.THEINTELLECTUAL REPOSITOR~, AND NEW JERUSALkM MAGAZINE. VOL.XIII.-ENLARGED SERIES. 1866. LONDON:PUBLISHED BY THE GENERAL CONFERENCE OF THE NEW CHURe If. SIONI.IED BY THB NEW JERUSALEM IN THE REVELATION: AND IOLD BY C. P. ALVEY, 36, BLOOMSBURY S"fREET, V.C.
THE INTELLECTUAL REPOSITORY AND NEW JERUSALEM MAG.JZINE. No. 145. JANUARY 1ST, 1866. VOL. XIII. INSPIRATION.THERE is no serious believer in the superiority of mans nature and destiny to that. of the beasts which perish, t~ whom this subjectis not one of paramount interest. That it is widely felt to be so isnot more manifest in the readiness with which the Christian Churchfrom its earliest ages has held the Scriptures to be Gods gift forguiding men to heaven, than in the earnestness with which numbersin the present day are asking for evidences of the Divine authorship ofthe received Scriptures. It was well, perhaps, while the human intellectlay slumbering under the mesmeric manipulations of priestly domination,that the human heart could to any extent be bronght into rapport withthe inner life-the spiritual realities of the written Word, so thatalthongh its letter was little understood, the inflow of its spirit couldavail to turn men from evil courses to some love for righteousness.The full purpose bf the Lord, however, in sending His Word to men isto enlighten their understandings, and by means of the light received to renew their hearts that so they may excel in goodness and be prepared for the higher degrees of heavenly life. For this reason we are now living under a new outpouring of divine truth from heaven. And it is this new light which is flowing into mens minds and awakening their rational powers into new activity, causing them to ask of their teacherssatisfactory evidence for the truth of their doctrines; and when referredto the Scriptures, to ask again for proofs of the authority of the sacredwritings. Thus awakened to serious inquiry, they cannot be satisfied 1
2 INSPIRATION. with the assertion that the Bible is Gods own word communicated by inspiration to those who wrote it. Even with a sense of much instruc- tion to be found in it for the guidance of their spirits upward, and the right direction of their conduct, they fear to receive it as the unmixed truth sent from God, for the reason that riot only in its pages is there much that appears irrelevant to the purpose of a revelation of Gods will to men, but many things also seemingly opposed to goodness andto truth. No wonder that in their anxiety to exonerate inspired truth of all duplicity, they ignore the decision of ecclesiastical authority uponthe plenary inspiration of the Bible, and set about to discriminatetherein its inspired from its non-inspired parts, and that the kind of in-spiration which they allow to its better parts they equally attribute tomany other writings that make no pretension to Divine authorship.For if nothing higher than the sensually conceived appearances of truthwith which the Word has clothed itself in its literal sense be presentedto their opening rationality, and they hear of no diviner kind of in-spilation than suffices to produce excellence in human compositions,how can they subscribe to the divinity of the entire Scriptures? Are not the wisdo~ and mercy of the Lord manifest in the delightfulfact that the rational inquirer can now be met with a theory of Divineinspiration that-sans all priestly or scholastic authority-he may proveto be the true Qne,-a theory which, while it maintains all the beautifulconsistency and purity that must distinguish all diVine truths, calls forno expulsion of a single passage from the literal sense which, clothesthem, however numerous may be the instances in which that literalsense may seem to contradict spiritual or scientific verities. Is it not amercy that, however valuable or interesting an extensive Biblical know-ledge may be, or the ability to muster on the battle-field of criticism awhole host of versions in their various languages~ still that understand-ing of, and faith in, a Divine revelation with which the rational mindcan be satisfied, may beobtained by ascending above all the din :andobscurity of that battle-neld, and looking for truth in that new lightwhich the opened heaven is now shedding upon the human mind? Inthis new light, or this light of the New Dispensation, the written Wordof God discloses the transparency of its outer covering, and directs thespiritual eye to the living truths within, where the Divine inspiration ofall that is written is no longer a dogma of the church, but a clearlyrevealed fact. How accordant with the wisdom, as well as with themercy, of our Heavenly Father that it should be thus I-that His in-spired Word should be adapted to that common faculty of our humanity,
INSPIRATIOl-i •the understanding, rather than to the rare acquirement of prodigiouSlearning ;-that it is sent, not to make scholars but men wise untosalvation. But although scholarship is not necessary to a rationalunderstanding of inspired truth, and the simplest minds appreciation ofit may lead to heaven, yet whoever wishes to be as wise as God wouldhave him be, must make the best use of his rational and perceptivepowers. Every piece of Divine workmanship in outward nature, is a unity ofinnumerable particulars most wisely formed and arranged for contri-buting to the perfection of the entire thing. H a plant, a 1l0wer, oran insect exhibit so much wisdom in its Creator, is it rational to thinkthat in the regeneration of man into His own image and likeness,Divine Wisdom will satisfy itself with just a few new formations, andthe impartation of a few general virtues? Can there be a lcss amountof wondrous reconstructi<?ns and arrangements in reorganising thespiritual heart and mind than in the creation of a lily or a sparrow?Is it unreasonable, then, to look into Gods Word for innumerablevarieties of truths, for wonderful organizations of them,-indeed forTruths description of every particle, so to speak,-of every portion, ofevery member in the constitution of the regenerated human spirit? Whocan count up the innumerable particulars comprehended in the greatwork of redemption? and are not the things concerning this treated ofin all the Scripture, or through the entire Word? Can a revelationgiven to build up the souls of men into living forms of righteousnessand truth, that as the workmanship of God, He may regard them asworthy to be called His sons and daughters,-can such a revelationcontain less than infinite wisdom, or can its things of wisdom be fewerthan infinite? But this is not the character of the Scriptures regardedin their literal sense alone. The wisdom of God by its inspirations hasselected from among such knowledges, ideas, sentiments, imaginations,and perceptions as the sensually limited Batural mind could express inthe outward forms of human speech,not the divine truths themselves,for the plane of the natural mind was neither high enough nor pureenough to express t~em, but their representatives or symbols, by meansof which the intermediate degrees of truth between the divine and thenatm·al might descend, and find reception" into the spiritual degrees ofmens understandings, to develop their inner, their immortal faculties,and to furnish them with all truths requisite to fit them for the life ofheaven. Divine truth coming down by inspiration into the lowest planeof human thought, there to construct a representative of itself, selected
4 ·INSPIRATION. its materials from the things there existing. Now these, owing to the general corruption of human nature, had become such as to necessitate those features in the character of this representative of divine truth which they who only know of the literal sense of Scripture are ready, in their sceptical moods, to stigmatise as marks of non-inspiration. It is well when the mere letter fails to satisfy inquiring minds of its divinity, if, in the confidence that all should feel of the Universal Fathers providing care for the wants of His immortal creatures, preju- dices are cast aside, and serious attention is given to such new views ofdivine inspiration as Providence brings to their doors, especially whenthey come professing to meet the wants that are felt, and, as is some·times the case, recommended by those who have felt the same wants,and found in them adequate relief. Some of us who have experienced these wants and this relief cantestify to the rational and satisfactory nature of the New Churchdoctrine that the written Word of God is plenarily inspired. We donot boast that by using the rnle of interpretation given to us we areable to elicit with ease the spiritual insttuction contained within anypassage of the Word on which our attention may at any time happen toalight. The weakness of our finite powers cannot grasp the infinity ofdivine truth; but this we can say, that so far as we can perceive thecorrespondence of natural things to things spiritual, the letter of theWord opens to us spiritual truths excelling in number, variety, beauty,and use, all that can be drawn from it when only its literal sense isregarded ;-that whenever, under the belief and consciousness that allspiritual illumination must come from the Lord, we have been able toapply the given rnle of interpretation either for the purposes of our ownprogress in the way of life or for the instruction of others, we havediscemed the unfoldings of spiritual truth revealing divine and heavenlythings to our understandings, adding to our perceptions of the gloriousattributes of our God, showing us something more of the nature ofheaven, affording us new discoveries of our own deficiencies and instruc-ting us how to remove them, awakening into renewed energy the bestfeelings of our hearts by the pure and wondrous goodness .that we haveseen to pervade all truths teachings, and enabling us to stand morefirmly in the hour of temptation and to perform our duties with morepurified motives. With all this experience of the reality and efficacyof a spiritual sense in the wri~ten Word, and an increasing discovery ofthe harmony and unity of the spiritual sense throughout the whole ofthose books in the commonly received canon of Scripture, which have
