THE WHITE HORSE
in the APOCALYPSE chap. xix
and then concerning
THE WORD, AND ITS SPIRITUAL
OR INTERNAL SENSE
from the ARCANA CAELESTIA
being a translation of his lVork
" De Equo Albo de quo in Apocalypsi, cap xix. Et
dein de Verbo et ejus Sensu Spirituali seu Interno, ex
Arcanis Caelestibus. Londini. 1758."
SWEDENBORG SOCIETY, INCORPORATED
20/21 BLOOMSBURY WAY
PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN BY
THE THANET PRESS, MARGATE.
DE EQuO ALBO DE QUO IN ApOCALYPSI,
CAP. XIX, ET DEIN DE VERBO ET EJUS SENSU
SPIRITUALI SEU INTERNO, Ex ARCANIS CAELES
TIBUS was first published in London in the year
1758. The first published English translation,
by Robert Hindmarsh, appeared in the year
1788. There were subsequently a number of
reprints, several of them being revisions of
It is of interest to note that in the latest
Latin edition, the Rev. A. W. Acton comments
on the Appendix :
.. The short appendix is found in a manuscript
now in the Royal Library in Stockholm. It appears
to be the first draft of a communication which
Swedenborg sent to the Rev. Thomas Hartley in
It has sometimes been assumed that the document
was also addressed to the Royal Academy of
Sciences in Stockholm, but this seems unlikely, and
the Academy has no record of its receipt.
The Stockholm manuscript has no title, but, in
a letter to Dr. Messiter, Hartley states that the
copy he received bore the title here given," (Appendix
ad codicillum de Equo Albo).
In this present translation use has been made
of an unpublished revision undertaken by the
Rev. W. H. Acton, and which was based upon
the translation by the Rev. T. H. Gorman,
published in the year 1871.
Scripture quotations are given in the language
of the Authorised Version, except where faith
fulness to Swedenborg's rendering has neces
sitated a change. Several additional references
to the ARCANA CAELESTIA have been
incorporated in square brackets after those
references found in the original manuscript.
A Table of Contents, together with Indices of
principal subjects and of Scripture passages
quoted or referred to, has been included.
B. s. WILLMOTI
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1-5 THE WHITE HORSE DESCRIBED IN THE
ApOCALYPSE, CHAPTER XIX
6 THE NECESSITY FOR AND EXCELLENCE OF
THE WORD 12
7 THE WORD IS NOT UNDERSTOOD EXCEPT
BY THOSE WHO ARE ENLIGHTENED . . 13
8 THE WORD IS NOT UNDERSTOOD EXCEPT BY
MEANS OF DOCTRINE FROM THE WORD .. 16
9 IN THE WORD THERE IS A SPIRITUAL
SENSE, WHICH IS CALLED THE INTERNAL
SENSE •• ..•. 19
10 THE INTERNAL SENSE OF THE WORD IS
INTENDED ESPECIALLY FOR ANGELS BUT IT
IS ALSO INTENDED FOR MEN . . 2I
I I THERE ARE INNUMERABLE ARCANA IN THE
INTERNAL OR SPIRITUAL SENSE OF THE
WORD .. .. •• .. .• 25
12 THE WORD IS WRITIEN BY CORRESPON
DENCES AND THUS BY REPRESENTATIVES .. 29
13 THE SENSE OF THE LETTER OR THE EXTERNAL
SENSE OF THE WORD .. 35
14 THE LORD IS THE WORD " •• 36
15 CONCERNING THOSE WHO ARE OPPOSED
TO THE WORD . • •. . . •. 39
16 THE BOOKS WmCH CONSTITUTE THE
WORD .• .• .. .. •. 39
17 FURTHER PARTICULARS ABOUT THE WORD 40
APPENDIX TO THE WHITE HORSE 42
1] THE WHITE HORSE
THE WHITE HORSE
, Chapter XIX
1. The Word as to its spiritual or internal
sense is described by John in Revelation in
these words :
I saw heaven opened ; and behold a white horse ;
and He that sat upon him was called Faithful and
True, and in justice [A.V. righteousness] He doth
judge and make war. His eyes were as a flame of
fire, and on His head were many crowns; and
He had a name written, that no man knew, but He
Himself. And He was clothed with a vesture dipped
in blood; and His name is called THE WORD OF
GOD. And the armies which were in heaven
followed Him upon white horses, clothed in fine
linen, white and clean. And He hath on His vesture
and on His thigh a name written, KING OF KINGS,
AND LORD OF LORDS.
