flooring systems The Effects of Composition and Application CONCRETE BEHAVIOR Shrinkage and cracking While the ingredients of the mixture can be adjusted, chemical agents can be introduced and finish protectants can be applied, the natural Concrete slab behavior of concrete will maintain its vulnerability to improper curing and unstable settings. SHRINKAGE Subgrade Shrinkage occurs as concrete dries during the hydration process. The drying and shrinkage of concrete occurs over long periods of time with Slab surface warmer and wetter than subgrade thick slabs shrinking slower than thin slabs. The top of a concrete slab generally shrinks more than the bottom causing the corner edges at Shrinkage and cracking joints or cracks to curl upward. This creates a visible rise in the concrete surface often seen at joint intersections. CRACKING Concrete slab The effect of shrinkage and curling creates a tensile stress within the concrete. As the concrete rises, the tensile stress (the force required to pull something apart until the moment it breaks) exceeds the strength within concrete, creating a separation or crack. (Figure 2) Subgrade Slab surface cooler and drier than subgrade Plastic Settlement Cracks These are cracks that occur during the plastic stage of concrete setting. Figure 2: Concrete slab cracking During this stage, the solids within the mix settle while the water rises (bleed water) and if there is a restraint within the slab (reinforcing bars, etc.) the mixture above the restraint will not settle as far and create mirror like cracks along the restraints. (Figure 3) Settlement cracks CONCRETE DEFECTS DURING INSTALLATION FREEZE/THAW EFFECT Concrete has strong compression strength but its tensile strength is weak. As water is absorbed into the porous surface, the internal moisture can freeze and cause spalling and cracking. In order to avoid Large aggregate particles these effects, the use of an air-entrained agent will provide micro-scopic Reinforcing bars voids that allow the moisture to expand without damaging the concrete Section A-A slab. CHEMICAL ATTACK Because cement is alkaline and chemically reactive, it can be damaged Settlement cracks by acids, alkalis, salt solutions and organics such as fermenting liquids, sugars, animal oils and sea water. The use of Portland cement types II and V will prohibit most chemical reactions. CRAZING Small cracks that weaken the surface are caused by water containing solid particles of sedimentation that have migrated to the surface of the concrete during hydration (bleed water). A small amount of this water is A A expected, but if spread throughout the slab with a trowel, the sediments will absorb back into the concrete, thus changing the water to cement ratio. SCALLING Improper curing, forms of nitrates, and agents that contain calcium or sodium chloride (typically working together) cause flaking of the concrete surface that then breaks loose, causing the surface to peel. These flakes typically increase over time in high traffic areas. Figure 3: Plastic settlement cracking www.amkingconstruction.com 4
  6. 6. Flooring systems The Effects of Composition and Application SPALLING Because the surface of this system is not monolithic, the use of cement This defect is similar to scalling except the surface breaks are larger grouts located between the tile and brick are susceptible to absorption. than flakes, indicating severe problems within the concrete slab, Even if sealed with a high level of epoxy sealer on a regular basis, the typically caused by freeze/thaw conditions. mortar will easily stain and become inundated with debris. The severity of these constraints when using the CRBT system is reflected by the use BLISTERS of the monolithic system more frequently and, because of this tendency, As water and air work their way up during the curing process, it causes the following investigation will focus on the monolithic resins only. a rise in the concrete forming blisters. These blisters, ranging from 1/4" to 4" in diameter, are not easily seen but can become chipped by direct Monolithic System traffic. A monolithic system is an aggregate-filled, resin based, coating system that provides a seamless surface able to withstand chemical exposure, DUSTING abrasion, impact and thermal shock. Epoxy, Acrylic, Polyurethane, A loose powder layer, similar to chalk in appearance, is produced by Polyester and Vinyl esters are the primary forms of resin. a weak concrete surface. An unvented heat source, improper small aggregate (sand) to cement ratio or the use of bleed water are possible Each resin is unique in its ability to protect the floor from the typical causes of this deterioration. abuse found within a food processing facility. The following investigation reviews the characteristics of each resin along with several methods of FOREIGN OBJECTS application. Debris from the surrounding job site can often work its way into the concrete while the concrete is being set and might not be noticed until Epoxy Resin the forms are removed. If fully embedded, the object will not have an Epoxy is the combination