INSPIRATION.been pointed out to us as containing it, disbelief in the Divine author-ship of those books becomes to us an impossibility. The spiritualsignifications of the Scriptures are to us the Word of God, and theirliteral sense is its infallible representative, formed by infallible wisdomout of the materials that the natural degree of human thought wascapable of presenting to the divine influx, and among which existedthe impurities, fallacies, and incongruities of human natures fallencondition. While, therefore, the sincere inquirer, not yet acquaintedwith the true character of the divine inspiration of the Word, is puzzled,bewildered, and disheartened in seeking for evidences of the Divineauthorship of the Scriptures in their literal sense, and a self-sufficientand censorious criticism is exultingly trying its little artifices to ignore the spiritual sense of the Word, we who have found safety for our religious faith in the New Church doctrine of divine inspiration have reason indeed for thankfulness to the Giver of all good, and for con-tinually rememberihg our responsibility in possessing this great gift by living that life of charity to which every passage of divine inspiration points us. T. C. LITTLE THINGS.IN our Bojourn through life, whatever may be our position or statiOD,we shall find that "little things" bring about great results, and that itis only by taking heed to "little things" that we shall eventually beable to grasp at and to understand some of those greater things ! Wehave much need to be more watchful-to see if in " little things" wecannot mor~ strictly glorify our Father-that our thoughts ever maybe in accordance with His mind. A thought is indeed a minute thing,but if encouraged within the human heart, it grows and enlarges untilat last it becomes yery p~rt of man himself! How important I then, isit that our thoughts should be for good, and how very mueh causehave we to pray.........." Cleanse the thoughts of our hearts, 0 God I "--andwhen our thoughts are pure, our actions will testify of them, and weshall then bear witness of that light which shineth more and more intoour hearts as we yield ourselves to its holy in1luence ! The things ofGod are revealed and disclosed to us as we are able to bear them.o let 1UI see, then, that we refuse not to prepare and strengthen oursouls for deeper insight into "the secret of the Lord!" We need togive ourselves up more fully to the Lord-going to Him just as we are,in childlike simplicity and confidence. Thus, and thus only, shall we consciously experience and realise our Fathers care for us, and be able
6 LITTLE THINGS.to hear and. widerstand the " still small voice" that is ever speaking tous and exercising a holy influence over us. The fresh infiowing oftrutho,s it proceeds will have various effects upon different minds,according to the conditions it encounters in its way-commencing asthe voice of Divine instruction addressed to the mental ear, and accom-mCdating itself to circumstances. In all things we must take the Lordas our example, and see if, in daily life, we cannot, as He did, drawlessons for our profit and encouragement from what is around us. Wemay be .quite sure that if we do not accustom ourselves to recognisethe Divine, hand in" little things," we shall fail to do so in those whichare great, and we shall not understand what confidence in God is ;-itis only when we "wait on the Lord," that we can enter into thatconfidence which can leave everything in His hands.. In our conversewith others; let us be sincere and open as the day-putting far from usthe unkind thought or word, and endeavouring, as much as we can, tolet the peace of God reign in our hearts; we shall then find that"nothing will greatly move us," and that instead of darkness on allsides a great light is shining, and that our eyes, though not creative,are receptive of those noble truths which will lead us on more and moreto know the Divine Teacher; we shall then find that there is a directcoriununioation between the interiors and the exteriors of the mind, andthat in all the wondrous events around us, religious and secular, we canniark· ,the hand of Divine Providence overruling all things for good!Let eaoh olie of us, then, look to himself, that his little world may beproduetive of good, and send out sunshirie and gladness before God andto our fellow -crea.tures in great and " little things ! " G~ J. THE LOVE OF WORK.,VHEN I was a little boy I recollect getting hold of a strange book,in wmch,among theological matters that I did not comprehend, wereinterspersed, memorable marv~s which the author stated that he sawin the spiritual.world. These I read with eagerness, but in the mostattractive ofthem-a vision of heaven, one of the angels astounded meby the assertion that· use was the highest aim of all things there, andthat everything was exalted· in heaven according as it was useful.This -seemed so common-place that I could not feel satisfied with it,and 610sed the book in disappointment. Such is probably the usual course of childish ideas; but when wegrow older, and become able to fill up ,,1.th thought the magnificent
THE LOVE OP WOBlt. 7outline in which spiritual things are defined in the Word of God, we,find that marvels of a higher kind await us-things far more opposedto natural feelings and frail hunian conceptions. It is a marvel of thiskind which would appear to be of such practical importance that Idesire to bring to your notice in this essay. There are few things in regard to which men are so much divided inopinion as that of the relative value of work. One man respects it,another despises it--all work in some way to gain their ends-few lovework for its own sake. It is, therefore, to ascertain the Christianity ofthis subject that we should first address ourselves; and where may we80 wisely go for our Christianity as to its meek Original ? "My Father worketh hitherto (or continually), and I work,"* werethe words with which the lowly Benefactor of mankind answered thosewho sought to destroy Him, because He had done good OD the Sabbathday. Many of those to whom this language was addressed were probably working people, who had previously toiled in many lands,assembled together at the feast in Jerusalem. Men they were, who,well accustomed to labour, yet expected a speedy termination of thatlabour. Puffed up with the vam-glorious hopes which the J ewe hadgathered by a gross rendering of spiritual prophecy, they nursed thefond desire that all would be altered for them when Messiah came.He, breaking through the arch of the :fimiament, followed by Hiscelestial army, was to trample down their enemies, to set the Jewishnation on high, to make all others tributary to it, to give to each trueIsraelite some three thousand slaves. No more work was then to bedone by a Jew, but, lapped in ease. and luxury, he should enjoy the Sabbath of a thousand years. Their minds being filled with, these ideas, we cannot imagine theconsternation, followed by anger and scorn, with which the appearance and the words of the Saviour were regarded by these Jews. Not dressed in trappings of earthly pride, followed by no visible. angelicarmy, the humble Teacher who came unawares to the feast. from the blue Galilean wa,ve, clad in perfect simplicity and that spirit of grace which shone most Godlike through it, attended by unlettered fishermenfrom that part of Palestine which the J aWl esteemed a land of dogs, unfit to eat at the Masters table,-with what contempt many must have beheld Him-with what hatredmor&-hatred,. that He. shoul4 have insulted their prejudices by such an Advent! But how must these feelings h.a.ve been increased when the Lord told those Jews that God, the Divine Father, worked continually, that He worked-and offended * John v. 17.
8 THE LOVE OF WORK~ their love of ease by showing that good was to be done, even on the Sabbath day. For if God worked, would not His people be required to work also? Such were their thoughts; and when the lesson was repeated, and again and again some miracle was performed on the Sabbath, more and more vehemently the Jews raged against Him, with fiercer zeal they sought ~ to destroy Him. For where in the Lords teaching was to be found anything favouring the idea of a coming reign of luxury and ease? He asserted that the Heavenly Father was incessantly active, creating new blessings for His children, watching sleepless over all, so that not a sparrow could fall to the ground without His knowledge. Unlike the gods of the old idolatries, who were believed to have set creation rolling and living, and then to have left it, only to interfere at uncertain intervals, the Lord Himself had come down on earth to save men, and to be their great example. And as that example, what gentle diligence, what constancy, is displayed throughout that life, as recorded in the Gospel! How the Divine love of doing comes forth in those words to the disciples at the Samaritan well !-" My meat is to do the will of Him that sent Me, and to finish His work." The frequent references made to work in the Gospels, especially in that of John, have always appeared to me to be of more than ordinary significance. As there is a Divine purpose in the Lords words, and as these words-the expression of the Divine Mind-should convey the expression of ours, therefore, as the Lord is ever intent on works of good, so also should we be. We must not, as Christians, seek a heaven of the old J udaism, and sigh after anothingness of ease, but learn to follow Him who compareth His disciple to one that putteth his hand to the plough. The whole Gospel teacheth us that nothing is so indicative of true Christianity, or more necessary to its existence, than a steady, honest love of work. The life, the love of the Saviour was that of doing good, and such should be our life, our love. He, the Light of the World, came to give that light to us; but He commanded us to let ourlight so shine before men that they might see our good works, and glorify (not us) our Father who if;) in heaven. Therefore, the greatJudge distinguishes the faithful, not by the expressed belief of their lips, but by the inwrought faith of their hearts ;-" They shall bejudged according to their works."*. A healthy Christianity, which is bom within the soul from honest~onviction of the tJ:uth of the words of the Lord, must grow up stalwart and strong by the efforts of an active industry. These words open to • Matt. xxv.
