Diabetes

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Diabetes

  1. 1. Diabetes U.S.-Mexico Border Diabetes Project Pan American Health Organization U.S. Mexico Border Field Office (915) 845-5950 decosio@fep.paho.org/ruizrosa@fep.paho.org
  2. 2. Diabetes definition <ul><li>Metabolic disorder of multiple etiology (causes) characterized by hyperglycemia with carbohydrates, fat, and protein metabolic alterations that result in defects in the secretion of insulin, its action or both. </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is diabetes? <ul><li>The majority of intake of food is converted into glucose. </li></ul><ul><li>The pancreas produces the insulin hormone, which help the organism to take advantage of glucose. </li></ul><ul><li>In persons with diabetes, the insulin does not work. Therefore, the sugar and the fat increase in the blood. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Symptoms of diabetes <ul><li>Polyuria (urinating frequently) </li></ul><ul><li>Polydipsia (very thirsty) </li></ul><ul><li>Weight loss </li></ul>
  5. 5. Other diabetes symptoms <ul><li>Continuos hunger </li></ul><ul><li>Fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Dry skin </li></ul><ul><li>Frequent infections </li></ul><ul><li>Feet ulceration </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of sensibility in inferior extremities (legs) </li></ul><ul><li>Erectile dysfunction </li></ul>
  6. 6. Types of diabetes <ul><li>Type 1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No production of insulin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiates in childhood or adolescence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Type 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deficient production or improper utilization of insulin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally initiates after 30 years of age </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Risk factors
  8. 8. Risk factors <ul><li>Family history of diabetes </li></ul><ul><li>Older than 30 years of age </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of physical activity </li></ul><ul><li>Sedentarism ( person with little or no physical activity) </li></ul><ul><li>Poor diet </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive weight </li></ul>
  9. 9. Risk factors <ul><li>Lack of knowledge on the disease </li></ul><ul><li>No health care access </li></ul><ul><li>Consumption of alcohol and drugs </li></ul><ul><li>Smoking </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural myths </li></ul>
  10. 10. Diabetes complications <ul><li>Retinopathy (blindness?) </li></ul><ul><li>Nephropathy (kidney problems) </li></ul><ul><li>Feet ulceration and/or amputations </li></ul><ul><li>Hypertension </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperlipidemia (cholesterol?) </li></ul><ul><li>Erectile Dysfunction </li></ul><ul><li>Gestational diabetes (during pregnancy) </li></ul><ul><li>Diabetes and HIV </li></ul>
  11. 11. Diabetes complications
  12. 12. Diagnosis <ul><li>Symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(suggest possible diabetes) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High glucose in blood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(confirm if higher than 126 mg/dl) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Glucose in hemoglobin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(indicates quality of diabetes control - higher than 7 mmol) </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Treatment and control <ul><li>Medications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(insulin vs. hypoglycaemic agents) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increase physical activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>at least walk for 30 min. most days </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Appropriate diet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>vegetables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fruit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>low in fat and carbohydrates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lifestyle changes </li></ul>
  14. 14. Prevention and/or delay of diabetes complications <ul><li>Well balanced diet </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Medications when appropriate </li></ul><ul><li>Timely access to health care services </li></ul><ul><li>No tobacco </li></ul><ul><li>No alcohol </li></ul>
  15. 15. Tips for healty cooking <ul><li>Cook or boil meat insted of frying </li></ul><ul><li>Take the skin of chicken before cooking </li></ul><ul><li>Use less salt and sugar when preparing food </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid fat </li></ul>
  16. 16. Tips for healty cooking <ul><li>Use fresh or frozen fruit and vegetables when eating or in between meals </li></ul><ul><li>Use low fat chesse instead of regular chesse </li></ul><ul><li>Use low fat milk </li></ul><ul><li>Drink fruit juice instead of powder juice </li></ul>
  17. 17. Nutritional Pyrimid CDC Webpage
  18. 18. Physical Activity <ul><li>To control diabetes the recommendation is to increase physical activity, preferably every day for 20 minutes . </li></ul>
  19. 19. Physical Activity <ul><li>Benefits: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lowers glucose levels in blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improves blood circulation in the entire body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contributes to weight loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improves physical and mental wellbeing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps the body to utilize insulin more efficiently </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Physical Activity <ul><li>Consult your doctor before you start a physical activity program </li></ul><ul><li>Start you program slowly and increase activity level gradually </li></ul><ul><li>You can choose the physical activity that that you like to do </li></ul>

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