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Ise 2011 Insight Into Digital System Design

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Focus on design and best practice for the digital infrastructure

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Ise 2011 Insight Into Digital System Design

  1. 1. Insight into Digital System DesignFrank SheehanTechnology Director – Visual Acuity LimitedIntegrated Systems Europe 20113rd February 2011 Copyright© by 2010 InfoComm International®
  2. 2. InfoComm Academy Learning Environment Statement (This slide required)► InfoComm Academy courses are non-biased, non- educational events and do not promote any particular company or proprietary product over another. They are meant to be purely educational in nature and should not contain a “sales-pitch.” “sales-► It is totally inappropriate to make negative comments about or disparage other presenters, companies, or competitor’s products in the industry at any InfoComm International- International- sponsored training event. Copyright© by 2010 InfoComm International® 2
  3. 3. InfoComm Academy Learning Environment Statement cont. (This slide required)► InfoComm International intends to provide a learning and certification environment free from intimidation, hostility, harassment or other actions which might interfere with student learning. – Harassment can take many forms. It may be, but is not limited to: signs, jokes, pranks, intimidation, physical contact, or violence. Offensive harassment can be based on age, sex, race, religion, disability, etc. Facilitators, instructors, presenters and certification testers of InfoComm International courses, workshops, and seminars are required to be sensitive to fostering a positive learning and certification environment. Any disparaging remarks made to an individual or group should be tactfully discouraged.► Alert an InfoComm International staff member immediately to any potentially offensive remark or behavior that occurs during an InfoComm International-sponsored training event. International- Copyright© by 2010 InfoComm International® 3
  4. 4. Insight into Digital System Design► Objectives – An understanding of digital video and its distribution with other digital signals – Digital infrastructure requirements – Design principles and best practice Copyright© by 2010 InfoComm International® 4
  5. 5. Past and PresentThe Analogue past Today and Digital future Copyright© by 2010 InfoComm International® 5
  6. 6. Past - AV in Analogue Format► Video – VGA [Video Graphics Array] – Composite – SDTV [Standard Definition Television]► Audio – RCA / Phono – Large balanced or unbalanced Jack – XLR appearing later Copyright© by 2010 InfoComm International® 6
  7. 7. Present - AV in Digital Format► Video – CGI [Computer Graphic Imagery] – Digital Graphics – Media Playback Server – MPEG, TGA, DCI etc – HDTV [High Definition Television] - 720p & 1080p► Audio – ADAT [Alesis Digital Audio Tape] [Alesis – SPDIF [Sony Philips Digital Interconnect Format] - coaxial & optical – MP3, MPEG, AVI, AWI, FLAC etc Copyright© by 2010 InfoComm International® 7
  8. 8. Digital signals merging IT & AV► Video – IPTV [Internet Protocol Television] Streaming/VoD Streaming/VoD – MPEG2/4, M-JPEG, H264 M- Digital signage – Conferencing & Telepresense► Audio – Conferencing/VoIP Image courtesy of Cisco – MADI – Network CobraNet®, Ethersound, CobraNet®, Ethersound, Dante™ Copyright© by 2010 InfoComm International® 8
  9. 9. Digital signals merging IT & AV (Cont)► Control – TCP [Transmission Control Protocol] – Building Automation - BMS [Building Management Systems]► Data – USB – 1.1, 2.0 and now 3.0 – Firewire [IEEE 1394] – A, B, S1600 & S3200 – Fibre Channel Copyright© by 2010 InfoComm International® 9
  10. 10. Digital signals merging IT & AV (Cont)► HID [Human Interface Devices] – KVM [keyboard Video Mouse] – Interactive Whiteboards – Multi- Multi-touch screens/tables Image courtesy of GestureTek – Gesture Systems – Tracking systems – Bio Metrics – RFID [Radio Frequency Identification] – List goes on and on Image courtesy of Intersense Copyright© by 2010 InfoComm International® 10
  11. 11. Digital AV Storage & Delivery► As well as tape, digital AV can be stored on hard drives, or memory sticks, Flash memory and optical storage► More channels of digital AV can be transmitted via satellite, cable, and off-air broadcasts off-► It can be streamed on the Internet or over fast digital networks (Incl DSL) (Incl Copyright© by 2010 InfoComm International® 11