Rev. xix 11, 12, 13, 14, 16.
It is not possible for anyone to have a clear
idea of what each of these particular things
implies, except from the internal sense. It is
clear that each single thing is something
representative and significative: as heaven
being opened ; a horse which was white; He
that sat upon him, injustice judging and making
war ; His eyes being as a flame of fire ; many
THE WIllTE HORSE [I
crowns being on his head ; that He had a name
that no man knew but He Himself; His
being clothed with a vesture dipped in blood,
and that the armies which were in heaven
followed Him upon white horses ; that they
were clothed in fine linen, white and clean;
and that on His vesture and on His thigh He had
},.,..,... " a name written. It is stated openly that He is
. the Word, and that it is the Lord Wno is
) THE_ WQRD ; for it is said, "Hisname is
called THE WORD OF GOD," and later,
" He hath on His vesture and on His thigh a
name written, KING OF KINGS, AND
LORD OF LORDS." From the meaning of
each particular expression, it is evident that
in this passage the Word.is described as to its
. spiritual or internal sense. Heaven being
opened represents and signifies that the internal
sense of the Word can be seen in heaven and
thence by thQs~)n the world to_whom--heayen
( is opened. The horse which was white repre
sents and signifies the understanding of the
( Word as to interior things. It will be evident
from what follows that this is the meaning of a
white horse. That He that sat upon him is the
Lord as to the Word, and thus the Word, is
established, for it is stated, "His name is
called the Word of God." He is called Faithful,
and is said to judge in justice, from Good.
And He is called True, and is said to make war
in justice, from Truth, for the Lord Himself is
justice. His eyes being as a flame of fire denote
1] THE WlllTE HORSE
the Divine Truth from the Divine Good of
His Divine Love. The many crowns upon His
head signify all goods and truths of faith.
His having a Name written that no man knew
but He Himself, means that no one but Him-
self, and he to whom He reveals it, sees that the
Word is.-9-f such_a_quality in the internal sense.
Clothed in a vesture dipped in blood signifies
the Word in the letter to which violence has
- been offered. The armies in the heavens which
followed Him upon white horses denote thos.e
who are in the understanding of the Wordas
to its interiors. Clothed in fine linen clean and
whiteSignifies the same persons in truth from
good. A Name written on His vesture and on
His thigh signifies truth and good and their
quality. From these things, as from those which
precede and those which follow, it is evident
that therein it is foretold, that about the last
·11'time of the Church the ~ritual or internal
sense of the Word will be disclosed. And what
wl1r come to pass at that time is even des-
cribed there, verses 17, 18, 19, 20, 21. It is
unnecessary to show here that such things are
signified by these words, seeing that they are
shown in detail in ARCANA CAELESTIA, as for
example that : The Lord is the Word because
He is the Divine Truth, (n. 2533, 2803, 2894,
5272, 7835) : The Word is Divine Truth, (n,
4692, 5075, 9987). He is described as sitting
upon the horse, judging and making war in
justice, because the Lord is Justice; the Lord is
mE WHITE HORSE [1
called Justice by reason of His having_of His
own proper power saved the human race
(n. 1813, 2025, 2026, 2027, 9715, 9809, 10019,
10152). And justice is merit which belongs to
the Lord alone, (n. 9715, 9979). His eyes as a
flame of fire signify Divine Truth from the
Divine Good of the Divine Love; this is
because eyes signify the understanding and the
truth of faith, (n. 2701, 4403-4421, 4523-4534,
6923, 9051, 10569), and a flame of fire, the
!!ood of love, (n. 934, 4906, 5215, 6314, 6832).
The crowns which were on His head si~nify
all goods and truths of faith, (n. 114, 3858,
6335, 6640, 9863, 9865, 9868, 9873, 9905).
His havin~ a Name written which no man knew
but He Himself, means that no one but He
Himself, and he to whom He reveals it, sees
that the Word is of such a quality in the internal
sense; this is because a name denotes a thing's
quality, (n. 144, 145, 1754, 1896, 2009, 2724,
3006,3237,3421,6674,9310). Being clothed in
a vesture dipped in blood, signifies the Word in
the letter to which violence has been done :
this is because vesture means truth, since truth
clothes what is !!ood, (n. 1073, 2576, 5248,
5319,5954,9212,9216,9952, 10536), especially
truth in its most external form, and so the
Word in the letter, (n. 5248,6918,9158,9212) ;
and because blood means the violence done
to truth by what is false, (n. 374, 1005, 4735,
5476, 9127). The annies in the heavens which
followed Him on white horses signify those
[1-2 THE WHITE HORSE
who are in the understanding of the Word as
to its interiors: this is because armies signify
those who are in the truths and goods of heaven
and the Church, (n. 3448, 7236, 7988, 8019) ;
and a horse signifies the understanding, (n.
