Refresher research methods 2011 (CAW Bal)

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Refresher research methods 2011 (CAW Bal)

  1. 1. Research  Refresher   to  graduate  successfully     September  6,    2011   C.A.W.  Bal  HZ  University  of  Applied  Sciences   Vlissingen,  The  Netherlands  
  2. 2. There  are  many  books  on  research   Luckily,  they  all  tell  the  same  story.          C.A.W.  Bal,  Hogeschool  Zeeland   7-­‐9-­‐2011  
  3. 3. Become  a  competent  researcher  !                                                      Research  competency:   Phase  1:  Planning  and  preparing  your  research          product:  research  proposal  (background  +  theory)   Phase  2:  Executing  your  research          product:  work  on  site  (practical  component)   Phase  3:  Finalising  the  research          product:  report  (shared  knowledge)    attitude          product:  success        C.A.W.  Bal,  Hogeschool  Zeeland   7-­‐9-­‐2011  
  4. 4. What  is  research?  Finding  answers  to                                                                          questions   (complex/scientific)  In  a  structured  manner:     Sharing/   Question/   hypothesis     using     Answer   Orientation   Research  phases:     Two-­‐way   Cycle     Analysis   Approach/   Strategy     Gathering   data      C.A.W.  Bal,  Hogeschool  Zeeland   7-­‐9-­‐2011  
  5. 5. What  is  research?  Finding  answers  to                                                                          questions   (complex/scientific)  In  a  structured  manner:    Report Sharing/   Question/   hypothesis     using     Answer   Orientation   Research  phases:     Two-­‐way   Cycle     Analysis   Approach/   Strategy     Gathering   data   Practical component Research Proposal    C.A.W.  Bal,  Hogeschool  Zeeland   7-­‐9-­‐2011  
  6. 6. Phase  1:  Planning  and  preparation   1.1  Sketch  of  problem,  research  question(s),  goal     1.2  Literature  and  expert  review     1.3  Research  design  (using                            )   Bricks             1.4  Research  proposal      C.A.W.  Bal,  Hogeschool  Zeeland   7-­‐9-­‐2011  
  7. 7. Brick   1.1    Research  Question   Ends  with     Not  too  simple,  not  too  complex   Sum  of  subquestions  answer  the  main  question     Define  the  scope  and  the  concepts   Link  to  theory  and  professional  practice     SMART   Specific    Measurable    Attainable    Relevant    Timed        C.A.W.  Bal,  Hogeschool  Zeeland   7-­‐9-­‐2011  
  8. 8. Brick   1.1  Research  Question   Is  this  question  OK?:     can  firm  A  improve  business  results     How  about  this  one?:     What  are  firm   legal,  technical  and  marketing   requirements  for  successful  introduction  of  product  Y          C.A.W.  Bal,  Hogeschool  Zeeland   7-­‐9-­‐2011  
  9. 9. Brick   1.2  Literature  review   Search  strategy  (diversity  of  sources,  keep  a  log)   Search  terms  (synonyms,  language,  combinations,  theory   Use  databases  (e.g.  from  the  Mediatheek)   Check  references  for  further  leads     Mind  the  quality  (recent,  trustworthy)   Be  critical  (arguments  in  favor,  arguments  against)   Write  summaries,  and  integrate  findings  in  a  chapter          Revise  research  question  if  needed      C.A.W.  Bal,  Hogeschool  Zeeland   7-­‐9-­‐2011  
  10. 10. 1.3  Research  design   Research  strategy   Sample  choice  (size,  representative)   Operationalisation   satisfaction   Measurement  instrument   Data  analysis  method                    It  is  the  key  to  finding  a  proper  answer      C.A.W.  Bal,  Hogeschool  Zeeland   7-­‐9-­‐2011  
