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Tree-rich AgroPastoralism Niger 110416


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The presentation makes the case for "tree-rich" agriculture and pastoralist systems in Niger - and the Sahel. It explores carbon financing for development of governance arrangements.

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Tree-rich AgroPastoralism Niger 110416

  1. 1. <ul><li>GOVGA – Governance for Green Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Frank van Schoubroeck & Lucy Maarse </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Arnhem, April 2011 </li></ul>Potential financing of Agroforestry Action Planning by credits for carbon sequestration in Niger
  2. 2. Field visit: Niger, Tillabery, 2009
  3. 3. One spot, two views: trees can grow in semi-arid pastoral landscapes – but are often absent
  4. 4. Field visit: Niger, Dosso, August 2010
  5. 5. Agroforestry increases production of tree crops – but also of food crops
  6. 6. Large stretches of land are bare in Niger – these lateritic soils are difficult to make productive …
  7. 7. … yet, ICRISAT identified trees that people can grow on such land – if they are allowed their tenure rights as well. This tree can be pruned for fuel every 2-3 years.
  8. 8. If you drive through green stretches, you feel the fresh air.
  9. 9. Fuel wood has a good local market
  10. 10. Agroforestry increases production of tree crops – but also of food crops
  11. 11. August 2010: the Niger river floods and > 25,000 hh (?) are deplaced
  12. 12. Programmes for creation of horticulture value chains get a blow – as just before the Ramadan floods destroy crops
  13. 13. Short heavy rains destroy people’s cash crops if the agricultural system at large cannot cope with it
  14. 14. Building CC policy on a ´classic´ rural development discourse <ul><li>Most adaptation strategies are at ease with mitigation strategy and are reasonably tailored to small farmers, women, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Global mitigation strategies need elaboration to cash in on GHG sequestration potential of small farming </li></ul><ul><li>Climate mitigation is a service to the global community and engagement of small farmers should be in their own interest </li></ul>
  15. 15. Five conditions for change (Termeer, 2006): <ul><li>Vision, direction </li></ul><ul><li>Stakeholders feel valuable </li></ul><ul><li>Meticulous updating, meaningful details </li></ul><ul><li>Co-ordination </li></ul><ul><li>Enthusiasm of Key Stakeholders </li></ul>
  16. 16. Visioning an agroforestry programme supported by climate-policy <ul><li>By 2030, local governments in Niger provide institutional conditions for different actors to realise tree-rich agricultural and agro-pastoral landscapes that improve local livelihoods by: </li></ul><ul><li>(1) Higher productivity by restoration of degraded land; </li></ul><ul><li>(2) Access of women and marginalised groups to fuel, fodder and fruits; </li></ul><ul><li>(3) Households marketing tree products. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Key components of a possible programme
  18. 18. Points… <ul><li>Global climate mitigation framework, CDM </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple farmers’ benefits of agroforestry </li></ul><ul><li>National Legislative Framework & Compliance with NAPA, Rural Development Strategy etc </li></ul><ul><li>Research capacity & involvement </li></ul>… to be discussed today <ul><li>Agroforestry governance arrangement; process </li></ul><ul><li>Programme financing </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring, Reporting and Verification </li></ul><ul><li>Enthusiasm of key stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Planning </li></ul>
  19. 19. How to create a pro-poor climate programme in Niger? <ul><li>Creating a narrative: </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on semi-arid regions with mixed pastoralism & agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>A global “hot theme” such as CC mitigation needs local translation to mobilise local enthusiasm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>=>How to align global CC concern and local concerns – for locally driven action? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptation / resilience and new economic incentives can mobilise enthusiasm – and synergy with mitigation is possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agroforestry sits well in this narrative </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Future multi-actor, multi-layer arrangements for agroforestry Global level: - Carbon market; model development / research; access for agroforestry -Kick-start funding; access to global market, National level: multi-actor co-ordination for: -rural strategy, climate strategy etc; Agroforestry policy (incl. tree tenure) -Local-level capacity building, research -Regional level MRV, sanctioning CERs, managing credit flows Regional level: multi-actor coordination for: -Land Use / agroforestry Planning -realisation of tenure rights -Farmers’ organisation -capacity building; market development -local MRV Communities, Individual, pastoralists, agriculturists Goal: Land restoration for productivity / livelihood Local Government, chefferie, NGO, Farmers’ Organisation, business Local level: -Diverse Agroforestry Implementation -utilisation & marketing of tree products Line Ministry, CNEDD, POs, INGOs, IFAD, research, etc. UNFCCC, carbon market, research, donors, INGO