  12. 12. Sight and Sound► Light rays and sound waves which humans see and hear are Analogue, so why Digital AV? Copyright© by 2010 InfoComm International® 12
  13. 13. Digital Basics – Why digital?► Video format is always Component – sync, colour difference signals separate► Video Composite artefacts are eliminated► Higher video resolutions are more possible► Advantage in signal distribution and replication – Distribution of multi channel audio easier – No noise or analogue artefacts – Can be compressed and moved around easily Copyright© by 2010 InfoComm International® 13
  14. 14. Digital Video BasicsConverting Analogue imagery to Digital Video ► Analogue (light rays) signals are captured by camera sensors (CCDs) ► Signal level is sampled and quantized ► Luminance is sampled at full bandwidth ► Chrominance is sampled at half bandwidth ► Digital signal can then be compressed (encoded) Copyright© by 2010 InfoComm International® 14
  15. 15. Digital Video Basics Sampling/Quantizing Video Greyscale This example demonstrates the use of low bit sampling which results in artificial boundaries between luminance steps Copyright© by 2010 InfoComm International® 15
  16. 16. Digital Video Streams Parallel and Serial Formats Copyright© by 2010 InfoComm International® 16
  17. 17. Digital Video Streams Example of Parallel Copyright© by 2010 InfoComm International® 17
  18. 18. Digital Video Streams Parallel and Serial Formats► Parallel formats offer faster data speeds over more wires► Serial formats are easier to implement and less costly – SDI and HD-SDI are serial interfaces HD- – USB is another serial data format – So is FireWire (IEEE-1394) (IEEE-► Serial can work over coax, Cat 5/5e, RF, fibre optics Copyright© by 2010 InfoComm International® 18
  19. 19. Digital Video BasicsConverting Digital Video to Analogue Video► Digital-to-Analogue converter (DAC) used Digital-to- – Quantized steps of video create changes in signal level voltage – Varying voltage levels create changes in luminous intensity – Higher bit depth in sampling results in cleaner analogue video waveform Copyright© by 2010 InfoComm International® 19
  20. 20. Digital Video BasicsConverting Digital Video to Analogue Video Copyright© by 2010 InfoComm International® 20
  21. 21. The Digital Pipeline► Signal transmission and distribution Copyright© by 2010 InfoComm International® 21
  22. 22. The Digital Pipeline Signal Transmission► Uncompressed – 525 NTSC, 625 PAL, 720P HDTV, 1080i &1080p HDTV etc► Compressed – MPEG, M-JPEG, MP3 etc M-► Point to Point [P2P] – DVI-D, HDMI, SDI, Display Port, SPDIF, ADAT, MADI etc DVI- Copyright© by 2010 InfoComm International® 22
  23. 23. Uncompressed► 345,600 pixels in a 720x480 DTV frame 345,600 pixels = 345,600 bytes of data – 345,600 (x) 3 colours = 1,036,800 bytes – 1 byte = 8 bits of data► With 30 Hz frame rate, a data rate of 250 Mb/s would be needed without compression to show digital video Copyright© by 2010 InfoComm International® 23
  24. 24. Compressed► Why? – Bandwidth is typically fixed and expensive► Lossless compression systems can be used to pack down signal for distribution► Different standards are used – Motion Picture Experts Group (MPEG) – Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) Copyright© by 2010 InfoComm International® 24
  25. 25. Compressed – Digital Video Codec MPEG► MPEG is most common codec in worldwide use► Variations: MPEG-1 (low resolution, CD-I) MPEG- CD- – MPEG- MPEG-2 (broadcast, DVD, satellite, cable) – MPEG- MPEG-4 (satellite, cable, Blu-Ray, HD DVD) Blu- – Others (MPEG-7, etc) (MPEG- – H264 Copyright© by 2010 InfoComm International® 25
  26. 26. Compressed – Digital Video Codec Motion JPEG Format► Motion JPEG (M-JPEG) (M- – Not a separate standard, but a series of JPEG-encoded JPEG- still frames – Fast sequencing provides full motion – Greater sampling - Uses two bits/pixel sampling for quality Not appropriate for digital video systems that require high compression ratios Copyright© by 2010 InfoComm International® 26
  27. 27. Compressed – Audio MPEG Audio► Audio can also be encoded as MPEG► MP3 is popular format for Internet► MPEG-2 audio is professional MPEG- standard► Surround audio formats are now Apple iPod Touch common Copyright© by 2010 InfoComm International® 27
