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PLATFORM ON AFLATOXIN MANAGEMENT IN GHANA

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STAKEHOLDER MEETING ON INNOVATION PLATFORM ON AFLATOXIN MANAGEMENT IN GHANA: 17TH JUNE, 2015

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PLATFORM ON AFLATOXIN MANAGEMENT IN GHANA

  1. 1. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology STAKEHOLDER MEETING ON INNOVATION PLATFORM ON AFLATOXIN MANAGEMENT IN GHANA: 17TH JUNE, 2015 SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS OF THE AFLATOXIN PROBLEM IN GHANA BY RICHARD .T. AWUAH KNUST
  2. 2. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology STAKEHOLDER MEETING ON INNOVATION PLATFORM ON AFLATOXIN MANAGEMENT IN GHANA: 17TH JUNE, 2015 Outline of presentation Basic information on Afs and effects Af challenge and some studies in Ghana The way forward
  3. 3. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology STAKEHOLDER MEETING ON INNOVATION PLATFORM ON AFLATOXIN MANAGEMENT IN GHANA: 17TH JUNE, 2015 EU’s Threat to ban cereals from Ghana ‘Ghana is to face a ban from exporting commodities like groundnuts, peanut butter and cereals products to the European markets if it is unable to reduce the level of aflatoxin contamination in such commodities’ Ghanaian Times, 14th May 2015 Edition
  4. 4. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology STAKEHOLDER MEETING ON INNOVATION PLATFORM ON AFLATOXIN MANAGEMENT IN GHANA: 17TH JUNE 2015 What are Aflatoxins (Afs)? • Toxic secondary metabolites of fungal origin (Mycotoxin) • 25% of world food crops are affected • Countries that are situated between the 40 ºN and 40 ºS are most at risk • Aspergillus section Flavi group A. flavus Link ex Fries A. parasiticus Speare A. nomius Kurtzman • Aflatoxin- A. flavus toxin A. flavus
  5. 5. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology STAKEHOLDER MEETING ON INNOVATION PLATFORM ON AFLATOXIN MANAGEMENT IN GHANA: 17TH JUNE, 2015 Types of Afs B1 - A. flavus, A. parasiticus and A. nomius B2 - A. flavus, A. parasiticus and A. nomius G1 - A. parasiticus and A. nomius G2 - A. parasiticus and A. nomius Most potent - AF B1 Other AFs M1, B2a, M2, Q1, G2a
  6. 6. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology Factors affecting Af ContaminationN Pre harvest Post harvest Improper drying Storage in poorly ventilated warm environments Damage during shelling Storage in polyethylene bags Storage insects (Caryedon serratus; Sitophilus zea mays) Stress (Warm, dry periods; soil moisture stress) Mechanical damage (Cultivation, damage by arthropods, birds, rodents nematodes etc) Delayed harvesting Planting time (Early vs. Late)
  7. 7. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology STAKEHOLDER MEETING ON INNOVATION PLATFORM ON AFLATOXIN MANAGEMENT IN GHANA: 17TH JUNE, 2015 Some common AF substrates • Groundnut • Maize • Beans • Smoked fish • Kenkey • Groundnut paste • Tiger nut • Tree nuts • Breast milk (human, cattle) • Smoked fish/fresh pond-raised fish • Meats • Sorghum • Copra • Cheese • Black pepper • Donkwa
  8. 8. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology STAKEHOLDER MEETING ON INNOVATION PLATFORM ON AFLATOXIN MANAGEMENT IN GHANA: 17TH JUNE, 2015 Other substrates • Faeces • Urine • Human semen • Human blood • Maternal plasma samples
  9. 9. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology Af permissible levels in foods Kenya 10 µg/kg Nigeria 4 µg/kg Ghana 20 µg/kg (raw groundnut) 4 µg/kg (groundnut butter) Zambia 10 µg/kg (cereals, g’nut, nuts) Malawi 5 µg/kg (cereals, g’nut, nuts) Zimbabwe 5 µg/kg (cereals, g’nut, nuts) Egypt 10 µg/kg (cereals, g’nut, nuts) FAO and WHO 30 µg/kg EU countries 4 µg/kg (total AF) 2 µg/kg (AF B1) USA 20 µg/kg (all foods except milk) USA 4 µg/kg (milk) Codex Standard 10 µg/kg (all processed foods)
  10. 10. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology STAKEHOLDER MEETING ON INNOVATION PLATFORM ON AFLATOXIN MANAGEMENT IN GHANA: 17TH JUNE, 2015 Af and health Impaired biochemical processes • Lipid metabolism (cholesterols) • Glucose metabolism (hyperglycaemia) • Mineral absorption Afs also impair: • Growth rate • Female reproductive efficiency • Male reproductive efficiency • Immune system efficiency
  11. 11. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology STAKEHOLDER MEETING ON INNOVATION PLATFORM ON AFLATOXIN MANAGEMENT IN GHANA: 17TH JUNE, 2015 Some human studies • Correlation between serum AF levels and liver cancers • Correlation between AF intake and Hepatitis B in liver cancer incidence • Aflatoxicoses in humans • Aflatoxins and kwashiokor • Aflatoxin and human male sterility problems
  12. 12. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology STAKEHOLDER MEETING ON INNOVATION PLATFORM ON AFLATOXIN MANAGEMENT IN GHANA: 17TH JUNE, 2015 Implications for food security It is an agricultural issue in the sense that: • Contaminated foods should not be eaten nor fed to livestock. • Presence of aflatoxigenic fungi in staple foods contributes to decay and dry matter loss • Impacts negatively on food security by affecting all four food security pillars i.e. availability, access, utilization and quality.
