PSA Caratteristiche fondamentali azione incendio

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Corso di Progettazione Strutturale Antincendio, A.A. 2013/14. Caratteristiche fondamentali dell'azione incendio.

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PSA Caratteristiche fondamentali azione incendio

  1. 1. PSA: CARATTERISTICHE FENOMENO INCENDIO www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 1 FENOMENO INCENDIO Prof. Ing. Franco Bontempi Ing. Chiara Crosti Facolta’ di Ingegneria Civile e Industriale Universita’ degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza” 3/22/2011 1 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  2. 2. INCENDIO • Incendio = combustione autoalimentata ed incontrollata di materiali combustibili. • Carattere estensivo (diffusione nello spazio): 1. wildfire www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 2 1. wildfire 2. urbanfire 3. all’esterno di un edificio 4. all’interno di un interno • Carattere intensivo (andamento nel tempo). • Natura accidentale. 3/22/2011 2 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  3. 3. www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 3 CARATTERE ESTENSIVO Diffusione nello spazio 3/22/2011 3 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  4. 4. 1. WILDFIRE www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 43/22/2011 4 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  5. 5. www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 53/22/2011 5 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  6. 6. www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 63/22/2011 6 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  7. 7. www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 73/22/2011 7 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  8. 8. www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 83/22/2011 8 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  9. 9. www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 93/22/2011 9 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  10. 10. www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 103/22/2011 10 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  11. 11. www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 113/22/2011 11 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  12. 12. www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 123/22/2011 12 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  13. 13. www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 133/22/2011 13 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  14. 14. www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 143/22/2011 14 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  15. 15. www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 153/22/2011 15 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  16. 16. 2. URBANFIRE www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 163/22/2011 16 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  17. 17. www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 173/22/2011 17 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  18. 18. The Great Fire of London Sunday, 2 September to Wednesday, 5 September 1666. www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 183/22/2011 18 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  19. 19. The Great Fire of the City of New York, 16 December 1835 www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 193/22/2011 19 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  20. 20. The Great Fire of Chicago, October 7-10, 1871 www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 203/22/2011 20 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  21. 21. www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 213/22/2011 21 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  22. 22. www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 223/22/2011 22 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  23. 23. www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 233/22/2011 23 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  24. 24. www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 243/22/2011 24 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  25. 25. www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 253/22/2011 25 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  26. 26. www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 263/22/2011 26 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  27. 27. www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 10/11/20133/22/2011 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO 27