  11. 11. 1.3  Research  design   Sharing/   Publication   using   Answer/   Answer   discussion   Quantitative   Qualitative   Analysis   analysis   analysis  Gathering   Question-­‐ Secundary   Observation   Interview   data   naire   data  Approach/   Grounded   Action   Experiment   Survey   Case  study   Strategy   theory   Research  Question  +   Literature   Question  orientation   review      C.A.W.  Bal,  Hogeschool  Zeeland   7-­‐9-­‐2011  
  12. 12. Brick   Experiment   Sharing/   Publication   using   Answer/   Answer   discussion   Quantitative   Qualitative   Analysis   analysis   analysis  Gathering   Question-­‐ Secundary   Observation   Interview   data   naire   data   Grounded   Action  Approach   Experiment   Survey   Case  study   theory   Research  Question  +   Literature   Question  orientation   review      C.A.W.  Bal,  Hogeschool  Zeeland   7-­‐9-­‐2011  
  13. 13. Brick   Experiment   Sharing/   Publication   using   Answer/   Answer   discussion   Quantitative   Qualitative   Analysis   analysis   analysis  Gathering   Question-­‐ Secundary   Observation   Interview   data   naire   data   Grounded   Action  Approach   Experiment   Survey   Case  study   theory   Research  Question  +   Literature   Question  orientation   review      C.A.W.  Bal,  Hogeschool  Zeeland   7-­‐9-­‐2011  
  14. 14. Brick   Grounded  theory   Does  this  look  like  an  effective  teaching  method?   Sharing/   using   Could  you  derive  a  theory?   Publication                    Coldren,  J.,  &  Hively,  J.,  (2009).  Interpersonal  Teaching  Style  and     Answer/   Answer   discussion   Student  Impression  Formation.  College  Teaching;  Spring2009,     57  [2],  pp.  93-­‐98   4   Quantitative   Qualitative   Analysis   analysis   analysis  Gathering   Question-­‐ Secundary   Observation   Interview   data   naire   data   Grounded   Action  Approach   Experiment   Survey   Case  study   theory   Research  Question  +   Literature   Question  orientation   review      C.A.W.  Bal,  Hogeschool  Zeeland   7-­‐9-­‐2011  
  15. 15. Brick   Grounded  theory   Sharing/   Publication   using   Answer/   Answer   discussion   Quantitative   Qualitative   Analysis   analysis   analysis  Gathering   Question-­‐ Secundary   Observation   Interview   data   naire   data   Grounded   Action  Approach   Experiment   Survey   Case  study   theory   Research  Question  +   Literature   Question  orientation   review      C.A.W.  Bal,  Hogeschool  Zeeland   7-­‐9-­‐2011  
  16. 16. Brick   Survey   Sharing/   Publication   using   Answer/   Answer   discussion   Quantitative   Qualitative   Analysis   analysis   analysis  Gathering   Question-­‐ Secundary   Observation   Interview   data   naire   data   Grounded   Action  Approach   Experiment   Survey   Case  study   theory   Research  Question  +   Literature   Question  orientation   review      C.A.W.  Bal,  Hogeschool  Zeeland   7-­‐9-­‐2011  
  17. 17. Brick   Survey   Sharing/   Publication   using   Answer/   Answer   discussion   Quantitative   Qualitative   Analysis   analysis   analysis  Gathering   Question-­‐ Secundary   Observation   Interview   data   naire   data   Grounded   Action  Approach   Experiment   Survey   Case  study   theory   Research  Question  +   Literature   Question  orientation   review      C.A.W.  Bal,  Hogeschool  Zeeland   7-­‐9-­‐2011  
  18. 18. Brick   Case  study   Sharing/   Publication   using     Answer/   Answer   discussion   Emerging  Energy  Research,  (2008).  Global  Wind  Turbine     Markets  and  Strategies,  2008 2020  (New  market  study).     Quantitative   Qualitative   Analysis   [On-­‐line,  Hyperlink  to  pdf  ]    (price   3350).   4   analysis   analysis  Gathering   Question-­‐ Secundary   Observation   Interview   data   naire   data   Grounded   Action  Approach   Experiment   Survey   Case  study   theory   Research  Question  +   Literature   Question  orientation   review      C.A.W.  Bal,  Hogeschool  Zeeland   7-­‐9-­‐2011  