THE LOVE OF WORK. 9 ns an immense field of labour, and appoint us our tasks therein. Ifwe do these tasks with steadiness while they seem hard, they in timebecome easier, and even pleasing. We who have felt a flush of hopeat the commencement of a work, feel the delight of finishing it, and wecommence again with an ardour and satisfaction we had not felt before.So the love of work grows within us. H idleness is not the root of all evil, there is little doubt that in-dustry is the root of all good. All our natural desires crave indul-gence, and the ease which tends to cormpt and deaden our spiritualenergies; therefore it is only by constant activity that we grow intohealthy life. By this activity is not to be understood mere drudgery.All men can do the drudgery of this life when they are forced to it; butfewer do heartily work; for no labour which a man performs becauseit is necessary to something else which he must have, can really becalled work, unless he loves it for its own sake. Unloved labour isslavish; so far as men do it they are mere hewers of wood and drawersof water, and will not be anything higher. A man must love what hedoes, and do what he loves, in order that his labour may attain to thedignity of work in the Christian sense of the term. And if a man doesthis, it is not at all necessary that the task should be what the worldcalls a high one to be capable of noble work. The lowliest occupationsmay be dignified by it, and every task will be ennobled,-every manssoul will be strengthened and elevated into a closer fellowship with thegreat workers who have built up the past into the present, so far as heloves to do that which it is his duty to do. All those who have done the noblest work have had the love of workwithin them. Who can take up a book, the production of a mastermind, and not feel at every sentence that love was present through allthe work of writing it, leading him on like a beautiful star? Who canlook upon a great picture, and not perceive in every tender line, inevery lofty conception, in every colour that bursts forth into splendourfrom the midst of shade, how the artist loved to paint it? All greatwork is great because it is loved,apart from all selfish considerations ;and all work that is loved has in it the elements of greatness. From what has been said it may be easily gathered that the happiest men who have lived have been those who have loved work. There is a freshness about them which others have not,-an alacrity in their habits which preserves them from the rust that collects on slothful tem· pers.. Each day brings its own tasks, which are fulfilled, and every fresh day rouses them to something new. By these men sorrow and
10 THE LOVE OF WORK.misfortune are less severely felt, are more easily borne, than by others.In deepest distress, in bitterest disappointment, it is always possible tofind something to do; arid the doing of that something,-the loving todo it, are often the only means which preserve men from despair. Ionce heard of a gentleman who was confined in a dungeon for manyyears, previous to the French revolution, and who, after he wasliberated, assured his friends that he had saved himself from insanityduring his solitary imprisonment by sticking pins in the back of anarmchair, in every-varying devices, which was the only work he couldfind to do. The same truth is displayed, on the other hand, by instances of those,who have worked, not from the love of it, .but simply for their ownadvantage. It ~as been the bitter experience of many a man ofbusiness who has worked to get rich and then retired, that the love ofwork had, in spite of himself, gained.s, hold upon him, while his selfishdesires, being fulfilled, have not ,brought him happiness. He seekspleasure for its own sake in. vain; his old business friends drop himone by one; pleasure-seekers despise him, while he is dissatisfied withthem; and he ends his days a miserable man, with a vacuum in hisheart, and a consciousness that his selfish toil has, undone him. We have therefore seen that work is our Christian duty,-that all work is noble and Christian; so far as it is loved fur the sake of the good it will do to our neighbour and the glory it will. lay at the feet of our Heavenly Father. Such work is·the joy of every true mans life,and it does not end on earth. It is the real happiness of all angelic life; for there "is not an angel mentioned through the whole Bible who is not spoken of a~ engaged in .some holy office or useful work. And St. Paul, who says he was canght up to the third heaven,* asks, in regard to the angels-" Are they not all, ministering spirits, sent forth to minis~r for them who shall be heirs of salvation"? t Ministering spirits! flashing like arrows of light along the celestial highway, to do their Masters service; bearing up, the true Christian in their arms, lest at any time he shonId dash, his foot, against ,a stone ; guardirig him with :flaming swords in dark ·temptation" softening the last great pangs of death. May it, then, be our blest lot· to~ love to do our duty here through the six days of .earthly toil; ·,then shall we be led into the Holy City to elfoy with our Master and Lord; a sabbath of peace, of rest from strife, but a sabbath of doing -good. - Birmingham. J. W. T. • 2 Cor. xii. 2. . + Bab. i. 14.
11 MINISTERIAL SALARIES.I T is time that the attention of the Church were drawn to the generalinadequacy of our ministers salaries. We are taught, that "thelabourer is worthy of his hire," and that "the Lord hath ordained thatthey who preach the Gospel, should live by the Gospel." (1 Cor. ix.14.) And that living should be a comfortable and respectable one. A minister, in order that he may perform his high duties properly, should have his mind free from worldly cares and anxieties. How can one who is distressed about providing for the necessities of his family, be expected to be able to lift his mind into those abstract and elevated regions of thought, in which the topics dwell on which he must speak I lIoreover, a minister, from his position in society, is obliged to appe~r, and have his family appear, in a respectable manner: he is obliged to have a respectable house, clothes, furniture; and his people would not be pleased, were he to appear otherwise. And yet they are too apt to forget that his means of so doing depends on them: they require more than they give. Is this just? Furthermore, a minister has expenses peculiar to his office. He has, for instance, to provide himself with expensive books of reference; he cannot do his duty without them. And, if he would not be behind the age, he has, from time to time, to -continue the purchase of important theological works, which, from their limited sale, are almost always costly. His salary should be sufficient to enable him to meet such expenses "without distressing his family. From information communicated by some late visitors to this country, we learn that our brethren in America are far out-doing us in this l-espect. We understand that there are D:0 fewer than jour New Church societies in that country who give their ministers salaries of £400. and upwards, namely, the societies of Boston, New York, Cincinnati, and Chicago. There is no such salary, or anything approaching it, given to New Church ministers in this country. The highest is £800., and there is but one such; and only one or perhaps two of £200: all the rest are below that sum, and some much below it. And yet some of the above-named American societies are not so large as several of ours, andwe presume no wealthier. The Chicago society, for instance, has, we understand, only 120 or 180 members; and the New York society is by no means a large one, yet the salary it gives its minister is upwards ·of £500. But the truth is, much more attention has been paid to this
12 MINISTERIAL SALABIES..subject in America than here. . The convention has from time to time,we believe, called the attention of societies to this duty.. And theBocieties themselves have appointed special committees to gather inform-ation, and report upon it; and these reports have produced a markedeffect, as appears from the facts above stated. Some of the memberstax themselves, on principle, one-tenth of their income, for this andother church purposes. Where such zeal prevails, the Church cannotbut flourish, and the ministers be adequately snpported. X. TEMPTATION. Christian! when thy foes nntiring, Mnstring round thee, try their power, And thou feelst thy spirit wavering, In some dark temptations hour, Think npon thine angel guardians, Grieved and watchful, hovring near, And as they behold thee falter, Trembling with a holy fear ; Think upon thy tempters whispring,- How each sweet seductive wile Comes from those whose hearts are burning, Like themselves, to make thee vile. Tempted to thine own destruction,- Called to everlasting life,- E er thou yield, oh I pause and ponder On the issue of the strife; Cry unto thy Lord and Helper, Set thy face against the wrong; So by struggle and by conquest, He will make thy spirit strong ; - Strong to fight, and still to conquer, Till, renned and purified, Thou shalt fall asleep and waken, Angels watching by thy side. r. P. o
18 ON THE FINAL STATE OF DAVID AND PAUL.WB believe it was in a life of Swedenborg, written by an ardentadmirer, who boasted that he had said the worst that could be said ofhis hero, leaving it to others to say the best, that the statement firstappeared that, according to the testimony of the great seer, David andPaul were among the lost. What a candid friend thought himself con-strained to admit, unfriendly and uncandid critics are naturally readyto proclaim and anxious to confirm. When friend and foe unite inpropagating such an opinion as a fact, what can those do who take theirinformation at second hand, but listen and believe} As the final stateof David and Paul is a subject which, apart from controversy, must bedeeply interesting to the members of the New Church, and, as it isimportant that the question should be decided, we propose to bring itunder their consideration. We hope to be able to show that theopinion which has been put forth as a statement of Bwedenborgs isnothing more than an inference drawn from partial and imperfectevidence, and that had his talented, biographer taken sufficient pains tocollect and examine all the evidence on the subject, such a statement&s he has made would not have disfigured one of the most brilliantbiographies ever. written, on one of the greatest men that ever lived. The notion that David and Paul are among the lost rests entirely onstatements in Swedenborgs "Spiritual Diary." It is important toconnect these statements with the time and circumstances in which theDiary was written. The author alleges that at a particular time he wascalled by the Lord to the double office of seer and expositor. Hisspiritual sight was opened, and, as a consequence, he was admitted tosensible intercourse wi~ the inhabitants of the spiritual world. Amongthose whom he saw there were David and Paul. If the records whichhe has left of them in his Diary were to be taken alone, or were descrip-tive of their final condition, there might be some reason to concludethat their state was bad, and their lot unhappy. But there are twofacts to be considered. The place where they were seen was ihe worldof spirits, the intermediate state, the region between heaven and hell, which is the temporary abode of all souls, good and bad; and the time they were seen there was previous to the Last Judgment. It is evident, therefore, that the state of David and Paul, as described in the Diary, was not their final state, whatever that state might be.
