What’s MLA and why do we need it?• MLA stands for “Modern Language Association,” an organization supporting Association the teaching and study of language and literature. With more than 30,000 members in 100 countries, the MLA sets standards for publishing in the humanities.
What’s MLA and why do we need it?• The Modern Language Association devised a logical system for documenting outside sources. You will sources use this system, MLA documentation, for giving credit to outside sources in the CARP and future college papers in the humanities.
What’s MLA and why do we need it?• If you use any information or ideas from an outside source, you must source either “Quote” the source exactly or rewrite the information in 100% your own words and sentence structure.
What’s MLA and why do we need it?• Following ALL instances of paraphrasing and/or quoting from sources, you must include information about where the information came from —in other words, the source.
MLA formatting has 2 main functions• #1: In-text citations • #2: Works Cited Found in the body of ◙ Found at the end of the the paper itself paper. Appears in the paper ◙ Lists all sources that every time an outside have been used and source is either cited in the paper. quoted or ◙ .Alphabetized by paraphrased. author’s last name. Parenthesis ◙ Author’s names containing the appearing in the paper author’s last name should also appear on and page number of the works cited. cited source ◙ All publication information must be Citations look like recorded in correct this: (Smith 25). MLA format. format
In-text citations Original Passage from book: Student Paraphrase:“In 2040, The Universal Replicator, based Arthur C. Clarke, author of 2001: A Space Odyssey, a 1968 novel that on nanotechnology, is perfected: any introduced the concept of artificial object, however complex, can be createdintelligence to general audiences, - given the necessary raw material and predicts that in a mere thirty-six years, the appropriate information matrix. people will no longer have to work. He predicts that a device called the Diamonds or gourmet meals can, “Universal Replicator” will use literally, be made from dirt. As a result, nanotechnology to change matter agriculture and industry are phased out, from one form to another. With the ending that recent invention in human ability to create all necessities from common substances, by 2040, people history - work!” will not need to work in order toSource: survive (Clark 73).Author Arthur Clarke Note the paraphrased information in blue and the in-text citation at the end. Only theTitle Optimism for Tomorrow (book) author’s last name and page number areQuote found on page 73. included in the in-text citation. The rest ofPublished by Penguin Putnam, New York the information will be included in the works cited.Year 2003
In-text citations important term P s: araphrase• Paraphrasing: explaining the source’s ideas in 100% your own words. words
In-text citations important term P : araphrase• Paraphrasing means that you READ the source first and understand what it says. – Then, after putting the source out of sight (closing the book, switching screens etc...) recall the source’s ideas and write them in your own words.
In-text citations important term P : araphrase• Simply plugging in different words or writing a “patchwork” paraphrase ( ½ your words & ½ source’s words) is plagiarism.
In-text citations important term Quote :• Direct Quote: A direct quote is...• the source’s exact words,• copied accurately,• word for word,• and surrounded with “quotation marks.”After using a direct quote from a source, you must include an in-text citation immediately after the end of the quote .
In-text citations – No Author• When you have a source with no author listed (remember that you should always apply the evaluation criteria to all sources; assume the use the TITLE (or an examples here come from valid sources), abbreviated title) in the in-text citation.• For example(paraphrasing information from an “article” --note the quotation marks that indicate “article”): “article”Several Wordsworth critics once encouraged people to cover their ears when Wordsworth poems were read, because they believed listeners would become depressed and whiny, just like Wordsworth himself ("Wordsworth Is a Loser" 100).
In-text citations – No Author cont’d (Quoting information from a website--note the underlining that indicates website): website website• A recently published cartoon responded to the debate about genetically altered foods. It depicts the Garden of Eden, with Eve saying to the Serpent, “ I won’t take a bite if it’s been genetically altered” as he tries to tempt her (Cartoon Stock).• Note that websites do not have page numbers, as pages are numbered by the printer— numbers if we had giant paper, we may have one page; if we used tiny paper, we may have 100.
In-text citations: Some Don’ts for “Authorless” sources... Do not ever, ever, ever use www.addressofwebsite.com in an in-text citation! Do not use something weird such as (no author listed) or (anonymous) or (unknown) in your in-text citation. Do not use the name of the publication (Newsweek or Harvard Business Journal or Expanded Academic ASAP) in your in-text citation.• USE THE TITLE if you do not have an author!
