3D printing The Manufacturing RevolutionTeam CrocsFernando ComengeIrina GruzdevaDirk NuberMax SauvageauFrancisca Zanoguera
TechnologyWHAT IS “3D PRINTING” OR “ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING”?3D printing is an additive method to manufacture objects, in contrast with traditional methods which aresubtractive. This, together with the fine resolution of 3D printers, allow to build objects that could not existotherwise.HOW DOES IT WORK? Download Product Data Customize to Send Object information to a manufactured • From CAD files your own (desktop or shop preference in the machine floor)machineIn 3D printing materials (metal and ceramic powders, thermoplastics, alloy metals, paper, plaster, etc.) arethinly layered to build the object as determined by cross-sections of a 3D computer model.WHAT CAN BE MANUFACTURED WITH 3D PRINTING?Product is build layer by layer (from 4 microns to 10 millimeters thick), allowing to: Build all sizes of objects Build highly complex objects
Current technology options Additive technologies Base materials Selective laser sintering (SLS) Thermoplastics, metals powders, ceramic powders Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) Almost any alloy metal Fused deposition modeling (FDM) Thermoplastics, eutectic metals Stereolithography (SLA) Photopolymer Laminated object manufacturing Paper, foil, plastic film (LOM) Electron beam melting (EBM) Titanium alloys Powder bed and inkjet head 3d Plaster, Colored Plaster printing Plaster-based 3D printing (PP)
The Players CUSTOMER (Professional or Domestic)CU 3D MODELLING SOFTWARE 3D PRINTING SERVICESS COMPANIES COMPANIEST • Creation of CAD files • Focus: hobbyists, designers, engineers,O inventors, artistsM • Customized and on-demand productsI OZ UE TD S O UI RN C- 3D PRINTERS COMPANIES EH D • Focus: hobbyist, educational, industryO • sell of raw materialsU FINALS PRODUCTE
Current B2B & B2C applications Architects and In-house Design Art and End Use Parts Development (ornamental Fashion, Jewelry Manufacturing Modeling subjects). Design . Industrial and Academics and Medicine and AutomobileMechanical Design Education Stomatology Industry & Prototyping B2B B2C Design Industries
Business impactIMPACT ON MANUFACTURING PRACTICESAdditive vs. traditional subtractive manufacturing implies: vso Just-in-timeo Less/no inventoryo Order in bulko Economies of scale disappear, everything becomes customizableo Reduces waste, moulding residualo No need for assembly (complex pieces are built already assembled)o Manufacturing becomes localIMPACT ON CURRENT BUSINESS MODELSo Opportunities as much for mature companies (HEwlett-Packard, Canon, Kodak) to rejuvenate operationso Disruptive for actual players like AMZN: no need to get spare parts delivered at homeo Disruptive for home improvement stores: big push for DIYo Each part of object can be just catalogued instead of mass produced: when part breaks user goes on maker website, enters makes & models of machines, types in serial number of broken part, obtains the blue print, uploads in the printer, "prints" the new part, then install the new part. Or even just print a new machine!
The manufacturing revolution 3D printing can bypass most of the manufacturing value chain 2012 Design Material sourcing Prototyping Manufacturing Distribution •Impossible •“Printable” •Faster product •Economies of •Distribution is designs become materials cycles scale become bypassed once possible become more •Labor and less relevant everyone can valuable materials cost •Labor costs print at home •New businesses reductions reduction sell ready-for- (manufacturing print materials and assembly) Online design store3D printing will make manufacturing costs go down dramatically: • Reduces need for assembly as complex, fully-assembled designs can be printed directly • Eliminates prototyping costs and initial set up costs • Eliminates material spoilage (as compared to subtractive methods) • Reduces inventories • Eliminates distribution costs
A world full of 3D printers From To Consequences • Manufacturing • Manufacturing becoming • Emerging countries will delocalization to emerging fully local and automated. need to find other income Macroeconomics countries. sources. • High transaction costs. • International tensions? • Value in manufacturing and • Value in raw materials, • Manufacturing and distribution. design, high-tech products distribution companies will Value chain • Customization is expensive. and services. have to quickly adapt or • Customization is cheap. will disappear. • Innovation restricted to • Open source innovation. • Major technological leap professionals with access to • Online communities co- forward. Technology prototyping technology. developing new product and • Major applications and technologies. innovations that we cannot imagine today. • Go shopping to choose • Online search for designs • Information search objects. (find a needle in a haystack). services needed more than • Lot of time spent physically • Time spent browsing designs ever (e.g. Google). moving from shop to shop. online. • Those companies now also Information know what we own/make.
