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IntroductionPolitical Fragmentation and Feudalism
1.   Introduction2.   Political Fragmentation and Feudalism3.   Economy and Society in the Middle Ages4.   Gender Relation...
The birth of Europe                   Most important Tradition,                   BIRTH of EuropeThe Classicaltradition of...
 European History 1000 years of history   Early Middle Ages (500-1000) (chaos, decline,    political fragmentation, dar...
•Those Who Prayed:     First Order•Those Who Fought:    Second Order•Those Who Toiled:     Third Order
Insecurity             Security and defence
 First wave (300-500):   Germanic migrations: pressure on Roman empire   Migrations of the Huns: Rome lost control
Hunnic Empire, 5th century
 Effects:   Destruction of the    Roman empire   Establishment of    Barbarian kingdoms   Destruction of    classical ...
Carolingian attemptto create politicalunity (700-814) Growing strength of the  Franks Carolingian monarchy    Pepin the...
 Expansion and alliances with the ChurchPope Adrian IasksCharlemagnefor help                              Charlemagne cro...
 Disintegration of the Carolingian empire  Charlemagne and his son, Louis the Pious
 Disintegration of the Carolingian empire  Charlemagne and his son, Louis the Pious
 Second wave (800-1000)  South: Saracens or   Muslim pirates  East: Magyars  North-West: Vikings
Outcome:Insecurity persistsWeakness ofpolitical powerCreation of a newsocial and politicalorder: Feudalism(clip 19)
 A response to insecurity  and weakness of  political power Linked to development  of armoured cavalry:  backbone of Eur...
The spread of armored cavalry
 Training was long and  equipment expensive Warriors needed  revenue from land A new social system:  Link villages to  ...
 Feudalism: the new system  A decentralized social and political organization  Based on relationships of mutual trust, ...
 Medieval societies never described themselves as “feudal” There was no uniform, homogeneous feudal system Some histori...
 Knights: professional warriors    and core of medieval army   Men of noble birth only   Term associated with wealth an...
 The commendation or homage ceremony:   Created a bond between a lord and his vassal   Act of homage and oath of fealty
Military protection, legal defense and sustenance provided by the fiefLORD                                   Trust and loy...
A: Overlord (King)                  B1: Vassal of A and                                               B2:Vassal of A and  ...
Overlords         Vassals                             Serfs working on the                              manorial estate (o...
 Power is shared and  authority is divided between  a lord and his vassals No one has absolute power King’s power limit...
Domain:                                                                              justice                              ...
 A response to insecurity:1. Political aspect: Holding   of public powers2. Social aspect: Solidarity   between members o...
1. Rising monarchies:   France and England   From overlordship to    kingship   Sacral character of    kingship   Centr...
KING                                                  (OVERLORD)                   d,                                     ...
2. The Church   ‘Feudalization’ of the    Church before the 11th    century   Church reforms    (Gregory VII): claim to ...
3. Town communes   Springboard of    Western economic    and social    development   The communal   movement (from   mid...
 Political fragmentation during the Middle Ages Complexity of the feudal system and weakness of political power Co-exis...
1.   What are the three components, or three pillars, of the     Western tradition?2.   What are the main sub-periods of t...
9.    What were the mutual responsibilities of the lords and      vassals?10.   The feudal system was based on a complex h...
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Pp 12

  1. 1. IntroductionPolitical Fragmentation and Feudalism
  2. 2. 1. Introduction2. Political Fragmentation and Feudalism3. Economy and Society in the Middle Ages4. Gender Relations in the Middle Ages5. The Age of Faith : The Church, The State and The People
  3. 3. The birth of Europe Most important Tradition, BIRTH of EuropeThe Classicaltradition of the The Judeo- Germanic orGreco-Roman Christian Barbarianworld tradition tradition
  4. 4.  European History 1000 years of history  Early Middle Ages (500-1000) (chaos, decline, political fragmentation, dark ages)  High Middle Ages (1000-1300) (revival)  Late Middle Ages (1300-1500) (evolution)
  5. 5. •Those Who Prayed: First Order•Those Who Fought: Second Order•Those Who Toiled: Third Order
  6. 6. Insecurity Security and defence
  7. 7.  First wave (300-500):  Germanic migrations: pressure on Roman empire  Migrations of the Huns: Rome lost control
  8. 8. Hunnic Empire, 5th century
  9. 9.  Effects:  Destruction of the Roman empire  Establishment of Barbarian kingdoms  Destruction of classical civilization Cultural assimilation and resistance (language, laws, Latin -> pure religion and administration and -> Vernacular (French, Spanish, Portugues) state) Law -> written, No uniform Religion -> Christianity Administration + State -> officials (skills)
  10. 10. Carolingian attemptto create politicalunity (700-814) Growing strength of the Franks Carolingian monarchy  Pepin the Short  Charles the Hammer  Charlemagne Charlemagne
  11. 11.  Expansion and alliances with the ChurchPope Adrian IasksCharlemagnefor help Charlemagne crowned emperor by Leon III
  12. 12.  Disintegration of the Carolingian empire Charlemagne and his son, Louis the Pious
  13. 13.  Disintegration of the Carolingian empire Charlemagne and his son, Louis the Pious
  14. 14.  Second wave (800-1000)  South: Saracens or Muslim pirates  East: Magyars  North-West: Vikings
  15. 15. Outcome:Insecurity persistsWeakness ofpolitical powerCreation of a newsocial and politicalorder: Feudalism(clip 19)
  16. 16.  A response to insecurity and weakness of political power Linked to development of armoured cavalry: backbone of European army  New breed of stronger horses  Stirrup: more stability
  17. 17. The spread of armored cavalry
  18. 18.  Training was long and equipment expensive Warriors needed revenue from land A new social system: Link villages to warriors -> protection against revenue
  19. 19.  Feudalism: the new system  A decentralized social and political organization  Based on relationships of mutual trust, loyalty, rights and responsibilities  Between the members of the dominant class, the warrior-landholders  Developed in the North of France, 10th century  Characterized by a complex hierarchy of patron-client relationships (lords and vassals)  Two central components: land and warfare
  20. 20.  Medieval societies never described themselves as “feudal” There was no uniform, homogeneous feudal system Some historians say the word “feudalism” should be removed from textbooks!