  13. 13. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology STAKEHOLDER MEETING ON INNOVATION PLATFORM ON AFLATOXIN MANAGEMENT IN GHANA: 17TH JUNE, 2015 Af contamination : An export trade issue i. Affects the potential of countries to engage in the export trade ii. AF levels in cereals and legumes and their products and other food items in Ghana are far above the EU and USA permissible standards of 4 and 20ug/kg, respectively. This means that many food and food items from Ghana will not be allowed into the EU and USA and perhaps many other foreign markets
  14. 14. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology STAKEHOLDER MEETING ON INNOVATION PLATFORM ON AFLATOXIN MANAGEMENT IN GHANA: 17TH JUNE, 2015 AF and groundnut trade
  15. 15. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology STAKEHOLDER MEETING ON INNOVATION PLATFORM ON AFLATOXIN MANAGEMENT IN GHANA: 17TH JUNE, 2015 The Ghanaian situation Groundnut samples in Accra – 69% highly contaminated with AF (Beardwood 1964)
  16. 16. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology Northern groundnut Volta groundnut Local market Average of five samples(μg/kg) Range of five samples(μg/kg) Average of five samples(μg/kg) Range of five samples(μg/kg) Makola 13 3 - 27 42 14 - 100 Kaneshie 12 4 - 22 50 13 - 99 Salaga 28 3 - 88 78 15 - 141 Adabraka 33 5 - 71 59 10 - 116 Teshie 26 5 - 58 69 10 - 187 Nungua 27 10 - 47 67 27 - 145 Madina 41 5 - 133 86 10 - 216 Aflatoxin levels (μg/kg) in Northern and Volta types of groundnut sold in various markets in Accra. Source: Mintah & Hunter (1978)
  17. 17. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology Location of market % Damaged kernels Total aflatoxin levels (μg/kg) Damaged kernels Undamaged kernels Accra 5.3 75.6 ND Ashaiman 9.25 12.2 ND Mankessim 2.87 17.7 0.2 Cape Coast 3.87 860.6 1.4 Koforidua 2.37 5.7 0.1 Takoradi 4.3 13144.3 ND Kumasi 3.2 105.0 0.4 Ho 5.92 22168.0 ND Sunyani 2.33 54.2 ND Tekyiman 3.31 5530.1 ND Tamale 1.5 71.4 0.5 Wa 2.92 14.5 ND Navrongo 2.0 3505.2 154.2 Bolgatanga 1.67 301.8 12.2 Av. 3.6 Av. 3276 Av. 12.1 Aflatoxin levels in damaged/mouldy and undamaged/wholesome groundnut kernels from markets in the ten regions in Ghana Source: Awuah & Kpodo (1996)
  18. 18. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology STAKEHOLDER MEETING ON INNOVATION PLATFORM ON AFLATOXIN MANAGEMENT IN GHANA: 17TH JUNE, 2015 Maize samples in Ghana – 80% with AF > 30 µg/kg (Kpodo and Halm, 1990)  31 of 32 fermented dough samples – up to 310 µg/kg AF (Kpodo et al.,1996)  15 of 16 Ga Kenkey samples – up to 200 µg/kg AF (Kpodo et al.,1996)
  19. 19. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology STAKEHOLDER MEETING ON INNOVATION PLATFORM ON AFLATOXIN MANAGEMENT IN GHANA: 17TH JUNE, 2015 Relatively lower levels detected in  Rice - < 2µg/kg  Cocoa cake - < 8µg/kg  Agushie - < 15µg/kg (Kpodo, 2005)
  20. 20. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology STAKEHOLDER MEETING ON INNOVATION PLATFORM ON AFLATOXIN MANAGEMENT IN GHANA: 17TH JUNE, 2015 Afs in Ghanaians Af detected in human breast milk and maternal blood samples (Lamplugh and Hendrickse, 1988)
  21. 21. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology STAKEHOLDER MEETING ON INNOVATION PLATFORM ON AFLATOXIN MANAGEMENT IN GHANA: 17TH JUNE, 2015 Afs in Ghanaians (Cont’d)  AFB1measured in 140 blood samples High AFB1– 0.12 - 3 pmol/mg (Median – 0.80 pmol/mg)  AFM1measured in 91 urine samples ND – 11,562.36 pg/mg (Median – 472.7pg/mg) (Jolly et al., 2006)
  22. 22. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology STAKEHOLDER MEETING ON INNOVATION PLATFORM ON AFLATOXIN MANAGEMENT IN GHANA: 17TH JUNE, 2015 Significantly higher levels of AFB1 were from participants with symptoms of acute aflatoxicosis, history of yellow mouth and history of sore swollen stomach. 30-40% of the study group had abnormal liver function and also HBV and HBC infections Poor liver function was positively correlated with AFB1 levels HBV was positively associated with high AFB1 levels whereas HCV was marginally associated with AFB1 levels and Approximately 20% of participants were positive for malaria