of two chemicals, referred to as (A) the resin effect on the coating process. However, if a foreign object such as or compound and (B) the hardener or activator. Part (A) usually consists plastic stripping or rope is exposed, it must be removed, typically by of Bisphenol A or Bisphenol F. Bisphenol A is a general purpose, chipping; then the concrete must be restored. cost-effective resin that has an excellent alkali resistance, good acid resistance and fair-to-good solvent resistance. Bisphenol F is a low EFFLORESCENCE viscosity material that provides excellent alkali resistance, and a better As water migrates from a drying concrete, water-soluble salts within the acid and solvent resistance than Bisphenol A. concrete work their way out to the surface in the form of white chalk. Part (B), the hardener, is an industrial epoxy coating catalyst that falls into one of five standard categories: Aliphatic and cycloaliphatic amines SPECIAL FLOOR SYSTEMS and polyamines; amides and polyamides; cycloaliphatic; amine adduct; and novolac. The chemical makeup of each of these categories, play a When investigating the flooring system best suited for a food processing major role in the properties of the final cured epoxy. facility, the driving factors that need to be addressed are the chemical exposure, abrasion, impact and thermal shock. While each facility will face similar challenges when looking at resistance to moisture vapor, • Aliphatic and Cycloaliphatic Amines and Polyamines This chemical solution is ammonia with one or more hydrogen atoms surface gloss, slip resistance, odor, repair-ability, project schedule, etc., replaced by organic groups. The amine-based curing agents are there will not be one ‘perfect’ system to be used in all facilities. considered more durable and chemically resistant, but most likely to produce a waxy surface layer on actively curing epoxy known as blush. High Performance Floor Surfacing Systems (HPFSS) are used to protect concrete substrates from chemical, mechanical and thermal aggression. The two systems most often used are the Chemical Resistant Brick and • Amides and Polyamides Tile (CRBT) system, composed of grout, setting bed, ceramic tile, paver This chemical solution is ammonia with a hydrogen atom replaced by tile and/or dairy brick and the monolithic system, formed by resin and/ a carbon/oxygen and organic group. Unlike the amines, the amide is or aggregate types. more tolerant to surface contact and less troubled by water. Chemical Resistant Brick and Tile Systems • Cycloaliphatic In the past, bulky, conventional, thick bed methods were employed This agent provides better water/moisture resistance, better for the installation of industrial ceramic tile, paver tile and dairy brick weatherability, low blush and water spotting, and better chemical applications. With the improvement in adhesive technology, a more resistance. The composition of this agent provides more of a “structural efficient and environmentally sensitive use of materials has been stretch” and, in return, provides a better impact resistance. introduced, resulting in a reduced weight, lower cost of material and a more efficient use of natural resources. However, the use of the CRBT Most top grade, high performance epoxies incorporate a blend of the in industrial installations places a large stress on the tile and paver cycloaliphatics into the ‘part B’ curing agent and is often used to judge application and, in turn, an environment that is challenging not only for the quality and performance of the final epoxy. the finish tile or paver but also for the installation system materials. www.amkingconstruction.com 5
  7. 7. Flooring systems The Effects of Composition and Application • Amine Adducts • Cementitious Amine Adduct epoxies are two-part epoxies but the curing agent This form of urethane is thermal shock resistant, has good stain actually contains a small amount of epoxy resin. Because of this unique resistance, has excellent organic acid resistance and demonstrates combination, the mixture starts to cure even before type (A) and (B) are good moisture tolerance during the curing process. mixed. This mixture performs much like the other agents but with higher overall properties, such as a better color stability, curing at a cooler • Aliphatic temperature and curing faster than the standard epoxy. This coating provides a high level of chemical resistance, good weathering properties and excellent UV protection while providing a • Novolac Epoxy durable adhesive quality. A fifth and more specialized epoxy is the Novolac Epoxy. This epoxy has excellent heavy duty chemical resistance, low odor and low shrinkage. • Aromatic However, it is not thermal shock resistant, will not have full chemical Aromatic coatings are useful where UV radiation is not an issue. resistance for up to 7 days and has a tendency to chalk and discolor Polyurethane coatings made from aromatic polyisocyanates are very when exposed to UV light. sensitive to oxidation and, as a result, prone to degradation in direct exposure to sunlight. ACRYLICS • Aspartic This