  19. 19. Brick   Case  study   Sharing/   Publication   using   Answer/   Answer   discussion   Quantitative   Qualitative   Analysis   analysis   analysis  Gathering   Question-­‐ Secundary   Observation   Interview   data   naire   data   Grounded   Action  Approach   Experiment   Survey   Case  study   theory   Research  Question  +   Literature   Question  orientation   review      C.A.W.  Bal,  Hogeschool  Zeeland   7-­‐9-­‐2011  
  20. 20. Brick   Action  research   Sharing/   Hall,  D.T.,  Otazo,  K.L.,  &  Hollenbeck,  G.P.  (1999).   Publication   Behind  Closed  Doors:  What  Really  Happens  in   using   Executive  Coaching.  Organizational  Dynamics,   27  [3],  pp.  39-­‐54   Answer/   Answer   discussion   Quantitative   Qualitative   Analysis   analysis   analysis  Gathering   Question-­‐ Secundary   Observation   Interview   data   naire   data   Grounded   Action  Approach   Experiment   Survey   Case  study   theory   Research  Question  +   Literature   Question  orientation   review      C.A.W.  Bal,  Hogeschool  Zeeland   7-­‐9-­‐2011  
  21. 21. Brick   Action  research   Sharing/   Publication   using   Answer/   Answer   discussion   Quantitative   Qualitative   Analysis   analysis   analysis  Gathering   Question-­‐ Secundary   Observation   Interview   data   naire   data   Grounded   Action  Approach   Experiment   Survey   Case  study   theory   Research  Question  +   Literature   Question  orientation   review      C.A.W.  Bal,  Hogeschool  Zeeland   7-­‐9-­‐2011  
  22. 22. 1.4  Research  proposal  This  is  the  document  that  convinces    yourself  and  outside  parties  (host  company,  tutors)    that  your  research  is  worthwhile,  well  prepared,    and  organized  in  such  a  way  that  you  will  find  an  answer/result      Now  they  will  invest  in  you!        (NB:  Count  on  needing  four  weeks,  after  approval  and  start  of  the                        graduation  assignment,  for  finalizing  your  research  proposal)        C.A.W.  Bal,  Hogeschool  Zeeland   7-­‐9-­‐2011  
  23. 23. 1.4  Research  proposal  It  consists  of  several  paragraphs  (usually  3  to  5  pages):     Introduction  (sketch  of  the  problem  or  task)   Research  question   Use  a  solid   Theoretical  framework   set  of   Practical  relevance   references!   Research  design  +  instrument   Project  planning  and  scope                                                                    Write  what  you  plan  to  do,  and  why      C.A.W.  Bal,  Hogeschool  Zeeland   7-­‐9-­‐2011  
  24. 24. Project  planning  Do  this  upfront  (in  your  research  proposal)  Arrange  budget  and  access  Timing  usually  runs  out:   Theory/literature   Setting  up  interventions/equipment   Allow     Interviews  (travel,  preparation)   some  slack!   Questionnaire  (participants,  data)  Leave  time  for  analysis        C.A.W.  Bal,  Hogeschool  Zeeland   7-­‐9-­‐2011  
  25. 25. Project  planning  Do  this  upfront  (in  your  research  proposal)  Arrange  budget  and  access  Timing  usually  runs  out:   Theory/literature   Setting  up  interventions/equipment   Allow     Interviews  (travel,  preparation)   some  slack!   Questionnaire  (participants,  data)  Leave  time  for  analysis        C.A.W.  Bal,  Hogeschool  Zeeland   7-­‐9-­‐2011  
  26. 26. Phase  2:  Executing  your  research  2.1  Gathering  the  data    2.2  Processing  the  data  for  interpretation    2.3  Monitor  progress  and  quality      C.A.W.  Bal,  Hogeschool  Zeeland   7-­‐9-­‐2011  
  27. 27. 2.1  Gathering  the  data   Think  about  access  to  your  data   Apply  the  rules  for  proper  research:   Objectivity          Validity                      Ethics                                Reliability  -­‐  Repeatability                                          Transparency              NB:  Violation  disqualifies  research  findings      C.A.W.  Bal,  Hogeschool  Zeeland   7-­‐9-­‐2011  