  23. 23. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology STAKEHOLDER MEETING ON INNOVATION PLATFORM ON AFLATOXIN MANAGEMENT IN GHANA: 17TH JUNE, 2015 Conclusion from the study High AFB1 levels in the blood of participants, high expression of symptoms of acute aflatoxicosis, high levels HBV/HCV infections and abnormal liver functions puts the study participants at risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma
  24. 24. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology Sensational report on Af in Ghana
  25. 25. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology Sensational reports on Af in Ghana (Cont’d) ‘Scientific studies from major producing sites and markets in Accra have concluded comprehensively that there is a widespread occurrence of the strain that causes cancer, particularly liver cancer, in Ga kenkey.’ Kofi Koomson, Ghanaian Chronicle Vol. 6, No.133 August 17- August 18, 1998
  26. 26. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology STAKEHOLDER MEETING ON INNOVATION PLATFORM ON AFLATOXIN MANAGEMENT IN GHANA: 17TH JUNE, 2015 ARE GHANAIANS AWARE OF THE AFLATOXIN MENACE?
  27. 27. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology Af awareness study Zone Farmers Consumers Retailers Processors Feed millers Poultry farmers Northern 186 149 139 106 0 0 Middle 75 159 71 76 7 25 South 70 419 162 218 11 110 Total 331 727 372 400 18 135 Total number of respondents -1984
  28. 28. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology Knowledge of Afs %ofrespondent
  29. 29. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology Knowledge of Afs X education RESPONDENT STAKEHOLDERS CHI SQUARE PROBABILITY Farmer 6.003 0.20 Livestock 27.06 0.00069 Feed Millers 21.02 0.0071 Retailers 21.02 0.0071 Processors 32.29 0.00008 Consumers 37.46 0.00001
  30. 30. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology Af awareness study - professionals Health personnel-Medical Doctors, Nurses, Pharmacists Agriculturist-Agricultural Extension Agents (AEAs), Regional Directors of Agriculture (RDAs), District Directors of Agriculture (DDAs), District Agriculture Development Officers (DADOs), Regional Agricultural Development Officers (RADOs), Research Scientist, University teachers
  31. 31. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology Awareness of the terms ‘mycotoxin’ and ‘aflatoxin’ Mycotoxin Aflatoxin Profession No (%) Yes (%) No (%) Yes (%) Agriculturists 37.7 62.3 17.1 82.9 Doctors 0 100 0 100 Nurses 47.5 52.5 45.8 54.2 Pharmacists 12.5 87.5 3.1 96.9 Biologists 35.3 64.7 29.4 70.6 Others 56.5 43.5 31.9 68.1 Average 31.6 68.4 21.2 78.8
  32. 32. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology Awareness of Af accumulation in animal products Profession % Yes Agriculturists 27.2 Medical doctors 50.0 Pharmacists 18.2 Nurses 25.4 Biological Scientists 52.9 Others 14.5 Average 31.36
  33. 33. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology Formal training on aflatoxin and attendance of Af workshop Formal training (%) Workshop attendance (%) Yes (%) No (%) Yes (%) No (%) Agriculturists 15.6 84.4 7.3 92.7 Doctors 33.3 66.7 16.7 83.3 Nurses 11.9 88.1 7.3 92.7 Pharmacists 12.5 87.5 23.1 76.9 Biol. Sci. 11.9 88.1 17.6 82.4 Others 13.0 87.0 10.1 89.9 Average 16.4 83.6 13.7 86.3
  34. 34. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology Tests of dependencies Factor Chi square Probability Profession X awareness of AF 103.041 0.000 Profession X awareness of effects 60.76 0.019 Qualifications X awareness 107.000 0.000 Rank of Agriculturists X awareness 103.011 0.000 Profession X what produces mycotoxin 36.991 0.008 Sex X awareness 4.504 0.342 Sex X Awareness of harmful effects humans 3.799 0.434 Profession X indication of mycotoxin 0.262 0.500 Profession X diffusion of info to colleagues 74.496 0.014 Profession X diffusion of info to subordinates 112.317 0.500
  35. 35. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology Conclusions 2003 Though awareness of AF among some health, agricultural and other professionals in Ghana is good, the same cannot be said of the general population This, together with the inability of most responding professionals to accurately indicate the harmful effects of Af suggests that the menace of the toxin is not well appreciated in Ghana