Tomorrow… Everyone will be able to play on a Stradivarius…We will travel in 3D printed, transparentairplanes… …and finding replacement organs will not be a problem any more … and in 3D-printed cars… …and will live in 3D-printed houses with 3D-printed furniture
Challenges and limitations• Economies: – economic value of things produced in 3D printers. – economy of scale for printers? – Additional step e.g. production of titanium powder – Slow and complicated process – low level of automation• Next automation step in manufacturing – Job losses: Labor intense steps rationalize (e.g. foundries) – Training of workers in new fields (3D modeling, rendering, programming) – Assembly remains as is (e.g. cars) but with changes• Complex and perfectly accurate structures reduce e.g. weight but also dont leave margins for errors.• Need for completely new fields of material sciences: find printable materials which replace conventional materials with same characteristics• Challenge: Shift from conventional modeling to software modeling: Different requirements, loss of “touchy feeling”• Loss of artistic areas of modeling: need for computer design know-how• Resistance of conventional manufacturing industry
Risks• Health impact – fine powders• New and unknown characteristics of materials: – Material science unknown – Durability, strength, hardness? – Quality control in complex structures• Weapons: no limits?• Ethical issues: organ printing• New levels of Piracy: patent right violations of designs and products• Security: – Can everybody produce any key. Are locks safe at all any more? – Current example: skimming of ATMs with 3D printed tools – Identity theft: finger print scanners or retina scans. Accurate imitations possible?
Conclusionso 3D-printing will change the world at least as much as the Internet has changed ito The current manufacturing business model will soon become obsolete which will imply: o important disruptions to the economy of emerging countries and therefore to the world economy o manufacturing will go local againo The democratization of manufacturing will stimulate major leaps forward in technology: o as more people will have easy access to design and experimentation (open- source manufacturing) o additive manufacturing brings the possibility to create new material structures that were previously not possible o new applications/consequences that we cannot yet imagine todayo As the world starts to change, major business opportunities will arise
3D PRINTER BRANDS Product Company Price range Focus Max build size (in) Website line Hobbyist, $10,000 - $80,000 Educational, 11 models 21.7" x 15.5" x 11.8" http://printin3d.com Industry Educational, http://dimensionprinting.c $15,000 - $30,000 5 models 10" x 10" x 12" Industry om http://www.eos.info/en/h $35,000 - $100,000 Industry 6 models 28.3" x 14.9" x 14.9" ome.html Educational, $20,000 - $60,000 9 models 19" x 15" x 8" http://objet.com Industry 10.75" x 10.75" x $800 - $2,500 Hobbyist 2 models http://bitsfrombytes.com 7.25" $1,300 - $2,500 Hobbyist 1 model 3.8" x 4.3" x 4.5" http://makerbots.com $800 - $1,500 Hobbyist 3 models 5.5" x 5.5" x 5.25" http://pp3dp.com Educational, $2,500 - $6,500 4 models 36" x 24" x 36" http://fortus.com Industry $1,100 - $1,400 Hobbyist 2 models 8" x 8" x 5.5" http://botmill.com Educational, http://uprint3dprinting.co $16,000 - $21,000 2 models 8" x 6" x 6" Small Business m Source: https://3dprinterhub.com
3D SOFTWARE Power # File OS Company Price Support Website Versatility Formats Compatibility Documentation http://usa.autodes $3,500 Top-of-the-line , Forum, 3rd 38 Windows, Mac k.com/3ds-max Party Tutorials Windows, Mac http://www.rhino3 $300-$1000 Very strong Wiki, Blog 30 (beta) d.com Forum/Blog, Windows, Mac, http://sketchup.go Free - $100 Moderate 2 Free Tutorials Linux/Wine ogle.com Windows, Mac, Strong http://www.blende Free Basic-Moderate 18 Linux, Free Community r.org BSD $4000- Extensive Windows, Mac, http://usa.autodes Top-of-the-line 36 $6000 Documentation Linux k.com/autocad/ Free tutorials, standard Window, Mac http://www.alibre. $200 Moderate paid support .STL (w/emulator) com standard https://tinkercad.c Free Basic FAQs Browser-based .STL om standard http://www.3dtin.c Free Basic Community Browser-based .STL om Source: https://3dprinterhub.com