14 ON THE FINAL STA,:IE OF DAVID AND PAUL.In a former article we have shown, from the Diary itself, that the finalstate and condition of souls may be not only different from, but thereverse of, that which in the world of spirits they appear to be. If thefinal state of David and Paul is to be ascertained, it must of course befrom testimony relating to them after the last judgment had been per·formed. The Diary affords no information respecting their state andcondition subsequent to that event, nor for some time previous to it.We must therefore look for it elsewhere. In the authors publishedwritings we have such testimony-testimony which will leave no roomin any mind for honest doubt. The work from which we draw ourtestimony respecting the final state of David was published in 1758,the year after the date of the general judgment. In the treatise on "Heaven and Hell" there is a chapter entitled-"No one comes into heaven from immediate mercy." In this chapterthe author declares that "if men could be saved by im~ediate mercyall would be saved, even those who are in hell;" but he shows thatnone can come into heaven except those who have heaven within them.He tells us that he had conversed with the angels on this subject, andhe adduces their testimony : - "The angels professed that they had never seen anyone who had lived an evillife received into heaven from immediate mercy. On being questioned respectingAbraham, lSMc, Jacob, and David, and respecting the apostles, whether they werenot received into heaven from immediate mercy, they replied, Not one of them;and that every one was received according to his life in the world; that they knewwhere they were; and that they were not in more estimation than others." 521-6.It is hardly necessary to say a single word on this statement, except toremark how decisive it is. The angels who conversed with our seer Inot only knew that David was in heaven, but they knew in what par· .ticular part of heaven he was, and that, according to the impartialjustice which there prevails, he was esteemed simply according to hismerits. The angels mention this for the purpose of pointing out thatthe terms in which he and other representative characters are spokenof. in the Word, from which literalists hold them to have been thepeculiar favourites of heaven, have reference to their representative andnot the~personal character. If it be possible that any objection canbe made to the decisiveness of this statement, on the ground that thE!" where" of David and the others is indeterminate, and may meaneither heaven or hell, or both,-we need only observe, that the quee·tioI requires the" where" in the answer, nothing being stated to thecontrary, to mean heaven; that the angels were not likely to know th~
ON THE FINAL STATE 9F DAVID AND PAUL. 15whereabouts of any in hell; and that " estimation," or esteem, impliesexcellence, which can only exist in heaven. So much for David. The work from which we shall draw our testimony respecting thefinal state of Paul is the last which the author wrote, and it describesthe state of that apostle more than. twenty years after the particularsrespecting him in the Diary were written. In the treatise on "True Christian Religion," n. 4, we find thisstatement : - " The Christian church, since the time of the Lords coming into the world, haspassed through the several periods of its existence, from infancy to extreme oldage. Its infancy was in the days of the apostles, when they preached throughoutthe world repentance, and faith in the Lord GOd the Saviour Jesus Christ. Thatthis was the substance of their preaching is plain from these words in the Acts ofthe Apostles,- Paul testified both to the Jews aJ,ld also to the Greeks repentancetowards God, and faith towards our Lord Jesus Christ. (20, 21.) It is here worthremarking, as a memorable circumstance, that not many months ago the Lord calledtogether His twelve disciples, now angels, and sent them forth throughout thewhole spiritual world, with a commission to preach the Gospel anew; inasmuch asthe church which the Lord had established by their labours is at this day brought to such a state of consummation that scarcely any remains of it are left." Let us attend to this statement. The author first asserts that the doctrines of repentance and of faith in the Lord Jesus Christ were preached by the apostles, and in proof of this he cites a passage from the Acts of the Apostles, which relates that Paul preached these doctrines. Paul, then, is one of the apostles. He then goes on to say that a short time since the Lord called together His twelve disciples, now angels, and sent them throughout the whole spiritual World to preach the Gospel anew. What does this passage teach respecting Paul } Evidently this-that Paul, one of the apostles who, as men, preached the Gospel on earth at the time of the Lords First. Advent, is one of the apostles, now angels, who preached the Gospel anew in the spiritual world at the time of the Lords Second Advent. We submit that the passage admits of no other reasonable or even possible construction. According to this testimony of the author of the Diary, Pauls final state is that of an angel. The circumstance of the twelve apostles being sent to preach the Gospel anew in the spiritual world is mentioned in two other places in the same work, at Nos. 108 and 791. As the two passages are substantially the same, it will be sufficient to adduce the last. It occurs as a memorandum at the end of the chapter on the Second Coming of the Lord : -
16 ON THE FINAL STATE OF DAVID AND PAUL. u After this work was finished (says the author) the Lord called together Histwelve disciples, who followed Him in the world, and the next day sent. themthroughout the whole spiritual world, to preach the Gospel, that the Lord JesusChrist reigneth, whose kingdom shall endure for ever and ever." The only possible objection that can be raised on this passage is,that not Paul, but Judas, was one of the twelve who preached theGospel in the spiritual world, he having been one of those who followedthe Lord personally in the world. To suppose that the apostles whofollowed the Lord in the world must mean the twelve who followedHim personally, would be to take the authors statement in a verynarrow sense, and one inconsistent with others which are more precise.The general statements of allauthors are always to be understood withsuch specifications or limitations as more particular statements contain.For example, when the author tells us, as he repeatedly does, that manrises immediately after death, we are to understand this general state-ment as explained by the particular one, that resurrection commonlytakes place on the third day after decease. The authors object in thestatement we are now considering is to inform his readers that theLord did not choose new apostles from among the angels, to send forthon this new mission, but that those who had so well performed theirwork on earth, were honoured with the commission to engage in asimilar duty in the spiritual world. In the passages relating to thiswork in either ~.vorld where the apostles are particularised, the name ofJudas never occurs, while Paul is mentioned more frequently than anyof the others. But if the name of Paul occurs on any other occasionin such a way as to leave no doubt that he was one of the twelvedisciples sent to preach the Lords Second Advent in the other world,the general statement must be understood as including the particular one. That when the author speaks of the twelve apostles, as teachers ofthe Gospel on earth and now angels in heaven, he includes Paul in thenumber, is further evident from the same work in the chapter on Faith.In proving the proposition that-" a saving faith is a faith in theLord God the Saviour Jesus Christ"-after adducing a number of pas-sages from the Gospels, he appeals to the testimony of the apostles:- "That the faith of the apostles was no other than a faith in the Lord JesusChrist, is evident from many passages in their epistles, of which I shall onlyadduce the following: - Nevertheless I live, yet not I, but Christ li veth in Me;and the life which I now live in the flesh, I live by faith in the Son of God!(Paul to the Galatians, li. 20.) Paul testified to the Jews, and also to th9Greeks, repentance towards God and faith in our Lord Jesus Christ." (Acts xx. 21.)The author continues his quotations from the Epistles to show what
ON THE FINAL STATE OF DAVID AND PAUL. 17was the teaching of the apostles; and of the eight texts which headduces, seven are from the writings of Paul. It is evident, therefore,that he here recognises Paul as one of the apostles. Mter furtherconfirming his proposition by Scripture and reason, he concludes thissection with this remarkable declaration- " These were written in the presence of the Lords twelve apostles, who, whilstI was writing them, were sent to me by the Lord." (n.887-9.) That Paul was one of these twelve apostles there is no reason todoubt. The twelve apostles sent to Swedenborg are evidently thesame apostles who on earth had borne witness to the great truth onwhich he was then writing. There is nothing in the article that canlend the least countenance to any other supposition. Indeed thewhole force of the memorable fact rests upon the identity of thetwelve last mentioned and the twelve previously spoken of. Theapostles are :first spoken of as teachers of the Lords sole Divinity onearth, and they are next mentioned as sent to witness Swedenborgs teaching of the same great truth which they themselves had taught. Paul is distinctly named as one of the apostles who taught the Lords Divinity on earth, and is therefore one of the twelve who were present with the author while writing on the same subject. One other testification of the same fact that Paul is o~e of the twelve apostles who are now angels, we are enabled to draw from the snme work, where he is spoken of both as an apostle in heaven and in heaven as an apostle. At No. 781 commences. a memorable relation, giving a singularly graphic and instructive account of several different companies of persons who had recently come from the natural world, being called together by an angel, to deliver their sentiments on the subject of heavenly joys and eternal happiness, and of their being afterwards introduced into the enjoyment of that in which they had imagined heavenly joy and eternal happiness to consist. Among them was one company consisting of such as had persuaded themselves that the happiness of heaven consisted in feasting with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, wilJl sports and pastimes, in an eternal round of enjoyment. Besides these patriarchs, there are also introduced the twelve apostles, and among them the apostle Paul. At the conclusion of the introductory feast, at which both the patriarchs and apostles were present, the novitiates, we are told- "Were again invited to feasting, but with the particular provision that on the first day they were to sit with Abraham, on the second with Isaac, on the third with Jacob, on the fourth with Peter, on the fifth with James, on the sixth with John, on the seventh with Paul, and so on with the rest." 2
18 ON THE FINAL STATE OF DAVID AND PAUL.When these persons were surfeited with pleasure, and wished to fleefrom the further experience of their ideal happiness,- " Many of them were detained by the keepers of the grove, who questioned themabout the days they had feasted, and whether they had yet taken their turn withPeter and Paul, representing to them the shame and indecency of departing tillthey had paid equal respect to all the apostles."It is true that these were not the patriarchs .and apostles themselves,but- u Were old people in feigned characters, many of them husbandmen and peasants,who, having long beards, and being exceedingly proud and arrogant, in conse-quence of their we8lth, had imbibed the phantasy that they were .old patriarchs andapostles."But the phantastic characters imply the existence of the rea;} ones; andthe counterfeit implies the existence of the true Paul. That Paul wasnot only an apostle in heaven, but was recognised in heaven as anapostle, appears from the same memorable relation. We read that tenpersons were selected out of the whole number comprising the severalcompanies, and were introduced into an angelic society in heaven.Mter seeing many of the wonders of the place, and participating in thejoys of its angelic inhabitants, they were, when the period had anived,privileged to join the angels in the solemn services of the Sabbath.Mter hearing, from the priest of the society, a sermon full of the spiritof wisdom, JtS they were departing, the attendant angel- " Requested. the pliest to speak a few words of peace with his ten oompanionB ;so he came to :them, and they communed together for the space of half an hour.He discoursed on the Divine Trinity: that it is in Jesus Christ in whom dwelleth allthe fulness of the Godhead bodily, according to the declaration of the apostle Paul."Here is an angel-priest speaking of Paul as an apostle, and quoting hisapostolic words in heaven. The epistles of Paul, thus honoured in heaven, are no less honouredin the writings of the apostle of the New Dispensation, who assignathem a rank and authority equal to those of Peter, James, and John,and his quotations from them are more numerous tha~ those he makesfrom all the other epistles together. In his dogmatic writings, h~ ..quotes the epistles of Paul and the gospels with equal freedom, andplaces the quotations from them together under the same designation.As an instance, take a passage in the book we have been quoting. AtNo. 600, he says-" That the regenerate man is renewed, or ~ade new,is confirmed by the WORD OF GOD, from these passages," among whichhe cites Pauls words-" Henceforth know we no man after the :flesh;therefore, if any man be in Christ, he is a new creature." (2 Cor. v. 16.)