  28. 28. 3. ALL’ESTERNO DI UN EDIFICIO www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 283/22/2011 28 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  29. 29. www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 293/22/2011 29 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  30. 30. www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 303/22/2011 30 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  31. 31. www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 313/22/2011 31 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  32. 32. www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 323/22/2011 32 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  33. 33. www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 333/22/2011 33 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  34. 34. www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 343/22/2011 34 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  35. 35. www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 353/22/2011 35 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  36. 36. www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 363/22/2011 36 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  37. 37. www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 373/22/2011 37 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  38. 38. www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 383/22/2011 38 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  39. 39. 4. ALL’INTERNO DI UN EDIFICIO www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 393/22/2011 39 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  40. 40. www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 403/22/2011 40 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  41. 41. www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 413/22/2011 41 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  42. 42. www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 423/22/2011 42 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  43. 43. www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 433/22/2011 43 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  44. 44. www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 443/22/2011 44 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  45. 45. www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 453/22/2011 45 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  46. 46. www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 463/22/2011 46 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  47. 47. www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 473/22/2011 47 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  48. 48. NUMERICAL MODELING www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 483/22/2011 48 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  49. 49. www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 49 CARATTERE INTENSIVO Andamento temporale 3/22/2011 49 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  50. 50. ISO 13387: Example of Design Fire www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 503/22/2011 50 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  51. 51. www.francobontempi. orgEVOLUZIONE NEL TEMPO DELLA POTENZA TERMICA Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 513/22/2011 51 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  52. 52. Summary of periods of typical fire development Incipient period Growth period Burning period Decay period Fire Behavior Heating of fuel Fuel controlled burning Ventilation controlled burning Fuel controlled burning Human behavior Prevent ignition Extinguish by hand, escape Death T www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 52 behavior ignition escape Detection Smoke detectors Smoke detectors, heat detectors External smoke and flame Active control Prevent ignition Extinguish by sprinklers or fire fighters; control of smoke Control by fire-fighters Passive control - Select materials with resistance to flame spread Provide fire resistance; contain fire, prevent collapse timeBuchanan, 20023/22/2011 52 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  53. 53. flashover TemperaturaT(t) flashover TemperaturaT(t) FIRE MODEL HEAT TRANSFER MODEL Fire thermal exposure Curva naturale d’incendio www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 53 STRATEGIE ATTIVE (approccio sistemico) STRATEGIE PASSIVE (approccio strutturale) Tempo t andamento di T(t) a seguito del successo delle strategie attive STRATEGIE ATTIVE (approccio sistemico) STRATEGIE PASSIVE (approccio strutturale) Tempo t andamento di T(t) a seguito del successo delle strategie attive MODEL STRUCTURAL MODEL Thermal gradients Load capacity 3/22/2011 53 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  54. 54. F L A passive Create fire active Detection measures prevention protection robustness Limit ignition Prevent the Fire Safety Strategies www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 54 A S H O V E R Create fire compartments Prevent damage in the elements Prevent loss of functionality in the building Detection measures (smoke, heat, flame detectors) Suppression measures (sprinklers, fire extinguisher, standpipes, firemen) Smoke and heat evacuation system Limit ignition sources Limit hazardous human behavior Emergency procedure and evacuation Prevent the propagation of collapse, once local damages occurred (e.g. redundancy) 3/22/2011 54 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  55. 