coating is a two-component, low VOC, urethane resin designed for Also referred to as Methyl Methacrylate (MMA) this water-based floor high performance protection with outstanding exterior gloss and color system will cure much faster than other applied coating systems. The retention. This resin has a high resistance to corrosion, weathering, and coating can be applied in very cold temperatures (-20° F), resist a chemicals; offers color and gloss retention; and is suitable for use in wide range of acids and alkalis, and provide high impact and abrasion USDA-inspected facilities resistance. Minimum surface preparation is required and fresh applications melt and bond, creating a monolithic system that won’t peel. Reseal costs and down time are much shorter than other coatings. POLYESTERS/VINYL ESTERS This system provides a much more durable finish. Polyester prepolymers are produced by a condensation reaction of The negatives are the need for adequate ventilation during application organic acids and polyols. The choice of reactants will establish the due to strong odors, low adhesive strength, and extreme susceptibility resulting polymer mechanical properties, thermal stability and chemical to poor adhesion in substrates that contain some level of humidity. resistance. This resin has a high solvent and chemical resistance, and the ability to withstand highly corrosive exposures. It provides a good adhesive quality, and flake fillers can be added to increase resistance POLYURETHANES to permeation by water vapor. The polyurethane floor coating is a solvent based, two-component The negative of this resin is the creation of a trapped tensile strain (pre- system. This coating is abrasion resistant, antibacterial, UV resistant, stress) by the heat and shrinkage produced during its drying process. antifungal, and easily cleaned. In addition, this coating provides a This strain can lead to cracking or disbondment, especially in very low tough and flexible surface that has excellent adhesion to concrete, tiles, operating temperatures, and can become brittle if not reinforced. metals and packing unit floors. See (Table 1) for a synopsis of the characteristics of each resin. Cure Bond Strength Properties Resistance Safety Epoxies - Temperature sensitive - Excellent - High strength - Good wear - Allergy - Mix ratios important - High-low uniformity - Moderate chemical - Odor Epoxy Novolacs - Cold, wet cure - Excellent - High strength - Heat resistant - Allergy - High uniformity - Chemical resistant Polyesters/Vinyl - Moisture sensitive - Will not bond to damp - High strength - Heat resistant - Flammable Esters - Catalyzed cure surfaces - High (low) uniformity - Chemical resistant - Odor - Shrinkage Urethanes - Humidity sensitive - Intercoat adhesion - Gloss retention - Excellent wear - Allergy difficult - Elastomeric - Stain resistant - Free isocyanate - Weather resistant - VOC Methyl-Methacrylate - Cures quickly - Moisture sensitive - Clear - Abrasion resistant - Flammable (MMA) - Cold cure - Easy handling - Odor - Shrinkage - High strength Table 1: Characteristics of polymer products www.amkingconstruction.com 6
  8. 8. Flooring systems The Effects of Composition and Application SPECIAL FLOOR SYSTEM APPLICATION Topcoat at 6-20 mils Optional intermediate COATING coat at 8-16 mils The positive qualities of the coating system are that it is the most Primer at 6-8 mils economical at 40 mils or less, and provides moderate chemical resistance, easy cleanability, simple repair and maintenance, and UV protection. It also seals concrete from absorption of microorganism or contaminants, and protects concrete from sterilants. The negatives are that it can easily scratch and develop traffic patterns, is subject to damage from impact and thermal shock, and does not mask surface imperfections. In addition, this application cannot be used to modify the slope of a substrate and will need to follow the existing Concrete substrate contour of the substrate. (Figure 4) SELF LEVELING SYSTEMS • Slurry Figure 4: Coatings Slurry is a thin mixture of a liquid (typically water) and a cement, plaster of Paris or clay particles. A primer is placed directly on the substrate (typically 60 mils) and is then covered with a thin topcoat. Topcoat at 8-10 mils As an intermediate priced system, the positive qualities of the slurry Slurry at 60 mils system are the improvement of substrate properties for thermal shock and impact, and the masking of minor imperfections. The system also Primer at 6-8 mils requires less skill to install, thereby increasing the installed square footage per day. The negatives are that it is not suitable for sloped surfaces, requires more skill to install than coatings alone, and is less resistant to thermal shock and impact than mortars. (Figure 5) • Broadcast systems Forming a seamless, monolithic floor, the broadcast system is composed Concrete substrate of low viscosity, 100 percent solid epoxy resin and aggregate filler in the form of finely graded silica within the slurry mix. The combination of slurry and broadcast aggregate will range from 60 mil to 