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Abdomen & Breasts

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Abdomen & Breasts

  1. 1. Abdomen
  2. 2. Structure and Function <ul><li>Borders of Abdominal Cavity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lg. Oval cavity from diaphragm to pelvis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Posteriorly- vertebral column & paravertebral muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laterally & anteriorly – lower rib cage and abdominal muscles </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Abdominal Muscles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 layers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>External oblique </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internal oblique </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transverse abdominis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rectus abdominus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linea alba </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rectus abdominus </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>Internal Anatomy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Viscera </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gallbladder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spleen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aorta </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pancreas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kidneys </li></ul></ul>
  5. 8. <ul><li>Abdominal wall = 4 quadrants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RUQ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LUQ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RLQ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LLQ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Epigastric </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Umbilical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suprapubic </li></ul></ul>
  6. 11. Subjective Data <ul><li>Appetite </li></ul><ul><li>Dysphagia </li></ul><ul><li>Food intolerance </li></ul><ul><li>Abdominal pain </li></ul><ul><li>N&V </li></ul><ul><li>Bowel habits </li></ul><ul><li>Past abd. History </li></ul><ul><li>Medications </li></ul><ul><li>Nutritional assessment </li></ul>
  7. 12. Objective Data <ul><li>Order of Exam </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inspection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Auscultation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Percussion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Palpation </li></ul></ul>
  8. 22. Spleen
  9. 23. Spleen
  10. 24. Rt. Kidney
  11. 25. Lt. Kidney
  12. 26. Refered abd. Pain
  13. 27. obesity Ascites Ovarion cyst Air/ Gas
  14. 28. Breasts/ Axilla
  15. 29. External Anatomy <ul><li>B/t 2 nd 6 th rib </li></ul><ul><li>Sternum to MAL </li></ul><ul><li>Tail of Spence </li></ul><ul><li>Nipple </li></ul><ul><li>Areola </li></ul><ul><li>Montgomery’s glands </li></ul>
  16. 30. Internal Anatomy <ul><li>Glandular tissue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>15- 20 lobes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alveoli producing milk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ducts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lactiferous </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collecting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ampullae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reservoir for storing milk </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 31. Internal Anatomy cont. <ul><li>Cooper’s ligaments </li></ul><ul><li>Adipose tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Breast </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 quadrants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tail of Spence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most breast tumors – upper outer quadrant </li></ul></ul>
  18. 35. Lymphatics <ul><li>Axillary nodes </li></ul><ul><li>Central axillary </li></ul><ul><li>Pectoral </li></ul><ul><li>Subscapular </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral </li></ul><ul><li>Lymph- central axillary node- up to infraclavicular and supraclavicular nodes </li></ul>
  19. 36. Lymphatics cont. <ul><li>Small amt. Of lymph </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Directly to infraclavicular group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Or deep into chest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Or abdomen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Or directly across to the opposite breast </li></ul></ul>
  20. 38. Subjective Data - Breast <ul><li>Pain </li></ul><ul><li>Lumps </li></ul><ul><li>Discharge </li></ul><ul><li>Rash </li></ul><ul><li>Swelling </li></ul><ul><li>Trauma </li></ul><ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><li>Self- care behaviors </li></ul>
  21. 39. Subjective Data- Axilla <ul><li>Tenderness </li></ul><ul><li>Swelling </li></ul><ul><li>Lumps </li></ul><ul><li>Rash </li></ul>
  22. 40. Objective Data <ul><li>Examination </li></ul><ul><li>Privacy </li></ul><ul><li>Comfort </li></ul><ul><li>Anxiety </li></ul>
  23. 41. Retraction
  24. 42. Retraction
  25. 43. Inspect & Palpate Axillae
  26. 44. Palpate Breasts
  27. 45. Wheel Pattern
  28. 46. Concentric Circles
  29. 47. Palpate Nipple
  30. 48. Fibocystic Cancer Fibroadenoma

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