3217, 5321, 6125, 6400, 6531, 6534, 7024,
8146, 8381) ; and white means truth which is
in the light of heaven, thus interior truth,
(n. 3301, 3993, 4007, 5319). It is because
linen or fine linen signifies truth from a celestial
origin, which is truth from good, that being
clothed in fine linen white and clean means
these same persons in truth from good, (n.
5319, 9469). That a Name written on the
vesture and on the thigh, means truth and good,
and their quality, is because vesture means
truth, and a name means quality, as above,
and thigh signifies the good of love, (n. 3021,
4277, 4280, 9961, 10488). King of kings and
Lord of lords is the Lord as to Divine Truth
and as to Divine Good. The Lord is called
King from Divine Truth, (n. 3009, 5068, 6148),
and He is called Lord from Divine Good,
(n. 4973, 9167, 9194). From these things the
quality of the Word in its spiritual or internal
sense is manifest, and that there is not a word in
it that does not mean something spiritual
relating to heaven and the Church.
2. A horse is mentioned many times in the
prophetical parts of the Word, but that a horse
means the understanding, and its rider one who
understands, has hitherto been recognised by
THE WHITE HORSE [2
no one; and this, perhaps, for the reason that
it appears strange and unusual that such a
thing should be understood, in the spiritual
sense, and thence in the Word, by a horse.
Yet that it is always so can be confirmed from
very many passages in the Word, only some of
which I would quote here. In Israel's prophecy
concerning Dan :
Dan shall be a serpent by the way, an arrowsnake
[A.V. adder] in the path, that biteth the horse's
heels, so that his rider shall fall backward.
Gen. xlix 17, 18.
No one can understand what this prophecy
concerning one of the tribes of Israel means,
unless he knows what is meant by a serpent,
and also by a horse, and its rider. There is no
one who does not recognise that something
spiritual is thereby implied. What, therefore,
each individual thing means may be seen in
ARCANA CAELESTIA, (n. 6398, 6399, 6400,
6401), where this prophecy is explained. In
o God Thou didst ride upon Thine horses, Thy
chariots were [A.V. of] salvation.... Thou didst
make Thy horses tread in the sea [A.V. walk
through the sea with thine horses]. Hab. iii 8, 15.
It is evident that in this passage horses mean
something spiritual, because these things are
said concerning God. What otherwise would
be meant by God riding upon His horses, and
making His horses tread upon the sea? In
2] THE WHITE HORSE
In that day shall there be upon the bells of the horses,
HOLINESS UNTO THE LORD. Zech. xiv 20.
where in like manner a spiritual meaning is
implied. Again in the same prophet:
In that day, saith Jehovah, I will smite every horse
with astonishment, and his rider with madness:
and I will open mine eyes upon the house of Judah,
and will smite every horse of the people with
blindness. Zech. xii 4.
That passage treats of the vastation of the
Church, which comes about when there is no
longer the understanding of any truth. This
state is thus described by a horse and its rider.
What otherwise would be the meaning of every
horse being smitten with astonishment, and of
every horse of the people being smitten with
blindness? What could this have to do with
the Church? In Job:
God hath deprived her of wisdom, and hath not
imparted to her understanding. What time she
lifteth up herself on high, she scorneth the horse
and his rider. Job xxxix 17, 18, 19 et seq.
It is clearly evident that here the understanding
is signified by horse. Similarly in David, Nhere
[God] is said
to ride upon the Word of truth, Ps. xlv 4.
in addition to many other passages. More
over, who would be able to know why it is that
Elijah and Elisha were called the chariot of
Israel and the horsemen thereof; and why by
Elisha's servant the mountain was seen full of
THE WHITE HORSE [2-3
horses and chariots of fire; unless it were
known what chariots and horsemen signify,
and what Elijah and Elisha represented? For
Elisha said to Elijah :
My father, my father, the chariot of Israel, and the
horsemen thereof. 2 Kings ii 11, 12.
And Joash the king said to Elisha :
My father, my father, the chariot of Israel, and the
horsemen thereof. 2 Kings xiii 14.
And, of Elisha's servant :
Jehovah opened the eyes of Elisha's servant, [A.V.
the young man]; and he saw: and, behold, the moun
tain was full of horses and chariots of fire round
about Elisha. 2 Kings vi 17.