  28. 28. Point-to-Point-to-Point [P2P]► DVI-D DVI-► HDMI► Display Port► SDI / HD-SDI HD-► SPDIF [coaxial & fibre]► ADAT► MADI [coaxial & fibre] Copyright© by 2010 InfoComm International® 28
  29. 29. P2P – Parallel/Serial► Parallel technologies – DVI – HDMI – Display Port► Serial Technologies – SDI/HD-SDI/3G SDI/HD- – SPDIF – MADI Copyright© by 2010 InfoComm International® 29
  30. 30. The Digital Pipeline Signal Transmission► Advantages ► Disadvantages – Supports multiple formats – Distance limitations At the same time – Potentially high – Secure through bandwidth encryption – Sensitivity – Can be – Increased performance fussy! Copyright© by 2010 InfoComm International® 30
  31. 31. The Digital Pipeline Signal Distribution► How do we do this? – Compressed/Uncompressed Network – P2P Copper extension Fibre extension► Conclusion is compressed/uncompressed can be P2P, likewise P2P can be distributed by the Network! Copyright© by 2010 InfoComm International® 31
  32. 32. Network Signal Distribution► MPEG streaming - IPTV► Web based content, DooH [Digital out of Home], for example the latest HTML5, Adobe Flash► CobraNet®, Ethersound, Dante™ etc CobraNet®, Ethersound,► P2P – Twisted Pair signal extension► New kids on the block! – HDBaseT – IEEE802.1 BA Copyright© by 2010 InfoComm International® 32
  33. 33. HDBaseT Signal Distribution► Aimed towards the Home network market Copyright© by 2010 InfoComm International® 33
  34. 34. IEEE802.1 BA Signal Distribution► Also known as AVB – Audio Video Bridging developed by the IEEE802.1 AVB task group now known as the Avnu Alliance – Improved QoS by prioritizing AV signals through network switch gear – Synchronised – Current adopters are principally Audio manufacturers – Limited to 7 Hops across a network Copyright© by 2010 InfoComm International® 34
  35. 35. Multicasting► What is Multicasting? – Combining two or more MPEG programs in a transport stream is known as a ‘multicast’ Only limitation is the bit rate (maximum bandwidth) More programs = more compression = lower quality HD programs often suffer at expense of SD programs – Multicasting concept works across any network or transmission system –MPEG is universal Only the modulation system changes (VSB, QPSK, QAM, OFDM) Or…the transport protocol changes (IPTV, ATM) Copyright© by 2010 InfoComm International® 35
  36. 36. Multicasting - Cont► Drawbacks to Multicasting – Bitrate compression allows more programs – But higher bitrate compression increases artefacts – Encoding artefacts are easier to see on larger monitor and projection screens Viewing distance is a factor Static vs. motion content is another factor Copyright© by 2010 InfoComm International® 36
  37. 37. P2P Signal Distribution► Copper Cable – Standard cabling, Video, Audio, Data i.e. USB or Firewire Distance limited, dependant upon interconnect but typically 5m due to bandwidth Susceptible to electromagnetic interference – Twisted Pair [TP], either UTP [unscreened] or STP [screened]. Historically used for computer networks Greater distance than standard for AV, USB & Firewire, but still bandwidth restricted Skew Susceptible to electromagnetic interference Copyright© by 2010 InfoComm International® 37
  38. 38. P2P Signal Distribution► Fibre Optics – Multi Mode & Single Mode – Historically expensive to implement, this differentiation from copper has since changed and now not so – Unlike copper distance/bandwidth not such an issue – Not susceptible to electromagnetic interference – Secure – However, typically requires specialist installation skills – Careful handling, such as cleanliness – dust and dirt – Not as Flexible as copper, i.e. Bend radius Copyright© by 2010 InfoComm International® 38
  39. 39. Copper Distribution Network P2P RJ45 STRAIGHT DVI cable CROSSOVER RG6 or 11 CAT5/5e/6 Copyright© by 2010 InfoComm International® 39
  40. 40. Copper Distribution► Twisted Pair extension This product supports both copper and fibre Copyright© by 2010 InfoComm International® 40
  41. 41. Fibre Distribution► Simplex – Single Jacketed Cable► Duplex or Zip Cord – Dual individual jacketed Cables► Distribution – Small in size – Requires termination within Patch Panel► Breakout – Less labour intensive for termination Copyright© by 2010 InfoComm International® 41
  42. 42. Fibre Distribution► Most common fibre termination – LC: Lucent or Local Connector – SC: Subscriber or Standard Connector – ST: Straight Tip Simplex & Duplex Copyright© by 2010 InfoComm International® 42