55. Fire Safety Strategies active protection no failures doesn’t trigger Y N Y extinguishes triggers prevention 1 42 3 www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 55 protection passive protection no failures N spreads damages Y N robustness no collapse collapse Y N triggers 3/22/2011 55 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  56. 56. www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 56 CARATTERE ACCIDENTALE Evento 3/22/2011 56 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  57. 57. DOI:10.3267/HE2008 Situazioni HPLC www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 57 DOI:10.3267/HE2008 High Probability Low Consequences 3/22/2011 57 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  58. 58. LPHC events www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 583/22/2011 58 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  59. 59. HPLC High probability Low Consequences LPHC Low Probability High Consequences release of energy SMALL LARGE numbers of breakdown SMALL LARGE HPLC – LPHC EVENTS www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 59 people involved FEW MANY nonlinearity WEAK STRONG interactions WEAK STRONG uncertainty WEAK STRONG decomposability HIGH LOW course predictability HIGH LOW 3/22/2011 59 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  60. 60. LINEAR interactions NONLINEAR couplingsTIGHT www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 60 Perrow LOOSEcouplings 3/22/2011 60 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  61. 61. TIGHT COUPLING INTERACTIONS NON LINEAR BEHAVIOR LINEAR TIGHT COUPLING INTERACTIONS NON LINEAR BEHAVIOR LINEAR Complexity Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 61 LOW AMBIGUITY UNCERTAINTY HIGH INTERACTIONS CONNECTIONS LOOSE LOW AMBIGUITY UNCERTAINTY HIGH INTERACTIONS CONNECTIONS LOOSE
  62. 62. 3300183 183777 627 +383.00 +383.00 3300183 183777 627 +383.00 +383.00 HANGERS TOWERS MAIN CABLES GEOMETRIC NONLINEARITY Nonlinearity Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com www.francobontempi. org 62 +77.00 m+54.00 +118.00 +52.00 +63.00+77.00 m+54.00 +118.00 +52.00 +63.00 CONTROL DEVICES SOIL BEHAVIOR MATERIAL NONLINEARITY SOIL/STRUCTURE INTERFACE CONTACT
  63. 63. 3300183 183777 627 +77.00 m +383.00 +383.00 +54.00 +118.00 +52.00 +63.00 3300183 183777 627 +77.00 m +383.00 +383.00 +54.00 +118.00 +52.00 +63.00 GEOMETRY AND MATERIAL Uncertainty Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com www.francobontempi. org 63 STRUCTURAL MODEL LOADING SYSTEM
  64. 64. 3300183 183777 627 +77.00 m +383.00 +383.00 +54.00 +118.00 +52.00 +63.00 3300183 183777 627 +77.00 m +383.00 +383.00 +54.00 +118.00 +52.00 +63.00 TRAFFIC – STRUCTURE Interactions Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com www.francobontempi. org 64 WIND - STRUCTURE SOIL - STRUCTURE GLOBAL/LOCAL STRUCTURAL BEHAVIOUR
  65. 65. DOI:10.3267/HE2008 Approcci di analisi HPLC Eventi Frequenti con Conseguenze Limitate LPHC Eventi Rari con Conseguenze Elevate Impostazione del problema: Deterministico ANALISI QUALITATIVA ANALISI PRAGMATICA www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 65 DOI:10.3267/HE2008 Complessità: Aspetti non lineari e Meccanismi di interazioni Deterministico Stocastico QUALITATIVA DETERMINISTICA ANALISI QUANTITATIVA PROBABILISTICA PRAGMATICA CON SCENARI 3/22/2011 65 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  66. 66. Scenari (D.M. 14 settembre 2005) Il Progettista, a seguito della classificazione e della caratterizzazione delle azioni, deve individuare le possibili situazioni contingenti in cui le azioni possono cimentare l’opera stessa. A tal fine, è definito: • lo scenario: un insieme organizzato e realistico di situazioni in cui l’opera potrà trovarsi durante la vita utile di progetto; • lo scenario di carico: un insieme organizzato e realistico di azioni che www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 66 66 • lo scenario di carico: un insieme organizzato e realistico di azioni che cimentano la struttura; • lo scenario di contingenza: l’identificazione di uno stato plausibile e coerente per l’opera, in cui un insieme di azioni (scenario di carico) è applicato su una configurazione strutturale. Per ciascuno stato limite considerato devono essere individuati scenari di carico (ovvero insiemi organizzati e coerenti nello spazio e nel tempo di azioni) che rappresentino le combinazioni delle azioni realisticamente possibili e verosimilmente più restrittive. 3/22/2011 66 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  67. 67. Overview of scenario analysis Determine geometry, construction and use of the building Establish maximum likely fuel loads Estimate maximum likely number of occupants and their locations Establish performance requirements www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 67 and their locations Assume certain fire protection features Carry out fire engineering analysis Acceptable performance Accept design Modify fire protection features No Yes Buchanan,2002 3/22/2011 67 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  68. 