Elijah and Elisha were called the chariot of
Israel and the horsemen thereof, because each
of them represented the Lord as to the Word,
and because by chariot is meant doctrine from
the Word, and by horsemen, intelligence.
That Elijah and Elisha represented the Lord
as to the Word, may be seen in ARCANA
CAELESTIA, (n. 5247, 7643, 8029,9372), and that
chariots signify doctrine from the Word,
(n. 5321, 8215).
3. That a horse means the understanding is
derived from no other source than from
representatives in the spiritual world. Horses
are seen there frequently, and persons sitting
upon horses, and also chariots. And in that
world everyone knows that they indicate
3-4] THE WHITE HORSE
intellectual and doctrinal things. I have often
observed, when any there were thinking from
their understanding, that they appeared as if
to be riding on horses. Their meditation re
presented itself in such a manner before others,
they themselves being unconscious of it.
There is also a place there, where many come
together who think and speak from the under
standing concerning truths of doctrine. And
when others come to that place, they see that
entire plain filled with chariots and horses ;
and novitiates, who are curious to know whence
this comes about, are taught that this is an
appearance resulting from their intellectual
thought. That place is called the assembly of
the intelligent and wise. I have even seen
shining horses and fiery chariots when some
were taken up into heaven, which was a sign
that they were then instructed in the truths of
heavenly doctrine, and had become intelligent,
and were thus taken up. As I beheld this
attentively, there came into my mind what was
signified by the chariot and horses of fire by
which Elijah was taken up into heaven, and
also by the horses and chariots of fire seen by
Elisha's servant when his eyes were opened.
4. In the Ancient Churches it was very well
known that chariots and horses signified such
things, since those Churches were representative
Churches, and among those who were in them,
the science of correspondences and representa
THE WHITE HORSE [4
tions ranked as the most distinguished science.
From those Churches the signification of a
horse, as being the understanding, was handed
down to the wise men round about, even into
Greece. Hence, it was their custom, when
they were describing the sun, in which they
placed the god of their wisdom and intelligence,
to attribute to it a chariot and four fiery horses.
And when they were describing the god of the
sea, because the sciences which exist from the
understanding were signified by the sea, they
endowed that also with horses. And when they
were describing the origin of the sciences from
the understanding they conceived of a winged
horse, which with its hoof caused a fountain to
break forth, at which were nine virgins, who
were the sciences. For from the Ancient
Churches they knew that by a horse was sig
nified the understanding, by wings spiritual
truth, by a hoof something scientific derived
from the understanding, and by a fountain
doctrine from which come the sciences. Nor
is anything else signified by the Trojan horse
than a device of their understanding for des
troying the walls. Indeed at the present time
when the understanding is described after the
accepted custom among those ancient people, it
is usual to describe it as a flying horse, or
Pegasus, doctrine as a fountain, and the
sciences as virgins. But scarcely anyone
knows that the horse, in a mystic sense,
signifies the understanding, and still less that
4-5] THE WHITE HORSE
these significatives have been passed down to the
Gentiles from the Ancient Representative
5. Since by the White Horse is signified the
understanding of the Word as to its spiritual or
internal sense, those things now follow which
have been shown in the ARCANA CAELESTIA
concerning the Word and concerning that sense.
For in that work all things contained in Genesis
and Exodus are explained according to the
spiritual or internal sense of the Word.
lHE WHITE HORSE [6
THE WORD AND ITS SPIRITUAL OR
FROM THE ARCANA CAELESTIA
6. THE NECESSITY FOR AND EXCELLENCE OF
THE WORD. Nothing can be known from the
light of nature concerning the Lord, heaven and
hell, man's life after death, and the Divine
truths through which man has spiritual and
eternal life, (n. 8944, 10318, 10319, 10320).
This can be confirmed from the fact that many
persons, men of education among them, do not
give credence to these things, although born
where the Word is, and by means of it instructed
concerning them, (n. 10319). It was therefore
necessary that there should be some revelation
from heaven, since man was born for heaven,
(n. 1775). In every age, therefore, there has been
a revelation, (n. 2895). Various forms of revela
tion have succeeded each other on this earth,
(n. 10355, 10632). With the most ancient people,
who lived before the flood, and whose time was
called the golden age, there was immediate
revelation; and for that reason Divine Truth
was written on their hearts, (n. 2896). In the
Ancient Churches, which existed after the
flood, the Word was both historical and
prophetical, (n. 2686, 2897) ; concerning which
Churches see THE NEW JERUSALEM AND ITS
HEAVENLY DOCTRINE, (n. 247). The historical
6-7] THE WHITE HORSE
books of this Word were called The Wars of
Jehovah, and the prophetical books, The
Enunciations, (n. 2897). That Word was
similar to our Word as to inspiration, but
adapted to those Churches, (n. 2897). It is
mentioned by Moses, (n. 2686, 2897). That
Word has been lost, however, (n. 2897).