  43. 43. Fibre Distribution► Extenders Copyright© by 2010 InfoComm International® 43
  44. 44. Signal Switching► Unlike P2P, Network based switching and distribution for IP based traffic such as video streams has principally become software based whether on copper or fibre, thus not requiring expensive hardware or complex hardware based systems – However with P2P with AV extension over network, hardware matrix switching typically used Copyright© by 2010 InfoComm International® 44
  45. 45. Signal Switching► P2P switching is hardware based. Copper Twisted Pair Copper HDMI Fibre Switch Copyright© by 2010 InfoComm International® 45
  46. 46. System Design► Map client’s requirements, what trying to achieve, to assess expectations, this leads to the “P” – Purpose: What is the system to achieve? – People: The end user, technical, non-technical etc? non- – Performance: Clients expectations? – Price: Clients Budget?► From this system design assumptions can me made Copyright© by 2010 InfoComm International® 46
  47. 47. System Design► Conceptual system design.► Digital System design considerations and requirements. – Source technology: i.e. Media server, Blu-Ray DVD etc Blu- – Destination technology: Projector, Flat Panel, Surround Sound System, Telepresense or Interactive Immersive environment etc – Digital Signal Distribution Choices – Digital Signal Distribution Technical Design Considerations Copyright© by 2010 InfoComm International® 47
  48. 48. System Design – Signal Distribution Choices► Choices we have identified – Network via IP, streaming, either compressed or uncompressed – P2P, and most of the various types – Or a Hybrid i.e. Both, mixture of IP & P2P Copyright© by 2010 InfoComm International® 48
  49. 49. System Design – Signal Distribution, TechnicalConsiderations► Digital Signal variants being distributed – Video – Audio – Data – USB, Firewire etc – Control – IP, RS232, DMX etc► Distances between signal source and destination► Bandwidth requirements► Architectural impact Copyright© by 2010 InfoComm International® 49
  50. 50. Where does this all lead? SYSTEM INFRASTRUCTURE Copyright© by 2010 InfoComm International® 50
  51. 51. System Infrastructure – The Backbone► The design of systems infrastructure, majorly important. No 1. Why? – Needs to provide flexibility Scalable Reasonably future proof, as technically possible – Minimal bandwidth limitation – Cost effective, specifically ROI [Return on Investment] – Effective architectural impact – Environmental considerations – Security? Copyright© by 2010 InfoComm International® 51
  52. 52. System Infrastructure► The “Backbone” technology identified – Copper – Fibre► What about Wireless? – Environmental friendly – Principally not labour intensive i.e. No cabling to pull! – However: Not secure Bandwidth limited Distance limited Copyright© by 2010 InfoComm International® 52
  53. 53. Systems Infrastructure (Backbone)► Copper versus Fibre? – What we must consider in a comparison of these two solutions: Bandwidth performance required? What are the distances? Points of failure in the infrastructure and the reliability Downtime in a case of failure costs? Mission critical importance Maintenance costs Installation costs – Material costs: cables, patch panels etc – Space costs: Containment and pathways Copyright© by 2010 InfoComm International® 53
  54. 54. Copper V Fibre – Distance/Performance► Single mode fibre can offer over 1,000 times as much bandwidth over distances over 100 times further than copper Voice Type Distance Bandwidth Channels Copper 2,5km 1,5Mb/s 24 Fiber 200km 2,5+Gb/s 32000+ Example based on a voice system Copyright© by 2010 InfoComm International® 54
  55. 55. Copper V Fibre – Installation Comparison► Typically assumed Fibre more difficult however: – Coaxial based cables much thicker and heavier making difficult to cable form and manage – Twisted pair [TP] cabling easily be improperly installed due to physical characteristics of the cable. Untwist the wires too much at a connection or remove too much jacket and the cable may fail crosstalk testing. – Pull TP cabling too hard (technically only ~5kg tension allowed!) or kink it will create loss in the performance► Fibre on the other hand: – Much lighter and easier to form and manage, care required though to manage bend radius – Thus, pulling the fibre is easy - in fact it can be pulled at 8 times the pulling tension of TP- easier still with “Blown” fibre TP- Copyright© by 2010 InfoComm International® 55