68. ISO 13387: Example of Event Tree www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 683/22/2011 68 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  69. 69. CONTROLLING FIRE SPREAD • The larger a fire, the greater its destructive potential. • The control of fire movement, or fire spread, is discussed in four categories: www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 69 discussed in four categories: 1. within the room of origin; 2. to other rooms on the same level; 3. to other storey of the same building; 4. to other buildings. 3/22/2011 69 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  70. 70. Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com ISO 13387: Examples of Fire Spread Routes www.francobontempi. org 703/22/2011 70 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  71. 71. Fire spread within the room of origin • Fire spread within the room of origin depends largely on heat release rate of the initially burning object. • Vertical and horizontal fire spread will be greatly increased if the room is lined with combustible materials susceptible to rapid flame spread on the walls and www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 71 susceptible to rapid flame spread on the walls and especially on the ceilings. • The properties of interest are ignitability, flame spread and the amount of smoke produced; these are often called early fire hazard properties or reaction to fire properties; these properties can be improved with the use of special paints or pressure treatment. 3/22/2011 71 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  72. 72. Fire spread to adjacent rooms (1) • Spread of fire and smoke to adjacent rooms is a major contributor to fire deaths. Fire and smoke movement depends vey much on the geometry of the building. If doors are open, they can provide a path for smoke and toxic combustion products to travel from the upper layer of the fire room into the next room or corridor. www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 72 next room or corridor. • Keeping doors closed is essential to preventing fire spread from room to room. Doors through fire barrier must be able to maintain the containment function of the barrier through which they pass, whether for smoke control or fire resistance. • Door closing devices which operate automatically when a fire is detected are very effective for greatly increasing fire safety. 3/22/2011 72 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  73. 73. Fire spread to adjacent rooms (2) • Concealed spaces are one of the most dangerous paths for the spread f fire and smoke. Concealed cavities are a particular problem in old buildings, especially if a number of new ceilings or partitions have been added over the years. • Fire can also spread to adjacent rooms by penetrating the surrounding walls. Fire resisting walls must extend through www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 73 surrounding walls. Fire resisting walls must extend through suspended ceilings to the floor or roof above so that the fire does not spread by traveling through concealed space above the wall. • The wall can be extended above the roof line to form a parapet, or the roof can be fire-rated for some distance either side of the top of the wall. 3/22/2011 73 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  74. 74. Fire spread to others storey (1) • Vertical shafts and stairways must be fire-stopped or separated from the occupied space at each level to avoid producing a path for spread of fire and smoke from floor to floor. A particularly dangerous situation can arise if there are interconnected horizontal and vertical concealed spaces, within the building or on the façade. www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 74 on the façade. • This is particularly important of curtain-wall construction where the exterior panels are not part of the structure. Careful detailing and installation is necessary to ensure that the entire gap is sealed, especially at corners and junctions, to eliminate any possible path for fire spread. • Gaps such as these between structural and non-structural elements are often filed with non-rigid fire-stopping materials to allow for seismic or thermal movement.3/22/2011 74 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  75. 75. Fire spread to others storey (2) • Vertical fire spread can also occur outside the building envelope, via combustible cladding materials or exterior windows. • Vertical spread of fire from window is a major hazard in multi- story buildings. This hazard can be partly controlled by keeping windows small and well separated, and by using horizontal www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 75 windows small and well separated, and by using horizontal aprons which project above windows openings. • Flames from small narrow windows tend to project further away from the wall of the building than flames from long wide windows, leading to lower probability of storey fire spread. 