  36. 36. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology Management of Af contamination Pre harvest interventions • Planting date • Control soil insects (groundnut) • Minimize mechanical damage during cultivation • Early harvesting • Varieties with tight fitting husks (maize) • Resistant varieties? • Bio control (Aflasafe Ghana) Post harvest interventions • Inverted windrow vs random wind row drying • Drying to < 8% moisture (g’nut); Maize (<12%) • Sorting of nuts • Preservation of shelled nuts with plant based products
  37. 37. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology POSTHARVEST INTERVENTIONS (Cont’d) Storage in interlaced polypropylene and jute bags (placed on wooden platform) Spit out off-taste kernels Avoid market groundnut butter (homemade butter preferable) Preservation of kernels with plant products, chemicals
  38. 38. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology Proper drying of in-shell nuts
  39. 39. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology Proper drying of dehusked maize
  40. 40. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology Improper drying of shelled maize
  41. 41. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology Improper holding of maize in transit
  42. 42. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology Improper post harvest handling of maize
  43. 43. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology Postharvest interventions (Cont’d) Storage in interlaced polypropylene and jute bags (placed on wooden platform) Spit out off-taste kernels Avoid market groundnut butter (homemade butter preferable) Preservation of kernels with plant products, chemicals
  44. 44. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology Shelled market groundnut
  45. 45. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology Shelled nuts in a supermarket
  46. 46. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology Packaged nuts in a supermarket
  47. 47. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology Packaged mouldy /weeviled nuts
  48. 48. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology GHANAIAN MEDICINAL/CULINARY PLANTS R.T. AWUAH, DEPARTMENT OF CROP AND SOIL SCIENCES, KNUST
  49. 49. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology SYZIGIUM -TREATED AND UNTREATED GROUNDNUT R.T. AWUAH, DEPARTMENT OF CROP AND SOIL SCIENCES, KNUST
  50. 50. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology Treated and untreated nuts R.T. AWUAH, DEPARTMENT OF CROP AND SOIL SCIENCES, KNUST
  51. 51. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and TechnologyR.T. AWUAH, DEPARTMENT OF CROP AND SOIL SCIENCES, KNUST
  52. 52. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology Assays were made at 3 and 6mn.(6 mn values are in parenthesis);IPPB= interlaced polypropylene bag: PB= polythene bag. AF before storage = 0 µg/Kg Treatment (%) Mouldy kernels AF at 3 mn (µg/Kg) IPPB 9.0% with Syzygium 3.71 (8.26) 25.1 9.0% without Syzygium 6.73 (20.53) 36.2 6.0 with Syzygium 1.03 (4.83) ND 6.0% without Syzygium 3.24 (19.83) 27.5 PB 9.0% without Syzygium 3.39 (100) 29.3 9.0% without Syzygium 45.76 (100) 64.0 6.0 with Syzygium 1.55 (4.96) 1.6 6.0 without Syzygium 24.01 (32.63) 84.0 LSD 0.63 (0.068) CV 2.26 (1.08)
  53. 53. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology NovaSil clay enteropsorption studies in Ghana • Afriyie-Gyawu E, Ankrah NA, Huebner HJ, Ofosuhene M, Kumi J, Johnson NM, Tang L, Xu L, Jolly PE, Ellis WO, Ofori-Adjei D, Williams JH, Wang JS, Phillips TD. • College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA. • Noguchi
  54. 54. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology NovaSil clay enteropsorption studies in Ghana ( NovaSil clay  Processed calcium montmorillonite clay  Has great affinity for Afs  Binds with AFs in the GIT and decreases Af uptake in farm animals  Administered at 3.0, 1.5 and 0 g/day in capsules  Reduced blood and urine Afs  No negative effects on vitamin A and E iron and zinc  No negative effects on haematology, liver function, kidney function and electrolytes
  55. 55. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology NovaSil clay enteropsorption studies (Cont’d) Side effects Nausea Diarrhea Heartburn dizziness
  56. 56. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology Ghana Aflasafe research Update on aflatoxin bio-control research in Ghana GHANA 2012- Visit to Ghana by a team from IITA P. Cotty; R. Bandyopadhyay; D. Agbetiameh Use of atoxigenic strains of A. flavus Mechanism : Competitive exclusion