  56. 56. Copper V Fibre – Cost Comparison► Typically assumed Fibre more expensive: – Fiber provides lower loss and subsequently longer runs at much greater reliability (This can translates into cost savings overall) – Fiber prices continue to fall while copper prices (and the more sophisticated hardware needed to support high bandwidth transmission) rise – Comparing TP and Multi-mode fibre - both are about the same price Multi- by the time you consider everything (including fibre testers at ~€995 ~€ and copper testers at €4,000-6,000 and going up for Cat 6, 7 etc.) 4,000- – Lower architectural impact costs, particularly when using blown fibre – Head end hardware is more expensive Copyright© by 2010 InfoComm International® 56
  57. 57. Copper V Fibre – General Considerations► Historically fibre was the costly cousin for signal distribution. This is now not the case► Historically fibre was difficult to install for signal distribution. This is now not the case► The overall system performance needs to be the driving factor not always just the cost. Think long term!► Don’t use technology for technology sake Copyright© by 2010 InfoComm International® 57
  58. 58. Potential Pitfalls or Got’chas► EDID - Extended Display Identification Data EDID is 256 bytes of data that a display sends to a source to identify all its capabilities, principally its native resolution. Important the system distributes EDID information from the display to the source. If you can’t because of system design, employ an EDID capture and emulation device to ensure the source sees the correct EDID for the display being used. Don’t incorporate any device in your signal path that does not allow EDID to pass unless you have accounted for it with an EDID capture and emulation solution in the system design and installation Copyright© by 2010 InfoComm International® 58
  59. 59. Potential Pitfalls or Got’chas► HDCP - High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection High- Check HDCP compatibility of any DVI devices being integrated into the system. The HDMI standard calls for HDCP implementation, DVI does not, so know if you DVI devices are HDCP capable or not Once a signal has HDCP, it must always have HDCP. If you are incorporating HDCP sources, you cannot convert the signals or use a device that blocks the HDCP information along the way. Any distribution amplifiers, switchers or other products you need to incorporate to meet the signal routing requirements must pass the HDCP if HDCP is to be used Copyright© by 2010 InfoComm International® 59
  60. 60. The Future► Leading PC Companies phasing out analogue. AMD, Dell, Intel Corporation, Lenovo, Samsung Electronics LCD Business and LG Display announced intentions to accelerate adoption of scalable and lower power digital interfaces such as DisplayPort 1.2 and High-Definition Multimedia Interface® High- (HDMI) 1.4a Intel and AMD expect that analogue display outputs such as Video Graphics Array (VGA) and the low voltage differential signalling technology (LVDS) panel interface would no longer be supported in their product lines by 2015. Intel plans to end support of LVDS in 2013 and VGA in 2015 in its PC client processors and chipsets. DVI- DVI-I support eliminated in the same time frame Copyright© by 2010 InfoComm International® 60
  61. 61. Credits► Thanks go out to the following for permissions of image use and information kindly donated by the following: – Andrew Smith CTS – Kramer www.kramerelectronics.co.uk – Paul Bauer – Think Logical www.thinklogical.com – Rob Muddiman – Magenta www.magenta-research.com www.magenta- – Peter Putman CTS, KT2B www.hdtvexpert.com – Cisco Systems www.cisco.com – GestureTek www.gesturetek.com – Intersense www.intersense.com/ Copyright© by 2010 InfoComm International® 61
  62. 62. Contact details Frank Sheehan Director of Technology – Visual Acuity Limited frank@visual- frank@visual-acuity.com Cell: +44(0)7900 904928 DD: +44(0)1273 307947 Skype: franksheehan www.visual- www.visual-acuity.com Copyright© by 2010 InfoComm International® 62
  63. 63. Insight into Digital System Design Thank you for your attention Any Questions? Copyright© by 2010 InfoComm International® 63

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