ON THE FINAL STATE OF DAVID AND PAUL. 19 In his published writings, our author bears another testimony to thesoundness of Pauls teaching, on an important point of doctrine onwhich he had impugned it in the Diary. It is evident, indeed, thatBwedenborgs views respecting the character of Pauls writings had,between the time he wrote the early part of the Diary and that in whichhe wrote his doctrinal works, undergone as great a change as had hisconvictions of the essential character of Paul himself. In the Diary hespeaks disparagingly of that apostles writings, and accuses him of beingthe author of the dogma of salvation by faith alone. In his publishedworks he admits his, with all the other epistles, as excellent and usefulwritings. He there says, indeed, that the whole system of modemtheology is founded upon a single passage of Paul; but, he adds, uponthat one passage misunderstood. It could not be misunderstood, ifunderstood as Paul himself understood it. The fact is, ~wedenborg,when called to his holy office, though even then a man of enlarged mindand enlightened views, held some of the current theological opinions,and among them, the opinion that Paul had really taught the doctrineof salvation by faith alone, without the works of the 11loral law. It wasnot till he was better instructed, or illuminated, that he saw the truth,as he afterwards declared it, that Paul spoke of the law in its Jewishsense,-the law as distinguished from the Gospel, J udaism as distin-guished from Christianity,-which he proves from the writings of thatapostle himself. Do we in this admission weaken the claims of S,vedenborg to Divineillumination? Nay, we strengthen them. That such a mind should,with the best light of his age, entertain such views, shows the necessitythere was for one who was to be the apostle of a new dispensationhaving a better and more ~ertain light to guide him. The circumstanceof some of the obscure notions of the school in which he was educatedadhering to him after his call, only illustrates what he himself sofrequently teaches-that no change of state is instantaneous, but gradual, varying according to the condition of the subject. The change with him, though supernatural, was not miraculous, and therefore not instantaneous. Unlike the prophets and evangelists, his was not verbal but mental inspiration. With them Divine light flowed into the memory and clothed itself with words; with him Divine light flowed into the understanding and clothed itself with thoughts. Such an illumination did not, and could not, change the current of his thoughts at once, but gradually. It was not, therefore, for some years after his call that he began to compose the first of his published works.
20 ON THE FINAL STATE OF DAVID AND PAUL.Previously to this he had industriously employed himself both as aseer and expositor. He had entered in his Diary much of his expe-rience in the spiritual world, and in his" Adversaria" he had essayedan eiposition of a considerable portion of the sacred Scriptures. Butthe fact that he laid these writings aside, and never afterwards usedthem except as a storehouse of materials, out of which he selected suehas he found would fit into the noble edifice he raised and has leftbehind, shows that he never intended them to be regarded as authorities. We might here close our remarks upon the subject. So far asregards the point in question we have done enough. The testimonyof later documents must be allowed to decide what an earlier documenthad left undetermined. Yet, lest the statements in the earlier documentmay seem to some to be inconsistent with the testimeny of the laterworks, we ttink it desirable to examine them. This we propose to doin our next. "HAS THE NEW CHURCH A GOSPEL?" To the Editor. In rep~y to the question, whether the New Church has a gospel topreach to the sinner, may I venture to offer a few remarks in theaffirmative?, Having for some years enjoyed the opportunity of visit-ing the female inmates of the UnioD in Louth, for the purpose ofreading and conversing with them on religious subjects, and beingcalled upon v.ery frequently to warn and instruct those who weresuffering (hopelessly in some cases) from the effects of their evil lives,the New Church Gospel has been all I have had to offer them, and ithas proved sufficient; I am thankful to believe in some cases, to lead,not to a "triumphant" death, but to that penitent and humble state ofmind which refused to find any excuse for its own sins, and whichalmost seemed to loathe the mention of them, whilst it confided humblyin the Divine mercy for pardon for the past and strength to overcometheir evil inclinations during the remainder of their lives. In othercases I have had the happiness of witnessing an entire renunciation ofthe paths of vice and a continuation in an opposite life. The truthswith which it has been my effort to impress the mind have been thehatefulness of sin and the impossibility of enjoying heavenly happinesswhilst loving what is evil ;-that our Heavenly Father alone could giveus a new heart to enable us to hate sin and to love what is good, andthat this must be earnestly sought for in prayer; whilst, at the sametime, they must seek to repress every sinful inclination, and sho,v theirsincerity by trying to use a good influence over others. To assist them
"HAS THE NEW CHURCH A GOSPEL?" 21in offering up suitable prayers, I have endeavoured to impress variousappropriate verses from the Psalms upon their memories, and at thesame time to enfold to them the infinite love and tenderness of tho Lord&s revealed in His Word and in His dealings with us; reading to themthose portions of the Holy Word which, whilst they displayed theloving mercy of the Lord, insisted also on the true conditions of for-giveness-a penitent heart.-With these brief remarks, I remain, ANOTHER ISOLATED MEMBER OF THE NEW CHUROH. MORNING.WHEN a season of temptation has been passed through, in which thodanger of losing the narrow way has held the soul in alarm ;-whenthieves have been perceived prowling about and seeking to lOb it of itspriceless gems-gems of heavenly virtue, and to deprive it of itstreasures of truth ;-when evil lusts, like beasts of prey, have presentedthemselves, with glaring eyes and threatening jaws ;-when false delightsand false guides, like the ignis fatuus, have been alluring the soul todraw it aside from the right way in the darkness of its night, andduring which it may have repeatedly slipt aside, or felt the ferocious power of the evil beasts and the determined endeavour of the thieves to rob it, and deplored its supposed loss of some of its treasures ; - when, after such a night, the morning star of hope arises to promise the dawn of day, then a new courage is inspired, and some revival of love is felt in the chilled heart; and as the weary pilgrim, thus encouraged, proceeds on his way, looking to the east for the yet unseen Lord, heavenly light glides over his sky, first dimly, then increasing to the strength of day. The glorious Sun of Righteousness arises, andhealing is felt proceeding from beneath His wings. The genial warmth of heavens lov~ comes penetrating into his heart, and fills him with the quickening virtue of true lifes restoring heat. The darkness recedes, and with it all its terrors. Humbly, thankfully, and cheerfully he sends up his morning song of praise; rejoices that he has, during the past night, learnt more truly to know himself, and now perceives with juster appreciation his entire dependence on his heavenly Father, and the ready love that comes to meet him with its blessings. He looks around on his Makers handiworks, rejoices in them, and feels a love gushing forth from his ~ heart as from a fountain, and flowing towards all, emu- lative of that everflowing sea of goodness which from the heart of God would overwhelm the universe with blessing. This indeed is the pilgriIns Morning. C.