3/22/2011 75 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  76. 76. Fire spread to other buildings • Fire can spread from a burning building to adjacent buildings by flame contact, by radiation from windows, or by flaming brands. • Fire spread can be prevented by providing a fire-resisting barrier or by providing sufficient separation distances. If there are openings in the external wall, the probability of fire spread depends greatly on the distances between the buildings and the size of the openings. It depends also on relative buildings www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 76 size of the openings. It depends also on relative buildings heights. • Collapse of exterior walls can be a major hazard for fire-fighters and bystanders, and can lead to further spread of fire to adjacent buildings. • Fire spread by flame contact is only possible if the buildings are quite close together, whereas fire spread by radiation can occur over many meters. Fire can also travel large distances between buildings if combustible vegetation is present.3/22/2011 76 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  77. 77. www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 77 IMPOSTAZIONE DELLA SICUREZZA Rischio 3/22/2011 77 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  78. 78. RISK CONCERNwww.francobontempi.org RISK RISCHIO HAZARD PERICOLO EXPOSURE ESPOSIZIONE SYSTEM SISTEMA (walking person pedone) (hole tombino) cause causa 78 VULNERABILITY VULNERABLITA' CONSEQUENCES CONSEGUENZE ENVIRONMENT AMBIENTE (sidewalk marciapiede) (path percorso) (distraction distrazione) June 2011 78www.francobontempi.org effect effetto
  79. 79. Risk treatment Option 1 : RISK AVOIDANCE START No Yes 100 % 50 % 50 % www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 79 Option 2 : RISK REDUCTION Option 3 : RISK TRANSFER Option 4 : RISK ACCEPTANCE STOP No No Yes Yes No 30 % 20 % 25 % 5 % 3/22/2011 79 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  80. 80. Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com Option 1 – Risk avoidance, which usually means not proceeding to continue with the system; this is not always a feasible option, but may be the only course of action if the hazard or their probability of occurrence or both are particularly serious; Option 2 – Risk reduction, either through (a) reducing the probability of occurrence of some events, or (b) through reduction in the severity of the consequences, such as downsizing the system, or (c) putting in place control measures; www.francobontempi. org 80 measures; Option 3 – Risk transfer, where insurance or other financial mechanisms can be put in place to share or completely transfer the financial risk to other parties; this is not a feasible option where the primary consequences are not financial; Option 4 – Risk acceptance, even when it exceeds the criteria, but perhaps only for a limited time until other measures can be taken. 3/22/2011 80 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  81. 81. Risk Analysis, Assessment, Management (IEC 1995) ,2002 www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 81 Luur,2002 3/22/2011 81 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  82. 82. Quantitative Risk Analysis ,2002 www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 82 Luur,2002 3/22/2011 82 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  83. 83. Risk-based decision making DEFINE CONTEXT (social, individual, political, organizational, technological) DEFINE SYSTEM (the system is usually decomposed into a number of smaller subsystems and/or components) HAZARD SCENARIO ANALYSIS (what can go wrong? how can it happen? waht controls exist?) Stewart&Melchers,1997www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 83 ESTIMATE PROBABILITIES (of occurrences) ESTIMATE CONSEQUENCES (magnitude) DEFINE RISK SCENARIOS RISK ASSESSMENT (compare risks against criteria) RISK TREATMENT option 1 - avoidance option 2 - reduction option 3 - transfer option 4 - acceptance SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS MONITOR AND REVIEW Stewart&Melchers,1997 3/22/2011 83 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  84. 84. RISK CONCERNS DEFINE CONTEXT (social, individual, political, organizational, technological) RSK ANALYSIS (for the system are defined organization, scenarios, and consequences of occurences) RISK MANAGEMENT RISK ANALYSIS RISK ASSESSMENT www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 84 RISK ASSESSMENT (compare risks against criteria) RISK TREATMENT option 1 - avoidance option 2 - reduction option 3 - transfer option 4 - acceptance MONITOR AND REVIEW ASSESSMENT 3/22/2011 84 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  85. 