  21. 21.  Knights: professional warriors and core of medieval army Men of noble birth only Term associated with wealth and social status Lived off the work of their serfs (fief) Took oath of allegiance, protection of Christians, etc. in the dubbing or knighting ceremony The culture of chivalry: courage, honour, service
  22. 22.  The commendation or homage ceremony:  Created a bond between a lord and his vassal  Act of homage and oath of fealty
  23. 23. Military protection, legal defense and sustenance provided by the fiefLORD Trust and loyalty VASSAL Military service, council, collect revenue, dispense justice on his fief and protect the serfs, payments and hospitality to his lord
  24. 24. A: Overlord (King) B1: Vassal of A and B2:Vassal of A and B3: Vassal of A and Lord of C1 and C2 Lord of C3 and C4 Lord of E2 C1: Vassal of B1 and C2: Vassal of B1 and C3: Vassal of B2 and C4: Vassal of B2 and C5: Vassal of B3 andLord of D1, D2 and D3 Lord of D4, etc. Lord of D5 and D6 Lord of … Lord of… D1: Vassal of C1 and D4: Vassal of C2 and D5:Vassal of C3 and Lord of E1 and E2 Lord of… Lord of… E1: Vassal of D1 and D6: Vassal of C3 and Lord of… Lord of… E2: Vassal of D1 and B3, Lord of… D2: Vassal of C1 and Lord of… D3: Vassal of C1 and Lord of…
  25. 25. Overlords Vassals Serfs working on the manorial estate (on the fief)Serfs working on the manorial estate (on the fief)
  26. 26.  Power is shared and authority is divided between a lord and his vassals No one has absolute power King’s power limited to his personal estates Lords can issue commands only to their immediate vassals Lords have many vassals, and one vassal can have many lords : divided loyalty The administration of justice The most important (or first) lord: Liege lord
  27. 27. Domain: justice OVERLORD and Military command, justice and taxation power taxation power over his vassals over serfs Fief : Fief: Fief: justice justice justice VASSAL VASSAL and VASSAL andMilitary command, and Military command, Military command, taxation taxation taxation justice and justice and justice and power power power taxation power taxation power taxation power over his vassals over over his vassals over over his vassals over serfs serfs serfs Fief: Fief: Fief: justice justice justice VASSAL VASSAL VASSAL and andMilitary command, and Military command, Military command, taxation taxation justice and taxation justice and justice and power power taxation power power taxation power taxation power over over his vassals over over his vassals over over his vassals serfs serfs serfs
  28. 28.  A response to insecurity:1. Political aspect: Holding of public powers2. Social aspect: Solidarity between members of the elite3. Economic aspect: Exploitation or rural workers (serfs)4. Cultural aspect: Way of life and values (chivalry)
  29. 29. 1. Rising monarchies: France and England  From overlordship to kingship  Sacral character of kingship  Centralization (justice, taxes, army) English troops setting out for France at the outset of the Hundred Years’ War (1340s-1450s), a series of attempts by English kings, vassals of the French kings, to dominate France
  30. 30. KING (OVERLORD) d, mi , an military command, nd m lita La La om stice tax ry co d, n taxes, justice c ju es mm ry ta xes, , ju Land, ili m ta sti and, ce mi e tic li t ary us ,j co es mm tax La d, t an d, nd ax an mm Lan d,VASSAL , VASSAL VASSAL e co s, ary jus tic li t mi eVASSAL VASSAL
  31. 31. 2. The Church  ‘Feudalization’ of the Church before the 11th century  Church reforms (Gregory VII): claim to universality and supremacy of the spiritual over the temporal  Conflicts with rising monarchies  Investiture Controversy (1075-1122) Gregory VII
  32. 32. 3. Town communes  Springboard of Western economic and social development  The communal movement (from mid-11th century)  Communes: communities of free Market stalls citizens
  33. 33.  Political fragmentation during the Middle Ages Complexity of the feudal system and weakness of political power Co-existence with non-feudal institutions Emerging monarchies: the cradle of the modern states
  34. 34. 1. What are the three components, or three pillars, of the Western tradition?2. What are the main sub-periods of the Middle Ages? What are their respective characteristics?3. What were the three orders of the medieval society? What was their respective function?4. Describe the first wave of migrations and its consequences.5. Who were the Carolingians and what did they achieve?6. Describe the second wave of invasions and its outcome.7. Describe the context in which feudalism developed, and explain how it was related to new military tactics.8. Define the concept of feudalism (what, who, when and where).
  35. 35. 9. What were the mutual responsibilities of the lords and vassals?10. The feudal system was based on a complex hierarchy. What problems could arise from this complex organization?11. What did the commendation ceremony consist of?12. Define decentralization. Why is it correct to say that feudalism was a decentralized political system?13. What is a knight? How were knights expected to behave?14. How is feudalism at the same time a political, social, economic and cultural system?15. Identify the non-feudal institutions of medieval Europe and their main characteristics.

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