PRIZE ESSAYS. The arbitrators have already appealed, without success, to "PhiIa-lethes," to know his wish respecting the prize essays; if they do nothear from him before the first of February, they will consider that heintends that they should decide on this point themselves; and they willaccordingly do so, and see to the speedy publication of the essay forwhich the first prize was awarded. REVIEWS.THE PSYOHONOMY OF THE HAND; or, the Hand an Index of Mental Development, according to MM. DArpentigny and Desbarrolles; with illustrative Tracings from Living Hands. By RIOHARD BEAMISH, F.R.S., &c., Author oC the " Life of Sir Mark Isambard BruneI." Second edition. London: F. Pitman, Paternoster Row. 1865.To ALL readers interested in the significance of physical form in relationto mental characteristics, we may predict much pleasure and someprofit from a perusal of this very curious and original book ;-original,that is, in respect to the subject treated of, and not as to authorship;since it is avowedly, in its leading features and principles, a reproduc-tion from the works of two French writers. But it cannot be doubtedthat the system has been studied and experimentally applied with aloving and believing spirit by the translator, especially in relation to itamore practical, and, we feel disposed to add, more rational portion,that which treats of the significance of the various types of hand as toform-chirognomy, as distinguished from that which treats of the merelines of the hand- chiromancy; or to use a less dignified word,palmistry. No one who believes in the correspondence, completeand particular, of the body to the soul, can doubt that every portionof the body presents indications of the character of that soul whichis the medium of its production. As the Divine Image is stampednpon every, even the smallest object of creation, in more or lessdistinctness and completeness according to the place held by thatobject in the creative scale, so, also, on every feature and member,nay, even on the D10st delicate fibre oC the human frame, is stamped animage of the spirit which rules and inhabits it. We read that in theother life, a single tone of the voice, doubtless also a single glance of
REVIEW8. the eye, or touch of the hand, is sufficient to reveal the whole charaeterto the acute perception of angelio minds. In proportion as humanperception is broadened, exalted, and refined, we may safely anticipatean increased capacity for the interpretation of physical peculiarities;and as, unquestionably, next to the "human face divine," and thehead, which indicates form and capacity of brain, we may rank the handof man, in its peculiarly human attributes, it is fitting that a science ofhand-form and character, of chirognomy in fact, should anse to supple-ment, and eventually cast additional light upon, the older and alreadywell-established sciences of physiognomy and phrenology. The firstattempts to frame such a science may be but very partially correct,must necessarily be crude; but such attempts are the brave pioneersbreaking ground in a new field, to whom we should always be preparedto do honour by extending to them the hearty enconrage~nt of sym-pathy. The general characteristic types of form which we find laiddown in the work-as the undeveloped Elementary hand, the squareor spatulous Labour hand, the impulsive intuitive Artistie hand with pointed fingers and rounded forms, &c., few will feel disposed to disputEr-any more than Mr. Beamishs modestly-expressed hope and conviction that the study of chirognomy will prove of essential value in connection with ethnological researches. When the constant relatiOD t which we cannot but infer to exist, between certain types of head and hand in combination, and correlative mental .constitutions shall have been traced out, we may also gather important additional light in respect to the philosophy of history, in respect to the mental and moral qualifications and defects which mould the external destinies of nations.. Some remarks on the form of hand prevalent among various nations at the present day are full of interest. Need we say that the useful hand-the labour hand, is the prevailing characteristic of Englishmen l One ~urious fact in respect to hands is, that a large and strongly developed hand, with square or spatulous fingers (fingers broadening at the tip) is found to eharacterise the delicate manipulator, the· master of practical finish in detail; while a sttlall but well-formed hand should be the index of activity tending towards the grand and colossal. The builders of the Pyramids, and of the gigantic temples of Egypt and India, are believed to have been of the smallest-handed races on record; whereas the Greeks, it appears, esteemed large hands, as we admire small ones; their tastes inclining to beauty, grace, and finish of detail, ~her than to the grand in plastic art
REVIEWS. When Mr. Beamish, following his French authorities, proceeds to deal with details of form, with the significance of the different fingers, and different phalanges, or joints, of each finger, we feel ourselves of course on more uncertain ground; precisely as when, in phrenology, we pass from the general types of conformation, to the specific location of qualities and capacities upon the phrenologic chart. It requires long study and observation to verify, or disprove, the subdivisional signifi-cances in either case. But the various indications attributed may inthis mdimentary stage of the science be considered as suggestive, andby no means as claiming authoritative weight. That the strong deve-lopment of the thumb indicates strength of will and character, logicalacumen, &c.,we think seems reasonable and probable ;-because the thumbis a peculiarly human development, being found, except in man, onlyin the monkey tribe, which bears the nearest external resemblance tohUnlanity, though a distant and degraded one; imaging forth to ourexternal senses the degradation to which the Divine Image in us is toooften subjected. The well-marked development of the thumb maytherefore reasonably indicate a corresponding development of thefaculties which constitute tme humb,nity, viz., free-will and reason.The thumb in the monkey tribe is a weak and degraded one, as corre..spondentially it should be. But on what ground this well-marked development, which in man isso.excellent an indication, should in the case of woman be considered·toinqicate " a tendency to social and domestic harshness and despotism, twe should really like to be informed. Does Mr. Beamish, or do hisFrench authorities, think it impossible for a woman to possess decisionof character, strength of self-control, and "logical acumen"? Or arethese, if possessed, such dangerous and tr~asonable qualities in womanthat they cannot be recognised save as "a tendency to harshness anddespotism"? We greatly fear that it is to this latter benighted view ofthe question Mr. Beamish inclines; inasmuch as he quotes, apparentlywith high approval, these lines from Milton (which, to our mind, go farto· explain the blind bards unsatisfactory experiences in th~ marriedstate) : - " What thou biddst, Unargued I obey; so God ordains; God is thy law, thou mine: to know no more Is womans happiest knowledge and her praise." Paradile Lost, Book Il....What sort of women must result from this profane exaltation of fallenman into Gods place, and from Itnowledge of, and obedience to, no law
REVIEWS. 26 but his infirm, often evil and then always capricious, at best but im..perfect, fallible will, we do not need here to enlarge upon. The world is full of examples; and we may safely affirm that they are quite good enough for those who desire such life-companions. .After this lit,tIe protest on behalf of our own sex,-and of all the noblerportion of the opposite sex too, who are as far, as even we can be, fromdesiring to cultivate this kind of pet-spaniel-wife,-we must proceed tosay a few words on the Chiromantic portion of thisinterestingwork,-nonethe les8 interesting because we :find otuSelves obliged to quarrel with it alittle by the way. With respect to the lines of the hand, it is satisfac-tory to 00 able to trace so clearly, as the treatment of the subjeot hereenables us to do, the boundary between rational inference, and thesuperstition which has so long attached to the subject of palmistry.We can have no doubt that- "As water falling drop by drop upon a stone, makes, in the course of time, avisible impression,-as the string, made to vibrate, influences the sand beneath toreceive a certain form,-80 the mind, acting at every instant of time upon theplastic susceptibilities of the hand, leaves ultimately signs which are accepted bythe chiromanist, as the visible records of the impulses emanating from the greatnervous centre." This is perfectly legitimate; and we may well imagine that, in formerages, before the knowledge of correspondence was lost, it might bepossible for an adept to read in the lines of the hand much of thecharacter and past course of life of the individual. From this character,again, some general inferenoes might fairly be drawn as to future trialsand struggles dependent upon such character. A man of turbulent,undisciplined nature will hardly lead a refined and peaceful life; nor aman of weak will and shallow mind perform great deeds, or heroicactions. So far might reason safely go; but once this line of safegeneral deduction is overstepped, and we com~ to predictions of specialevents, riches, health, matrimony, violent death, &c., we :find ourselvesin the realm of tJuperstition, stealing the very life and truth from allthat was Bound and rational in the science to begin with; since thesouls action which originally produced, must be also capable ofperpetually modifying, or changing, the signs of its activity; and sincemoreover from spiritual and mental causes, combinations and peen..liarities known to Him only who knows the heart, it is alwaysabsolutely impossible to predict what result, even as regards one singleevent, given passions, or even intentions in a mans soul, may workout either for himself or for others. We infer that Mr. Beamish is
UVIEW8.very much of this opinion, as he quotes a passage from TOlTebianca,discrediting such predictions; but he lays M. Desbarrolles investiga-tions on the subject before his readers, to enable all to form their ownopinion; perhaps also with a friendly intention of affording them nolittle innocent amusement. And we may remark in conclusion, as a strong additional recom-mendation of thi~ interesting book, that it will form no slight attractionon any table round which a cheerful, social circle may gather forwinter-evening converse and merriment. The book contains beautifultracings of the various types of hand, first in respect to form, andsecondly in respect to these mystic lines-Runes, let us call them,upon the living fleshly tables whereon each soul inscribes its secreteharacters-a comparison of. which with the hands of those present .will provide no slight amusement, we venture to predict, for many amerry party, naturally emulous to discover,. each in his or her hand,a faithful reproduotion of the philosophic, or psychical, or at leastartistio type. We can only hope (being benevolently disposed at thisseason) that others may partake of the shock we sustained when, intrying to identify the lines of our own palm with that of the MainHeureuse, or happy hand, of plate 18, we stumbled upon some of thatchain-work in our "Line of the Head" which characterises thehand of the" Congenital Idiot!" (plate 6)-and further when, flat-teriIig ourselves we were about to detect clear indications of a happycombination of sound judgment with vivid powers of imagination, wewere brought short up by a bifurcation, whence---.:-" self-deception andthe deceiver of others,-the liar and the hypocrite I" (p. 80.) We may, cordially, therefore, commend this book both to grave andgay, and only hope that many readers may enjoy it as much as weourselves have done, the above slight mischances notwithstanding. M. C. (H.) R.THE AUGUSTINE HYMN BOOK: a Hymnal for all Churches. Compiled by DAVID THOMAS, D.D. London: Pitman.Tms is called after Augustine, not because it contains any of his com-positions, but because the selection has been made on the Augustineprinciple, that "a hymn must be praise-praise to God, and this in theform. of song." The compilation seems to be earefully and judiciouslymade. The hymns express the common doctrines of the Trinity, Atone..