  57. 57. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology From February to March - Sampling of farmers stores for maize and groundnut in major production areas Eastern, Ashanti, Brong Ahafo, Northern, Upper West, Upper East and Volta regions Purpose – i) Prevalence of aflatoxin contamination in maize and groundnut ii) Identify native atoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus that could be used for bio-control 2013 research
  58. 58. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology Survey areas
  59. 59. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology 2013 research (Cont’d) 5083 isolates obtained 843 were atoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus 174 isolates- competition studies for potential to reduce aflatoxin production, in vitro, by a toxigenic A. flavus isolate
  60. 60. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology Major findings of 2013 research •12 atoxigenic strains - selected for field evaluation in in 2014 • Aflatoxin inhibition - 87% – 98%
  61. 61. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology 2014 research Preparation of preliminary aflasafe Ghana product for field testing • Isolates (strains) were mixed to broaden efficacy • Each strain mixture was composed of 4 atoxigenic isolates; so 3 products to be tested • So 3 aflasafe Ghana products to be evaluated in the field
  62. 62. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology 2014 research (cont’d) • They were evaluated for their ability to reduce aflatoxin in maize and groundnut • Determine relative efficacy of the 12 isolates to persist in soil and displace toxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus • Identify four best atoxigenic strains among the twelve initial strains to prepare the final aflasafe Ghana product
  63. 63. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology Locations of farms in 2014
  64. 64. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology Aflasafe application in a groundnut farm in Ghana
  65. 65. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology Aflasafe application in a maize farm in Ghana
  66. 66. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology 2015 research Evaluate the final aflasafe Ghana product as before Initiate ‘carry over’ studies (frequency of application)
  67. 67. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology 2016 and 2017 activities Continue with ‘carry over’ studies Register aflasafe Ghana Product?
  68. 68. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology Some workshops R.T. AWUAH, DEPARTMENT OF CROP AND SOIL SCIENCES, KNUST
  69. 69. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology STAKEHOLDER MEETING ON INNOVATION PLATFORM ON AFLATOXIN MANAGEMENT IN GHANA: 10TH JUNE 2015
  70. 70. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology Workshops (cont’d)
  71. 71. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology Workshops (cont’d) R.T. AWUAH, DEPARTMENT OF CROP AND SOIL SCIENCES, KNUST
  72. 72. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology Workshops (cont’d) Ejura; 2014
  73. 73. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology International meetings on Afs
  74. 74. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology STAKEHOLDER MEETING ON INNOVATION PLATFORM ON AFLATOXIN MANAGEMENT IN GHANA: 17TH JUNE 2015 Paca.pdf
  75. 75. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology STAKEHOLDER MEETING ON INNOVATION PLATFORM ON AFLATOXIN MANAGEMENT IN GHANA: 17TH JUNE, 2015 The way forward Formation of Af Platform Scoping study to identify needs Awareness creation (Workshops, print media, electronic media, fliers, posters, handbooks etc) Process of change studies Monitoring of contamination (Who is to do this? PPRSD, FDC, AEA , Farmers ) Workshop on SPSS Sensitization on Ghana Aflasafe programme (Private sector led initiative; Gov’t to provide enabling environment )
  76. 76. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology STAKEHOLDER MEETING ON INNOVATION PLATFORM ON AFLATOXIN MANAGEMENT IN GHANA: 17TH JUNE, 2015 APPRECIATION FARA GFAP AUDIENCE
  77. 77. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology
  78. 78. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology

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