85. RISK CONCERNS DEFINE CONTEXT (social, individual, political, organizational, technological) RSK ANALYSIS (for the system are defined organization, scenarios, and consequences of occurences) RISK MANAGEMENT RISK ANALYSIS RISK ASSESSMENT www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 85 RISK ASSESSMENT (compare risks against criteria) RISK TREATMENT option 1 - avoidance option 2 - reduction option 3 - transfer option 4 - acceptance MONITOR AND REVIEW ASSESSMENT 3/22/2011 85 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  86. 86. RISK CONCERNS DEFINE CONTEXT (social, individual, political, organizational, technological) RSK ANALYSIS (for the system are defined organization, scenarios, and consequences of occurences) RISK MANAGEMENT RISK ANALYSIS RISK ASSESSMENT www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 86 RISK ASSESSMENT (compare risks against criteria) RISK TREATMENT option 1 - avoidance option 2 - reduction option 3 - transfer option 4 - acceptance MONITOR AND REVIEW ASSESSMENT 3/22/2011 86 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  87. 87. RISK CONCERNS DEFINE CONTEXT (social, individual, political, organizational, technological) RSK ANALYSIS (for the system are defined organization, scenarios, and consequences of occurences) RISK MANAGEMENT RISK ANALYSIS RISK ASSESSMENT www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 87 RISK ASSESSMENT (compare risks against criteria) RISK TREATMENT option 1 - avoidance option 2 - reduction option 3 - transfer option 4 - acceptance MONITOR AND REVIEW ASSESSMENT 3/22/2011 87 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  88. 88. RISK CONCERNS DEFINE CONTEXT (social, individual, political, organizational, technological) RSK ANALYSIS (for the system are defined organization, scenarios, and consequences of occurences) RISK MANAGEMENT RISK ANALYSIS RISK ASSESSMENT www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 88 RISK ASSESSMENT (compare risks against criteria) RISK TREATMENT option 1 - avoidance option 2 - reduction option 3 - transfer option 4 - acceptance MONITOR AND REVIEW ASSESSMENT 3/22/2011 88 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  89. 89. RISK CONCERNS DEFINE CONTEXT (social, individual, political, organizational, technological) RSK ANALYSIS (for the system are defined organization, scenarios, and consequences of occurences) RISK MANAGEMENT RISK ANALYSIS RISK ASSESSMENT www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 89 RISK ASSESSMENT (compare risks against criteria) RISK TREATMENT option 1 - avoidance option 2 - reduction option 3 - transfer option 4 - acceptance MONITOR AND REVIEW ASSESSMENT 3/22/2011 89 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  90. 90. RISK CONCERNS DEFINE CONTEXT (social, individual, political, organizational, technological) RSK ANALYSIS (for the system are defined organization, scenarios, and consequences of occurences) RISK MANAGEMENT RISK ANALYSIS RISK ASSESSMENT www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 90 RISK ASSESSMENT (compare risks against criteria) RISK TREATMENT option 1 - avoidance option 2 - reduction option 3 - transfer option 4 - acceptance MONITOR AND REVIEW ASSESSMENT 3/22/2011 90 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  91. 91. RISK CONCERNS DEFINE CONTEXT (social, individual, political, organizational, technological) RSK ANALYSIS (for the system are defined organization, scenarios, and consequences of occurences) RISK MANAGEMENT RISK ANALYSIS RISK ASSESSMENT www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 91 RISK ASSESSMENT (compare risks against criteria) RISK TREATMENT option 1 - avoidance option 2 - reduction option 3 - transfer option 4 - acceptance MONITOR AND REVIEW ASSESSMENT 3/22/2011 91 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  92. 92. www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 923/22/2011 92 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  93. 93. Scenarios DEFINE SYSTEM (the system is usually decomposed into a number of smaller subsystems and/or components) www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 93 HAZARD SCENARIO ANALYSIS (what can go wrong? how can it happen? waht controls exist?) ESTIMATE CONSEQUENCES (magnitude) ESTIMATE PROBABILITIES (of occurrences) DEFINE RISK SCENARIOS SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS RISK ANALYSIS FIRE EVENT3/22/2011 93 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  94. 94. Simulations DEFINE SYSTEM (the system is usually decomposed into a number of smaller subsystems and/or components) HAZARD SCENARIO ANALYSIS (what can go wrong? how can it happen? waht controls exist?) RISK NUMERICAL MODELING www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 94 waht controls exist?) ESTIMATE CONSEQUENCES (magnitude) ESTIMATE PROBABILITIES (of occurrences) DEFINE RISK SCENARIOS SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS RISK ANALYSIS 3/22/2011 94 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  95. 