REVIEW!.ment, &c., but include & great number that are of DO creed, but aredevotional in the widest sense. Out of the 726, which the volumeeontains, the Committee now engaged in compiling an Appendix to theConference Hymn Book might make some excellent selections. THE NEW YEAR. [From" The Augustine Hymn Book," slightly altered.] "God bless this opening year ! Make all its duties clear ; God bless this year I Our time rolls swiftly on, Our days will soon be gone, With Thee make us at-one: God bless this year ! God of the ages, Thou To whom all angels bow, God bless this year ! Let all we love agree, This year to honour Thee, And from all vices flee: God bless this year ! God of the nations, shine, And make all peoples Thine, God bless this year I Grant Britain grace Divine Rightly to use her time, And feel that all is Thine: God bless this year 1 o Lord our God arise, And make us truly wise, God bless this year! In last year millions died, Death b~ars us on its tide, And none can here abide: God bless this year. Vouchsafe, 0 God, Thy 10"8; Train us for realms above; God bless this year ! <>, let the wave of Time, Bear us to shores sublime, With saints of every clime: God bless this year! "
28 REVIEWS.WBBAT AND TARES; or, Christianity versus Orthodoxy. By.the Rev. ,. WILLIAM RoTHERY. London: Pitman, 20, Paternoster Row.TimBE is a work by-M. Le Cras, entitled "The Theological Contrast,"printed in double columns, presenting old church views on various sub-jects of Christian doctrine on one side, and New Church views overagainst them on the other. Mr. Rotherys little work is on the sameplan, with this difference, that, while Mr. Le Cras work consists mainlyof extracts from orthodox writers on one hand, and from Swedenborg onthe other, Mr. Rothery delivers the sentiments on both sides in his ownwords. Regarding the corruptions of pure Christianity as tares whichthe enemy had sown among the wheat, he has endeavoured to separatethem, and now presents the wheat on one side, and the t~res on theother. Forty different points of doctrine are thus placed before thereader, with copious Scripture references to each, so that he may, bycomparison and testimony, judge between the opposite views. It isalmost unnecessary to particularise the subjects; since it would bedifficult to mention one which is not included. The views are oftenpithily and clearly expressed, as well as correctly given. We take afew as examples : - "The fa.ll of man is his fall, through disobedience, from ha.rmony with the willof God, to the love and worship of self." "The Atonement (at-one-ment), is therestoration of man to oneness with the Lord, and oneness in himself, by obedienceto the Divine Truth, or Word, and reception of the Divine Life into his own.""Man is justified by the life of justice which Gods Holy Spirit enables him tolive." "True marriage is the spiritual, most holy, and everlasting union andcommunion of male and female, who together make one man, the true image andlikeness of Supreme Love and Wisdom, revealed to us as one in the Lord." When we see, standing side by side with these sheaves of wheat, thebundles of tares, how striking is the contrast! Suppose the bundles oftares, like the trees that went out to choose a king, to be endowedwith the power of speech, What do we hear them say ?- " One tells us that the fall of man is the sin pf Adam, which has been entailedupon all his posterity; this sin consisting in eating of the fruit of the forbiddentree. Another declares that the Atonement was the satisfaction made to theoffended justice of God, by the sufferings and death of the unoffending Christ, to asmany of the human race as have power, irresistibly imposed upon them, to believein such atonement. A third assures us, that man is justified by the imputation,through faith, of the righteousness of J eSU8 Christ; which, as a robe, hides theevils of his corrupt nature from the eyes of God. And a fourth asserts that mar-riage is not spiritual, and is for ever dissolved by death."He who hears the testimony on both sides, can he do otherwise thanfollow the authors concluding advice, to ,., burn the tares in the fire,and gather the wheat into the gamer "?
REVIEWS. 19 Having thus far bome testimony to the excellence of this little work,we are sorry to be obliged to express our dissent from some of itsstatements. The author, we think, has either not been sufficientlyeareful to separate the tares from the wheat, or he has sown some ofhis own amongst it. That" the universe of the senses is an effectereated by the Lord, from the fulness of His Divine Life, through theuniverse of created souls as its mediate cause," is an idea which seemsto us more fanciful than true. The same may be said of the notionthat "matter (as embodied spirit-life in form.) is perpetually flowingforth from the Divine Creator,"-if this means that the matter of theworld we inhabit is being constantly created through the " finite affec-tions, thoughts, and changes of state" of its human inhabitants. Inthe same category we should place the idea that" heaven is a heavenly ~tate of soul, through which, as their mediate cause, the Lord creates the external heavens, the abodes of just men made perfect." If we have learnt rightly, the soul is created out of the substances of the spiritual world as the body is out of the substances of the natural world; and we cannot, therefore, think of a universe of souls existing prior to the substances out of which all souls are created. These, however, are points on which it would hardly be necessary to say anything, were it not that the same mode of thought seems to be carried into other and higher subjects. We read at No. 12 that-- "The life of Jesus Christ on earth-His birth, works, su1ferings, death, resur- reetion, &c.-as recorded in the Gospels, was an embodiment, an e:ftect in this natural world of Gods presence in mens souls; His Divine Truth-His Word, by which He reveals Himself to men-being bom into lD.Qs soul, growing, working miracles, casting out devils, su1fering, dying, triumphing, and rising again, according &s the struggle progresses between good and evil, between the saving truth and the rebellious soul which it comes to enlighten, conquer, redeem, and save." H the author means that the visible Christ was only an appearance before mens eyes of the invisible Christ dwelling in mens souls, we think there could hardly be a greater error. But if he means that the Lords life was an embodiment-an effect in the natural world of Gods presence in mens souls, we think it is, as in the previous cases, inverting the true order. Had he said that the Lords life in the world was the cause, instead of the effect, of Gods presence in mens souls, the statement would have expressed what we believe to be the truth. It was because Gods presence was not in mens souls that God assumed mans nature; it was because His Divine Truth could no longer be bom into mens souls that the Word was born of a human mother; it was because there was no longer any struggle between good and evil, truth
80 R~VIEWS.and falsity in ments souls, that the Lord admitted temptations intoHimself, and suffered and died and rose again! The Lord is indeedglorified in mans regeneration, but His glorification in regenerated manis but an image, as it is an effect, of the glorification which He oncefor all effected in Himself as a man. One other statement we think itnecessary to dissent from-that there is no Scriptural warrant for thedoctrine of an endless hell.POCABONTAS; or, the Founding of Virginia: a Poem. By the Rev. O. P. HILLER. London: Hatchard and Co. 1865.To Founding of Virginia shows that troth is stranger than fiction.What is more to our purpose, it shows that God has made of oneblood all races of men, and that in no land has He left Himselfwithout a witness to testify of His universal Fatherhood, and of Hisbeing the one Source of the good and the true. The hero of the tale,with whose unpoctie name the poet will not mar the cadence of hislines, and who is to be known by the name of Victor, after performingdeeds of romantio valor in the old world, goes in searoh of fresh adven-ture in the new. Landing on the coast of what is now Virginia, he is,when reconnoitring the country alone, attacked by Indians, and after astout resistance, taken, and carried a prisoner to the king-Powhattan.A eouncil of war BOon decides upon his fate. The princess Pooahont&spleads with her father for the white mans life, but her prayer is notheard. Oalmly he lays his head upon the stone, and clubs are upraisedto give the fatal blow, when the Indian maid springs forward andthrows her arms around the victims neck. The king relents. Thatattribute whioh "becomes the throned monarch better than hiscrown," comes into play; and savage justice gives way to heaven-bornmeroy. From being an enemy, Victor becomes a favourite. The kingis delighted though humbled with his tales of the grandeur and glory ofthe kings of the eastern world. But there is one other charmedlistener, whose ear is but the passage to her heart. Need we say thatone is Pooahontas? Having offered to redeem his life with her own,Pocahontas now resolves upon a greater sacrifice. She seeks todeliver from captivity him to whom she herself has become captive.Loaded by the king with presents, he returns to his friends, encampedon what is now the site of Jamestown. The once light~hearted girl,sporting with her fawn, now wanders in the solitude of her nativeforests, nursing her secret but almost hopeless passion. "She never
REVIEW8. 81 iold her love, but let concealment, like a worm i the bud, feed on herdamask cheek." Yes, damask is the oheek suffused by the blood ofluch a heart as hers. Victor, who ought now to be known by his owncommon-place name of John Smith, for he deserves no better, seemsnever to have read ,the language of that most loving heart, throughloves disguises that serve but to reveal, or if he did he made no sign,gave no return. Once more they met, and onoe again they parted, shealone the lover, he the friend. Soon after this interview, a seriousaccident induces Smith to return to England, whence come tidings ofhis death. Pocahontas is disconsolate, and the intensity of her grief seals up fora time the fountain of her tears. In ilie wars which follow Smithsdeparture the maiden is the white mans friend, though she cannot dohim all the service she desires. What the colony cannot secure by herthey determined to try to obtain for her. By the oomplicity of a nativechief they obtain possession of her person, and demand for her ransomthe whole of the English prisoners. During the time of her detention, a pious English youth teaches herto read; and by reading with her in the blessed Gospel he is themeans of her conversion to Christianity. Young Rolfe is enamoured of his pupil, and proposes to make her his bride. For a time she refuses to bestow her hand where she cannot give her heart; but at length she yields. This union has one happy result. Jealousy and war between the colonists and the Indians are sucoeeded by confidence and peace. Some time after this the married pair, with their blooming boy, sail on a vO~Tage to England. The fame of Pocahontas has gone before her, and she everywhere receives the homage due to her ,vorlh as well 8S to her rank. But here a new trial awaits her. He ,vhom she had mourned as dead, and with whose dead body her living heart had been entombed, appears suddenly before her. There is a tumult of passions -a conflict between love and duty; but religion enables her at last to control what it has not enabled her entirely to conquer. Wearied with a round of pleasure, Pooahontas longs to return to her native home. When about to embark, Fever lays his burning hand Upon her. In her delirium she is in the royal wigwam, acting her part in the scene already rehearsed. Softer visions succeed-visions of the time when Christian light and peace descended into her dark and troubled soul. She awakes to consciousness with the smile of joy upon her countenance and words of hope upon her lips, and passes away with the tranquillity of an infants sleep.