Note : the works Cited page Works Citedshould be double-spaced;it’s single spaced here tosave room. Works Cited Ehrenreich, Barbara. Nickel & Dimed, On (Not) Getting By in America. New York: Holt Barb ar a Publishing, 2001. http Ehre nrei ://ww ch’s w.ba Hom rbar e Pa ---. Home Page. 2006. July 22, 2006. aeh ge renr <http://www.barbaraehrenreich.com/>. er Lowd own eich Hightow .com e / websit tower Hightower, James. “How Wal-Mart is Remaking Jim High l-Mart is Our World.” Hightower Lowdown. April 26, How Wa our World g Remakin 2002. July 23, 2006<www.hightowrlowdown.com>. bout W a l-Mart Exp Article a a April 200 2 ASA nded A PD c wdown.c o Artic atab ademic htowerlo le ase Smith, John. . “Trying to Survive on Minimum www.hig m Smi t Sur h, Joh Wage...can it be done?” New York Times 3 Wa vive n. on M “Tryin g g Oct. 2002: A20. Expanded Academic NY e...can inimum to Tim 200 es, it be do 5 C n ASAP. Tidewater Community College Aca ) Expa 7+ (Ma e?” dem nde y Gro ic A d Library, Portsmouth VA. 20 July, 2006 Info up. SAP . Ga le <http://www.gale.com>. poo r abo ut th sou from a e work rc s in TCC e foun cholar g LRC d on ly web the site .....
Works Cited: Necessary Information• Works Cited entries vary depending upon the type of source, but they follow a general pattern:• Author—Last Name, First Name. (Smith, John.) Author• Title—either “In Quotation Marks” or Underlined. Title• Publication Information —where/how the source was published: – City of Publication: Publisher (New York: Random House) – Database Name, Company publishing database (Opposing Viewpoints, Gale Group) – Magazine/Journal name--underlined (Newsweek) (Journal of Emergency Nurses) – Main website’s name -underlined (UCLA History Department) (NIH)• Date of publication —when the source was published or accessed (23 July 2006) or 2004.
Works Cited: Citing Database SourcesWhenever you use a database source, you cannot pretend as if you read the original source. For example, if you find an article from the Journal of the American Medical Association on one of the TCC databases and you use it in your paper, you cannot simply list the article without the Name of the Database Used, Name of the Service that publishes the Database, Library information. Please use the » It is easy to distinguish database articles from other sources. following format when citing database sources:Authors name. "Title of the Article." Original Source of Article Date of original source: page numbers. Name of the Database Used. Name of the Service that publishes the Database. Name of Library or Library System, City, State Abbreviation. Date of access <URL of services homepage>. See next slide for examples...
Works Cited: Citing Database Sources Don’t forget to include the highlighted information:Gray, Geoffrey. "An echo in the boxing ring." Columbia Journalism Review 42.6 (March- April 2004): 64(1). Expanded Academic ASAP. Thomson Gale. Tidewater Community College Library, Portsmouth, VA. 26 2006 July <http://.galegroup.com.>Rossi, John P. "The enduring relevance of George Orwell." Contemporary Review 283.1652 (Sept 2003): 172(5). InfoTrac OneFile. Thomson Gale. Tidewater Community College Library, Portsmouth VA. 24 July 2006 <http://find.galegroup.com>.Sowell, Thomas. "Increasing the Minimum Wage Is Counterproductive." Poverty. Ed. Karen Balkin. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2004. Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Thomson Gale. Tidewater Community College Library, Portsmouth VA. 26 July 2006 <http://find.galegroup.com>."U.S. EPA environmental justice plan falls short." World Watch. 18:6 (8). Nov-Dec 2005. Science Resource Center. Thomson Gale. Tidewater Community College Library, Portsmouth VA. 20 July 2006 <http://galenet.galegroup.com. > You do not need to include the entire HUGE web address. You may stop at the “.com”
Works Cited: Special CircumstancesUNKNOWN AUTHOR When the author of a work is unknown, begin with the works title. titleTitles of articles and other short works, such as brief documents from Web sites, are put in quotation marks.Your works cited entry would look like this: “The Rich and the Rest.” Futurist 39: 4 (July/Aug. 2005): 38-43. SIRS Knowledge Source. SIRS, Inc. Tidewater Community Coll. Lib., Portsmouth, VA. 22 Jul. 2006 <http://sksl4.sirs.com>.Titles of books and other whole/long works, such as entire Web sites, are underlined.Your works cited entry would look like this: Atlas of the World. New York: Macmillan Publishing, 2005. From: http://www.dianahacker.com/resdoc/p04_c08_o.html
Great Sources for HELP...• Here is a TCC page about documenting sources...it has many great links: – http://www.tcc.edu/lrc/guides/research.htm• Diana Hacker’s page at Bedford/St. Martins (the publisher of Patterns for College Writing) is great! – Click on “Humanities” when you arrive: – http://www.dianahacker.com/resdoc/
End of Presentation.•Be sure to read the document on “Plagiarism” for thisweek.•Also, don’t forget to check out the MLA section(complete with a sample research paper) in yourHANDBOOK!