  28. 28. Increase  our  road  capacity  How  do  you  apply  these  rules:     Objectivity:  Measuring  cars  or  opinions?   Validity:  Can  we  use  existing  simulation  models?   Ethics:  Tell  the  truth  or  the  desired  outcome?   Reliability:  Who  to  trust  on  knowledge?   Repeatability:  Will  we  find  the  same  next  time?   Transparency:  Is  it  100%  clear  what  we  did?      C.A.W.  Bal,  Hogeschool  Zeeland   7-­‐9-­‐2011  
  29. 29. Brick   Observation  Take  notes  Sample  choice  is  important  Be  systematic,  use  a  coding  scheme  You  only  see  what    looking  for  Do  not  interpret,  report  facts      C.A.W.  Bal,  Hogeschool  Zeeland   7-­‐9-­‐2011  
  30. 30. Brick   Questionnaire   Frequently  used   Think  research  through,  and  pilot  test   very     very     bad   good   Do  not  ask:   you     1 2 3 4 never   always     But  ask:               often  do  you     1 2 3 4                                   you  drink  and     1 2 3 4                                         you  indicate  direction   1 2 3 4   Such   Likert  scale higher  reliability  and  validity     Know  the  limitations  of  your  sample  (non-­‐respons)      C.A.W.  Bal,  Hogeschool  Zeeland   7-­‐9-­‐2011  
  31. 31. Brick   Interview  Prepare  (background  of  interviewee,  subject  knowledge,  professional  appearance)  Access  (person,  location,  time)  Topic  list    Timing  Make  a  transcript  Listen  well,  use  follow-­‐up  questions  Summarize  the  answers  (as  a  check)  Ask  for  further  contacts,  ideas,  suggestions        C.A.W.  Bal,  Hogeschool  Zeeland   7-­‐9-­‐2011  
  32. 32. Checking  numbers  and  statistics  Things  you  could  read  somewhere:   One  windmill  is  enough  to  power  300  households   (But  what  size,  for  how  long,  where  on  the  planet,  etc)   5%  population  growth  means  doubling  in  20  years   (well,  not  quite,  how  about  doubling  every  14  years)   70%  of  the  internet  respondents  have  experienced  crime   (who  are  they,  which  crime,  when,  is  this  not  a  bit  high)   In  the  crisis  every  investor  has  lost  50%  of  his/her  wealth   (on  average,  exactly  50%,  investor  in  what,  what  is  wealth)          C.A.W.  Bal,  Hogeschool  Zeeland   7-­‐9-­‐2011  
  33. 33. Checking  numbers  and  statistics  Things  you  could  read  somewhere:   One  windmill  is  enough  to  power  300  households   (But  what  size,  for  how  long,  where  on  the  planet,  etc)   5%  population  growth  means  doubling  in  20  years   (well,  not  quite,  how  about  doubling  every  14  years)   70%  of  the  internet  respondents  have  experienced  crime   (who  are  they,  which  crime,  when,  is  this  not  a  bit  high)   In  the  crisis  every  investor  has  lost  50%  of  his/her  wealth   (on  average,  exactly  50%,  investor  in  what,  what  is  wealth)  These  may  be  calculation  or  (more  likely)  copying  accidents,    but  could  also  deliberately  be  put  there  to  mislead!        C.A.W.  Bal,  Hogeschool  Zeeland   7-­‐9-­‐2011  
  34. 34. 2.2  Processing  the  data   (into  numbers  or  categories)   Indicate  relationships     (between  variables  or  categories)   Show  overview  and  structure  through:   key  numbers,  graphs,  tables,  schemes   (make  them  self-­‐explanatory)   Use  of  Excel                        Clear  and  logical      C.A.W.  Bal,  Hogeschool  Zeeland   7-­‐9-­‐2011  
  35. 35. 2.3  Monitor  progress  and  quality  Stay  on  track  Adhere  to  your  planning  Be  pragmatic,  keep  moving  the  project  ahead      Intervene/change  if  necessary  Things  do  not  always  go  as  you  plan  them!  Keep  a  record  of  changes  and  their  justification      C.A.W.  Bal,  Hogeschool  Zeeland   7-­‐9-­‐2011  