95. Fire safety concepts tree (NFPA) 1 2 3 4 Buchanan,2002 Strategie per la gestione dell'incendio 1 Prevenzione 2 Gestione dell'evento 3 Gestione dell'incendio 4 Gestione delle persone e dei beni 15 Difesa sul posto 16 Spostamento 17 www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 95 5 6 7 8 9 Buchanan,2002 Disposibilità delle vie di fuga 18 Far avvenire il deflusso 19 Controllo della quantità di combustibile 5 Soppressione dell'incendio 10 Controllo dell'incendio attraverso il progetto 13 Automatica 11 Manuale 12 Controllo dei materiali presenti 6 Controllo del movimento dell'incendio 7 Resistenza e stabilità strutturale 14 Contenimento 9 Ventilazione 8 3/22/2011 95 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  96. 96. Fire safety concepts tree (NFPA) Buchanan,2002 1 2 3 4 Strategie per la gestione dell'incendio 1 Prevenzione 2 Gestione dell'evento 3 Gestione dell'incendio 4 Gestione delle persone e dei beni 15 Difesa sul posto 16 Spostamento 17 www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 96 Buchanan,2002 5 6 7 8 9 Disposibilità delle vie di fuga 18 Far avvenire il deflusso 19 Controllo della quantità di combustibile 5 Soppressione dell'incendio 10 Controllo dell'incendio attraverso il progetto 13 Automatica 11 Manuale 12 Controllo dei materiali presenti 6 Controllo del movimento dell'incendio 7 Resistenza e stabilità strutturale 14 Contenimento 9 Ventilazione 8 3/22/2011 96 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  97. 97. FIRE SAFETY CONCEPTS TREE (NFPA) www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 97 Line 2 • La gestione dell’incendio non è necessaria se si previene l’ignizione. • Può essere solo ridotta la probabilità che avvenga l’ignizione. • Gli incendi dolosi è difficile da prevedere dal progettista 3/22/2011 97 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  98. 98. FIRE SAFETY CONCEPTS TREE (NFPA) www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 98 Line 4 Exposed persons and property can be managed by moving them from the building or by defending them in place; in order for people to move, the fire must be detected, the people must be notified, and there must be a suitable safe path for movement. 3/22/2011 98 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  99. 99. FIRE SAFETY CONCEPTS TREE (NFPA) www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 99 Line 6 • There are three options for managing a fire; in the first case the fuel source can be controlled, by limiting the amount of fuel or the geometry; the second options is to suppress the fire; the third is to control the fire by construction. • Control fire by construction it is necessary to both control the movement of the fire and provide the structural stability. 3/22/2011 99 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  100. 100. Line 9 - The two strategies for controlling fire movement are: a) fire venting: venting can be by an active system of mechanically operated vents, or a passive FIRE SAFETY CONCEPTS TREE (NFPA) www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 100 a) fire venting: venting can be by an active system of mechanically operated vents, or a passive system that relies on the melting of plastic skylights; in either case, the increased ventilation may increase the local severity of the fire, but fire spread within the building and the overall thermal impact on the structure will be reduced; b) containment of a fire to prevent spread is the principal tool of passive fire protection; preventing fire growing to a large size is ne of the most important components of a fire safety strategy; radiant spread of the fire to neighboring buildings must also be prevented, by limiting the size of openings in exterior walls; Smoke containment can also controlled by venting or containment; pressurizations and smoke barriers can also used. 3/22/2011 100 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  101. 101. Fire safety concepts tree (NFPA) (1) • Line 4 – exposed persons and property can be managed by moving them from the building or by defending them in place; in order for people to move, the fire must be detected, the people must be notified, and there must be a suitable safe path for movement. Buchanan,2002 www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 101 path for movement. • Line 6 – there are three options for managing a fire; in the first case the fuel source ca be controlled, by limiting the amount of fuel or the geometry; the second options is to suppress the fire; the third is to control the fire by construction. • Control fire by construction it is necessary to both control the movement of the fire and provide the structural stability. Buchanan,2002 3/22/2011 101 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  102. 