1/4" depending Figure 5: Slurry-Smooth on the amount of mechanical abuse, impact and abrasion. The broadcast system provides a good slip and chemical resistance, Topcoat at 10-20 mils and is most suitable for areas of light to moderate chemical, impact and traffic exposure. Similar to the slurry system, the addition of the Broadcast and grout coat broadcast system is not suitable for sloped surfaces and is less resistant Slurry at 60 mils to thermal shock and impact than mortars. (Figure 6) Primer at 6-8 mils • Thick-Mil Troweled This system is a 3/16 - 3/8" thick mortar material with aggregate fillers in a resin matrix placed on a primer covering and substrate surface. The troweled flooring system provides the highest physical properties and is resistant to impact, thermal shock and abrasion. This application is suitable for sloped surfaces, masks surface imperfections and is able to provide pitch toward the drain while having the lowest life cycle costs. Concrete substrate Figure 6: Slurry-broadcast slip resistant www.amkingconstruction.com 7
  9. 9. Flooring systems The Effects of Composition and Application The negatives of this system are that the thickness of the application might affect equipment and door clearances; it requires the highest Topcoat at 10-20 mils level of skill and additional time for installation; and it has the highest Grout coat initial cost. (Figure 7) Trowelled base Primer at 6-8 mils SAFE QUALITY FOOD (SQF) CODE After reviewing the special floor systems and applications, the development of a sanitation and health program for all facility flooring systems must be addressed. The SQF is one of several food management programs that is recognized worldwide and benchmarked by the Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI). This program develops specific management training to develop, document and record safety procedures while working directly with HACCP plans. This program has a three level certification that can be obtained through the implementation Concrete substrate of the safety process and procedures. Figure 7: Thick-mil trowelled While this safety code is composed of 16 modules that include a checklist for all sections of the food industry, the checklist for a food processing facility is located in module 11. Below is a clip from the SQF SELECTING A FLOOR SYSTEM Code, 7th Edition, July 2012. Chemical exposure, abrasion, impact and thermal shock are the four SQF-CODE-ED-7-MODUAL – COVERS ALL FOOD macro-categories of adversities that every food processing flooring system will encounter. Is there a perfect floor coating and application that PROCESSING TYPES will protect a food processing facility? Yes, however the final decision must be based on the challenges that are present in that specific facility. 11: FOOD SAFETY FUNDAMENTALS – GOOD What are the environmental conditions for this project? When must MANUFACTURING PRACTICES FOR PROCESSING OF this facility be up and running? Is cost a factor? What form of cleaning, FOOD PRODUCTS (GFSI, EI, EII, EIII, EIV AND L) pressure and/or chemical mixtures will be required? Is there high traffic or low? The needs will be specific to each facility as will the solutions. 11.2 Construction and Control of Product Handling and Storage Areas CONCLUSION 11.2.1 Materials and Surfaces The mixture of water, large aggregate, small aggregate and Portland • Product contact surfaces and those surfaces not in direct cement; the manipulation of strength, speed and workability; and the contact with food in food handling areas, raw material storage, resistance to chemical contact, abrasions, high impact and thermal packaging material storage, and cold storage areas shall be shock are the components, that when designed for a specific facility, constructed of materials that will not contribute a food safety risk. provide the perfect flooring system. 11.2.2 Floors, Drains and Waste Traps Looking for the best flooring system for your facility will bring forth many • Floors shall be constructed of smooth, dense impact solutions and each will address the challenges at hand. However, with resistant material that can be effectively graded, drained, an understanding of the systems’ composition and how it might react to impervious to liquid and easily cleaned. your specific conditions will increase the value of the investigation and • Floors shall be sloped to floor drains at gradients suitable in turn clarify your solution. to allow the effective removal of all overflow or waste water under normal working conditions. • Drains shall be constructed and located so they can be Kevin Franz, AIA, LEED AP BD+C easily cleaned and not present a hazard. Project Architect • Waste trap system shall be located away from any food A M King Construction, LLC handling area or entrance to the premises. (SQF Code, 7th Edition, July 2012) References: SQF Code A HACCP-Based Supplier Assurance, Code for the Food Industry, 7th Edition, 2012 - Module 11: Food Safety Fundamentals – good manufacturing practices for processing of food products (GFSI, EI, EII, EIII, EIV and L) www.amkingconstruction.com 8