  36. 36. Phase  3:  Finalizing  the  research   3.1  Interpret  your  data     3.2  Report  your  research  (process  and  results)                C.A.W.  Bal,  Hogeschool  Zeeland   7-­‐9-­‐2011  
  37. 37. 3.1  Interpret  your  data   Interpret  in  light  of  your  research  question   Formulate  conclusions  and  recommendations   Compare  with  other  research   Report  new  applications  and  insights   Propose  further  research                 Analytical  thinking,    Logic  and  coherency,   Structured  writing,   Creativity,   Hard  work,   Concentration                  C.A.W.  Bal,  Hogeschool  Zeeland   7-­‐9-­‐2011  
  38. 38. Brick   Quantitative  analysis   The  fun  part:     Reporting  numbers  in  colourful  graphs  and  tables.     Such  descriptive  statistics  are  often  useful          More  advanced:  cross-­‐tables,  correlation  and  regression             The  tricky  part:     What  can  you  conclude  from  your  sampled  data.     Need  inferential  statistics  (confidence  levels,  accuracy)          Get  good  advice  upfront:  course,  book,  or  prof.                Software  is  great,  if  you  understand  what  it  does          C.A.W.  Bal,  Hogeschool  Zeeland   7-­‐9-­‐2011    
  39. 39. Brick   Qualitative  analysis   Coding  and  structuring  (search  for  relationships  between   concepts,  explain  categories  in  words,  link  to  theory)   Present  text  fragments  (quotes)     Use  schematical  representations  (diagram  or  table)   Use  word  processor  (or  qualitative  analysis  software  such  as   Kwalitan,  Kodani)            Motivate  your  choices,  apply  strict  logic,  demonstrate            the  arguments  that  lead  to  your  conclusions      C.A.W.  Bal,  Hogeschool  Zeeland   7-­‐9-­‐2011  
  40. 40.  attitude  Before  moving  to  writing  your  report,  first  a  few  words  about  the  fourth  part  of  the  research  competency:                                      your  attitude  as  a  researcher    Adapt  behavior  to  research  norms,  professional  ethics,  and  professional  responsability   Neutrality,     Preciseness   Critical  mindset,     High  standards,     Curiosity,     Perseverance,   Respect      C.A.W.  Bal,  Hogeschool  Zeeland   7-­‐9-­‐2011  
  41. 41. Neutrality?      C.A.W.  Bal,  Hogeschool  Zeeland   7-­‐9-­‐2011  
  42. 42. High  standards  and  critical  mindset   Do  not  believe,  until  convinced   One  source  is  not  enough   Do  not  use,  unless  understand   Check,  check  and  double  check   Always  consider  alternatives   Try  to  prove  yourself  wrong                            responsible  !          C.A.W.  Bal,  Hogeschool  Zeeland   7-­‐9-­‐2011  
  43. 43. Creativity  and  hard  work     Creativity  is  a  source  of  ideas  and  solutions,  but  takes   an  investment  to  reap  the  benefits      C.A.W.  Bal,  Hogeschool  Zeeland   7-­‐9-­‐2011  
  44. 44. Brick   3.2  Report  your  research  Start  from  day  one    Make  and  discuss  TOC  (Table  Of  Contents)  early  Structure:  Introduction/background,  Method,  Results,  Discussion/conclusions/implications  Answer  the  research  question!  Clear  and  logical,  Argued  choices  References  Research  should  be  reproducible  based  on  report  Target  audience,  use  of  appropriate  language        C.A.W.  Bal,  Hogeschool  Zeeland   7-­‐9-­‐2011  