•82 BEVIEWS. Such is 8 meagre outline of the romantic tale which Mr. Hiller hasturned into verse. The incidents are well connected, and the versifica-tion is on the whole smooth and flowing. We have no doubt that thepoem will become a favourite, especially with those who are in theromantic season of life. One moral we may draw from this sad andtender story. Nymphs should beware of devoting their affectiODS toswains who give no sign of reciprocating love. We give, as a specimen of the poem- THE OCEAN. "A wondrous sight, the Ocean! How she gazed The livelong day upon the boundless deep, And stretched her vision far away, amazed At the horizons vast circuitous sweep, Where met the sea and sky in peaceful sleep. And beauteous silvery clouds, in giant forms, Seemed oer their slumbers gentle watch to keept Or lay, like fairy lands, where never storms Of nature or of man brought troubles or alarms. But soon the scene would change! A leaden cloud Among the silvery ones would slowly rise- Like demon amid angels-and would shroud, Rapidly spreading all the fair blue skies, And change the face of heaven before her eyes. Then came the breeze, the wind, the storm ; And furious foam-capped waves, of mountain size, Would rush upon the vessels feeble form, As if to Crush her down, as human foot a worm. Quickly would Pocahontas flee away In terror from the deck, and grasp the arm Of her fond husband, as if he could stay The fury of the elements, or charm The winds and waves to pass them without harm. And then would he direct her thoughts to One Who erst on earth did calm the boisterous storm,- Who spake the words- Be still! and it was done, And who now rules the world from heavens eternal throne. Thus gathered she experiences of life;- In the calm sunshine of the peaceful sky, Or in the frightful elemental strife, She learned to Whom she could at all times :fly,- She learned to see Gods glorious majesty. By calm and storm, alternate, is the soul Prepared to dwell in mansions blest on high; But when at length attained the happy goal, The stormR shall no more come, rivers of peace will roll."
8S MISCELLANEOUS. CHURCH MATTERS. and certainly more societies to point at, Cl How is it, sir, that the New Church and more property to calculate; more-makes so little progress?" Such was the over, she has found a habitation and aquestion put to us the other day, by a name in every portion of the world wheregentleman by no means inimical to our civilization has planted her foot, and in-news. We have heard of similar in- telligence has lifted her standard. But,quiries being made elsewhere, and think sir, notwithstanding, the New Churchit may be useful to make a brief note of will bear a favourable comparison withthe substance of our reply. "Your ques- the numerical condition of Christianitytion, sir, assumes as a fact, that which in its origin, yet that is not the way towe do not admit to be so; but it is, no judge of her true progress. We believedoubt, suggested by some mistaken view the New Church to be not a sectarianof what you consider the New Church to institution, but a system of Divine prin-be !" U Of course I judge of it from the ciples which have descended from God smallness of its numbers, compared with out of heaven, to widen the liberty and some of the other bodies of the Christian provide for the education of the people; church." "I thought so, but the com- a system of spiritual and intellectual parison is not just; nor is the church to teachings, having their ground in the be judged of by its numbers. Although Divine Word, the light of which is to several of the denominations are com- expose the errors of dete dogmatism, paratively young, yet, with some slight and the force of which is to raise Chris- exceptions, they all profess the same tian society upon a new platform of general doctrines which have been held theological thought and religious e~ergy. for many centuries, and some of these Behind her Scriptural doctrines there is have been pressed by kings and govern- the activity of a spiritual influence. This ments upon the world for at least fifteen influence, to effect a change favourable hundred years. Thus antiquity has to the advancement of genuine Christian- created a prejudice in their favour, and ity, is felt throughout all Christendom, a material interest has grown up in their and it is only the particular forms, in connection, the attachment to which is which the doctrinal sentiments of the inimical to the adoption of any other New Church have been expressed, which religious views; and yet, with all those as yet have only found a limited accept- advantages, the Christianity of the ance, though much of her interior and ehurches has not extended very far living sentiments is everywhere felt to beyond the boundaries of Europe-the be important. The New Church is American churches are, of course, the not the New Church by virtue of her result of emigrations from Europe-and doctrines, however true or however nu- they embrace within their folds only a merous may be the people who adopt minority of the worlds population; them. The Church is New, because Mahometans and Pagans are said to be there is behind those Divine doctrines, more numerous than Christians. We and contemporary with their disclosure. rejoice, however, to know that Chris- a new influence from the Lord out of tianity has made so much progress, not- heaven, having for its object the eleva- withstanding its many corruptions; still tion of Christian society out of the it is not just to compare the progress of obscurities and trammels into which it the New Church, which has been before had descended, and the giving to it a the world only about a century, with fuller and more complete enjoyment of those denominations, whose essential rational liberty in religious things than doctrines have been urged upon the it had ever before possessed. Now, Sir, nations, by lay and clerical authority, if you look at the condition of the New for fifteen hundred years I But, sir, if Church from this point of view, you will you will compare even the numerical see that the question- How is it that progress of the New Church with that she has made so little progress? is which was made by Christianity during founded in mistake. It is not correct the tint hundred years, you will find she to suppose that she has made but little will not sufter by the comparison. We progress. During the hundred year! of believe she has more ~ember8 to count, her existence society has made more 8 ....
84 MISCELLANEOUS. improvement in material, moral, and DO ineonsiderable alarm. They are the spiritual worth than in any other century authorised sources of all those Roman- of human experience. Compare 1766 ising practices which, in various parts of with 1866. Examine the history of the the country, have been introduced into interval, and it will be plain that benefi- so many churches by the High Church, cent changes have been going on through- or Puseyite clergymen. These prac- out the whole period-changes which tices are causing some of the bishops no must have had their origin in some high little trouble; they find them diflieult principles, because their ends have been to deal with so long &s the authority of some pre-eminent usefulness to the civili- the rubrics can be appealed to. Hence zation of the world. You may hesitate the Bishop of London has formally ap- to aclmowledge the connection between plied to the Government for a royal the teaching of the doctrines of the New commission to revise the rubric. of the Church and the development of those Prayer Book. No answer has yet been numerous advantages which have been given, but the general impression is that placed within the reach of Christian it will not meet with the sanction of the society during the period they have present ministry. The opposition to been taught; but you can hardly fail to such a step, it is supposed, will arise not see that they must have originated out only from decided High Churchmen, like of a new and beneficent influence pro- Mr. Gladstone, but also from other of ceeding from the Giver of all good; and Her Majestys ministers holding dift"ersnt as those heavenly doctrines. claim to religious views. It seems a very awk- have descended from the same Divine ward thing for a church that it has to go source, and were actually first commu- to politicians to carry out the reforma- nicated to the world when those new tions which are desired, and the more 80 influences first began to work, it seems to be compelled to bear the burthens plain that there is a much more intimate which are complained of, if politicians connection between the presence of those say they must not be removed.doctrines in the world and the develop- It is pretty well known to those who ment of the progress adverted to than is pay any attention to ecclesiastical mat- commonly supposed; and that, therefore, ters, that the" High Church" party and the progress of the church, viewed as an the "Evangelicals" in the Establiah- institution for inseminating life and light ment have not, for a long time, regarded into society, has been eminently great." each other with the most cordial senti- The gentleman to whom these arguments ments: if we employed stronger words were addressed thought they were de- we might convey a clearer idea of their serving of attention; at all events, we repugnance to each other. Well, they believe that the friends of the church have recently carried this spirit into may be encouraged by their considera- "The Society for Promoting Christian tion-encouraged to be thankful for the Knowledge," and a collision has ensued. privileges they have been permitted to The report tells us that the society wants enjoy in the day of small things, and to publish a Latin prayer book, for whioh induced faithfully to work in the wise the Evangelicals do not see the need;.stream of that Divine Providence through but they are resolved, if it is done, that which Jerusalem is to become a praise the quotations from Scripture in it sha1l in the earth. not be taken from the Latin Vulgate "The Prayer Book" of the Estab- with its" Romanising glosses." A Latin lishment contains many sentiments and prayer book which favours the Vulgate some doctrines which are felt to be with all its errors, alike in the Psalms objectionable and untrue by a consider- and Gospels, is already announced for able number of conscientious clergymen. publication, and the High Church pu:ty Dissatisfactions ha.ve been expressed, and want the society to adopt this book. The efforts have been made with a view to struggle came on early in November, obtain some alterations that are desired; and the strength of the parties was 80 but the machinery to be moved for this equal, that the decison was adjourned. purpose is so cumbrous that nothing How is truth to be sustained by mis- effective in this direction has yet been translations of the Bible? How is Chris- accomplished. The Rubrics, however, tian knowledge to be promoted without are felt to be producing & much greater the influence of Christian humility, for- difficulty, and causing among the laity bearance, and principle?