  21. 21. Agroforestry Land Use Planning: Prefecture X; Yr 1
  22. 22. Agroforestry Land Use Planning: Prefecture X; Yr 2
  23. 23. Agroforestry Land Use Planning: Prefecture X; Yr 4
  24. 24. Agroforestry Land Use Planning: Prefecture X; Yr 6
  25. 25. Agroforestry Land Use Planning: Prefecture X; Yr 10
  26. 26. Agroforestry Land Use Planning: Prefecture X; Yr 15
  27. 27. Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) Systems – in Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) <ul><li>CDM originates in the industry and energy sectors </li></ul><ul><li>MRV by comparing “baseline” and “project” scenarios </li></ul><ul><li>MRV procedures for agricultural GHG so far mainly for industrial agriculture, plantations, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural MRV is developing – e.g., GHG Protocol Initiative </li></ul><ul><li>An area-based approach with a variety of land uses – as in small-scale farming situations - needs to be developed – who takes the initiative? </li></ul><ul><li>Crediting can only take place under strict circumstances: additionality, no leakage, long-term sequestration, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Social standards are being developed – again mainly for industrial sequestration – e.g., </li></ul>
  28. 28. Possible programme outline (1) Preparatory phase (End) Sustain the new level of productivity and phase out carbon credit funding Financing by donor investments in adaptation & mitigation opportunities Financing by carbon credits & development funding Financing by local taxation Local Agro-forestry Planning Agroforestry Plan -Implementation Measure CO2 sequestered & claim credit Document, reflect, learn (2) Implementation phase (3) Programme phasing out
  29. 29. The foreseen financial base of the programme <ul><li>Initial phase: development investment in a governance arrangement </li></ul><ul><li>Scaling-in phase: carbon credits will pay for the agroforestry programme </li></ul><ul><li>Trees will start producing and marketing of tree products (and cash crops) will become the economic base of the system </li></ul>
  30. 30. Local Capacity for agroforestry-related planning <ul><li>Insofar I know, prefecture or region-wise land use planning is not practiced in Niger – but I might be wrong </li></ul><ul><li>Yet I came across a variety of “building blocks”: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Community-based groups – also with Agro-Forestry activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agreements between agriculturists and pastoralists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmers’ Organisations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chefferie Traditionnel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local Government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commissions Fonciers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The proposed process foresees Agroforestry Land Use Planning per local government unit </li></ul>
  31. 31. Mamadou Hassane, Executive Secretary of MOORIBEN - a 60,000 member farmers’ organisation: “we need the Government to take the lead to change our agricultural system” Entusiasm of key stakeholders...?
  32. 32. In some areas in Niger the vision is reality. Prof. Adam Toudou, CRESA, Niamey: “3-5 million ha of semi-arid lands in Niger are now under “agro-park” coverage”
  33. 33. Two people at one table think up an outline for a national agroforestry programme
  34. 34. How to start? – begin with a preparatory Phase (6-12 months) – and seek donors <ul><li>Ensure national political support / CNEDD, Ministries, Oxfam-Niger, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Form a preliminary national co-ordination unit </li></ul><ul><li>Document (formal, informal) legal framework for tree tenure, agroforestry planning, opportunity to involve women, marginalised groups etc </li></ul><ul><li>Select 2-3 pilot areas and form local co-ordination units </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure local political support </li></ul><ul><li>Develop link with carbon market (involve researchers and credit buyers) </li></ul><ul><li>Develop link with possible timber / pulp markets </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare project documents “Agroforestry strategic planning in region XXX” and submit to donors </li></ul><ul><li>Financing by a donor ready to invest in climate-smart farming / food security / agricultural system development </li></ul>