  45. 45. Brick   3.2  Report  your  research  Only  as  good  as  your  score  on  attitudes  and  skills:  .  Neutrality      Take  some  distance  every  now  and  then  Preciseness      Only  write  what  is  needed  (no  frills,  appendix)    Critical  mindset      If  something  appears  simple,  check  for  errors  High  standards      Be  extremely  strict  on  yourself  in  every  phase  Curiosity      Your  thesis  is  a  consequence,  not  a  goal  Perseverance      When  fed  up,  do  not  give  up  Analytical  thinking      Is  every  claim  justified                                          Continued      C.A.W.  Bal,  Hogeschool  Zeeland   7-­‐9-­‐2011  
  46. 46. Brick   3.2  Report  your  research  Logic  and  coherency      The  thesis  should  be  fully  self-­‐explanatory  Structured  writing      Lay-­‐out  matters  (references,  APA?)  Creativity      Give  new  ideas  follow  up  Hard  work      Proper  effort  and  no  result  is  a  result  too  Project  planning      Count  on  several  times  writing,  start  early  Concentration      Write  in  half-­‐days,  not  hours                          Then:        C.A.W.  Bal,  Hogeschool  Zeeland   7-­‐9-­‐2011  
  47. 47. A  real  project:   production     Sharing/   Kao,  C.,  (2009).  Efficiency  measurement   using   Communication  to  MT  and  floor   for  parallel  production  systems.     European  Journal  of  Operational  Research,   Answer   With  adaptations,  series  production   196  [3],  pp.  1107-­‐1112   Analysis   Both  numbers  and  production  concepts  Gathering   data   Production  data,  floor  lay  out,  staffing  Approach   Case  study,  secundary  data  Question  +  orientation   What  is  flexible  and  cost  efficient?      C.A.W.  Bal,  Hogeschool  Zeeland   7-­‐9-­‐2011  
  48. 48. A  real  project:   production     Sharing/   using   Communication  to  MT  and  floor   Answer   With  adaptations,  series  production   Analysis   Both  numbers  and  production  concepts  Gathering   data   Production  data,  floor  lay  out,  staffing  Approach   Case  study,  secundary  data  Question  +  orientation   What  is  flexible  and  cost  efficient?      C.A.W.  Bal,  Hogeschool  Zeeland   7-­‐9-­‐2011  
  49. 49. Your  next  project:   Finding  right  job  and     Sharing/   LaGesse,  D.,  (2009).  Turning  Social  Networking  Into  a  Job  Offer.   using   Write  application  letter(s)   U.S.  News  &  World  Report,  146  [4],  pp.  44-­‐45   Answer   Short  list  of  positions  and  companies   Analysis   Qualitative  and  quantitative  comparison  Gathering   data   Interviews,  secundary  data  Approach   Survey  of  jobs  and  industries  Question  +  orientation   Which  jobs  fit  my  skills  and  interests      C.A.W.  Bal,  Hogeschool  Zeeland   7-­‐9-­‐2011  
  50. 50. Your  next  project:   Finding  right  job  and     Sharing/   using   Write  application  letter(s)   Answer   Short  list  of  positions  and  companies   Analysis   Qualitative  and  quantitative  comparison  Gathering   data   Interviews,  secundary  data  Approach   Survey  of  jobs  and  industries  Question  +  orientation   Which  jobs  fit  my  skills  and  interests      C.A.W.  Bal,  Hogeschool  Zeeland   7-­‐9-­‐2011  
  51. 51. Conclusion   This  is  just  a  refresher   (to  know  what  you  do  not  know  is  a  good  start)   The  details  are  important,  use  your  books     (and  any  good  research  advice  you  find  at  school  or  on-­‐line)   Research  is  finding  answers  systematically   (answers  that  come  easily  are  suspicious)       BUT:   If  you  master  the  attitudes  and  skills,  succes  will  follow          These  are  applicable  everywhere,  and  highly  valued          Learning  is  in  doing,  with  the  thesis  as  living  proof      C.A.W.  Bal,  Hogeschool  Zeeland   7-­‐9-­‐2011  
  52. 52. Any  questions?   Thank  you   Wish  you  wisdom  and  luck     during  graduation  and  thereafter!     Research  Refresher:      A  competent  researcher!       kees.bal@hz.nl      C.A.W.  Bal,  Hogeschool  Zeeland   7-­‐9-­‐2011  

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