102. Fire safety concepts tree (NFPA) (2) • Line 9 - the two strategies for controlling fire movement are: a) fire venting: venting can be by an active system of mechanically operated vents, or a passive system that relies on the meltig of plastic skylights; in either case, the increased ventilation may increase the local severity of the fire, but fire spread within the building and the overall thermal impact on the structure will be reduced; Buchanan,2002 www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 102 the structure will be reduced; b) containment of a fire to prevent spread is the principal tool of passive fire protection; preventing fire growing to a large size is ne of the most important components of a fire safety strategy; radiant spread of the fire to nighbouring buildings must also be prevented, by limiting the size of openings in exterior walls; Smoke containment can also controlled by venting or containment; pressurizations and smoke barriers can also used. Buchanan,2002 3/22/2011 102 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  103. 103. Design Process - ISO 13387 A. Design constraints and possibilities (blue), B. Action definition and development (red), www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 103 (red), C. Passive system and active response (yellow), D. Safety and performance (purple). 1033/22/2011 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  104. 104. SS0a PRESCRIBED DESIGN PARAMETERS SS0b ESTIMATED DESIGN PARAMETERS SS1 initiation and development of fire and fire efluent SS2 movement of SS5 life safety: occupant behavior, location and condition SS6 property loss SS7 business (0) DESIGN CONSTRAINTS AND POSSIBILITIES (1+2) ACTION DEFINITION AND DEVELOPMENT BUSOFINFORMATION DESIGN ACTION SAFETY&PERFORMANCE www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 104 movement of fire effluent SS3 structural response and fire spread beyond enclosure of origin SS4 detection, activitation and suppression business interruption SS8 contamination of environment SS9 destruction of heritage (3+4) SYSTEM PASSIVE AND ACTIVE RESPONSE BUSOFINFORMATION RESULTS RESPONSE SAFETY&PERFORMANCE 3/22/2011 104 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  105. 105. STRUCTURAL CONCEPTION STRUCTURAL TOPOLOGY & GEOMETRY threats No Yes threats STRUCTURAL MATERIAL & PARTS No Yespassive structural characteristics threats No Yes STRUCTURAL STRUCTURAL www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 105 FIRE DETECTION & SUPPRESSION active structural characteristics threats ORGANIZATION & FIREFIGHTERS No Yes threats MAINTENANCE & USE No Yes threats No alive structural characteristics Yes STRUCTURAL SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS STRUCTURAL SYSTEM WEAKNESS 3/22/2011 105 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  106. 106. STRUCTURAL CONCEPTION STRUCTURAL TOPOLOGY & GEOMETRY threats No Yes STRUCTURAL CONCEPTION STRUCTURAL TOPOLOGY & GEOMETRY threats No Yes threats STRUCTURAL MATERIAL & PARTS No Yespassive structural characteristics threats FIRE DETECTION & SUPPRESSION No Yes active structural characteristics threats ORGANIZATION & FIREFIGHTERS No Yes threats MAINTENANCE & USE No Yes threats No alive structural characteristics Yes www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 106 GEOMETRY threats STRUCTURAL MATERIAL & PARTS No Yespassive structural characteristics threats No Yes 3/22/2011 106 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  107. 107. FIRE DETECTION & SUPPRESSION No active structural characteristics threats ORGANIZATION & FIREFIGHTERS No Yes threats Yes STRUCTURAL CONCEPTION STRUCTURAL TOPOLOGY & GEOMETRY threats No Yes threats STRUCTURAL MATERIAL & PARTS No Yespassive structural characteristics threats FIRE DETECTION & SUPPRESSION No Yes active structural characteristics threats ORGANIZATION & FIREFIGHTERS No Yes threats MAINTENANCE & USE No Yes threats No alive structural characteristics Yes www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 107 threats MAINTENANCE & USE No threats No alive structural characteristics Yes 3/22/2011 107 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  108. 108. STRUCTURAL CONCEPTION STRUCTURAL TOPOLOGY & GEOMETRY STRUCTURAL MATERIAL & PARTS www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 108 FIRE DETECTION & SUPPRESSION ORGANIZATION & FIREFIGHTERS MAINTENANCE & USE CRISIS 3/22/2011 108 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  109. 109. HAZARD HOLES DUE TO ACTIVE ERRORS FAILURE PATH www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 109 IN-DEPTH DEFENCE HOLES DUE TO HIDDEN ERRORS 3/22/2011 109 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  110. 110. Causes of system failure 100% %offailure Unknown phenomena Research level Design code level BB B C www.francobontempi. org Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 110 Time %offailure Known phenomena past present future A BB B Humanerrors 3/22/2011 110 PROGETTAZIONE STRUTTURALE ANTINCENDIO
  111. 111. Str o N GER www.stronger2012.com 111 111
  112. 112. StroNGER S.r.l. Research Spin-off for Structures of the Next Generation Energy Harvesting and Resilience Rome – Athens – Milan – Nice Cote Azur Str 112 Sede operativa: Via Giacomo Peroni 442-444, Tecnopolo Tiburtino, 00131 Roma (ITALY) – info@stronger2012.com o N GER www.stronger2012.com

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