There were also revelations by prophecy with
others, as appears from Balaam's prophecies,
, The Word is Divine in all and every part,
(n. 639, 680, 10321, 10637). As to every titt1e
and jot, the Word is Divine and holy, from
experience, (n. 9349). The manner in which it is
explained at this day, that the Word is inspired
as to every jot, (n. 1886). The Church exists
specifically where the Word is, and where the
Lord is known by it and Divine truths revealed,
(n. 3857, 10761). But they who are born where
the Word is, and where the Lord is thereby
known, are not on that account of the Church :
they are of the Church who are regenerated
by the Lord by means of truths from the Word,
who are they who live in accordance with the
truths therein, thus they who live a life of love
and faith, (n. 6637, 10143, 10153, 10578,
7. THE WORD IS NOT UNDERSTOOD EXCEPT
BY THOSE WHO ARE ENLIGHTENED. The human
rational, if it be not enlightened by the Lord,
cannot grasp Divine things, nor even spiritual
THE WHITE HORSE [7
things, (n. 2196, 2203, 2209, 2654). So it is
that only they who are enlightened comprehend
the Word, (n. 10323). The Lord enables those
who are enlightened to understand truths and,
moreover, to tliscern truths in those things
which appear to contradict each other, (n.
9382, 10659). The Word in the sense of the
letter is not consistent with itself and some
times appears to contradict itself, (n. 9025),
and on that account it can be explained and
interpreted, by those who are not enlightened,
to confirm any opinion or heresy, and to defend
any worldly and corporeal love, (n. 4783,
10330, 10400). They are enlightened from the
Word, who read it from a love of truth and
good, but not those who do so from a love of
reputation, gain or honour, and so from a love
of self, (n. 9382, 10548-10551). They are
enlightened who are in the good of life and
thence in the affection of truth, (n. 8694). They
are enlightened whose internal is open, thus
who as to their internal man can be raised up
into the light of heaven, (n. 10400, 10402,
10691, 10694). Enlightenment is an actual
opening of the interiors of the mind, and also
an elevation into the light of heaven, (n. 10330).
Holiness from the internal, that is, through the
internal from the Lord, flows in with those who
hold the Word sacred, they themselves being
ignorant of it, (n. 6789). They are enlightened
and see truths in the Word, who are led by the
Lord, but not they who are led by themselves,
7] THE WHITE HORSE
(n. 10638). They are led by the Lord, who love
truth because it is truth, who indeed are they
who love to live in accordance with Divine
truths, (n. 10578, 10645, 10829). The Word is
made living with man according to the life of
his love and faith, (n. 1776). Those things which
are derived from his own inteliigence have no
life in themselves, because from man's pro
prium 1 there is nothing good, (n. 8941, 8944).
They cannot be enlightened, who have con
firmed themselves strongly in false doctrine,
It is the understanding that is enlightened,
(n. 6608, 9300). The understanding is receptive
of truth, (n. 6222, 6608, 10659). Concerning
every doctrinal thing of the Church there are
ideas of the understanding and of thought
thence, according to which the doctrinal is
perceived, (n. 3310, 3825). Man's ideas are
natural as long as he is living in the world,
because he then thinks in the Natural; but,
nevertheless, with those who are in the affec
tion of truth for its own sake, spiritual ideas
are concealed within them, and man comes
into these ideas after death, (n. 3310, 5510,
6201, 10236, 10240, 10551), . There can
be no perception concerning any subject
whatsoever, without ideas of the understanding
and thence of thought, (n. 3825). Ideas con
cerning matters of faith are laid open in the
1 The Latin word p,.oprium means" what is one's own. H Swedenborg
uses it in a special sense involving" what is of the self".
THE WHITE HORSE [7-8
other life, and their quality is there seen by
angels, and man is then conjoined with others
according to them, in so far as they proceed
from an affection which is of love, (n. 1869,
3320,5510,6201,8885), [3310,6200]. Therefore
the Word is not understood except by a rational
man, for to believe something without an idea
of the thing itself and without the insight of
reason, is only to retain an expression in the
memory devoid of all life of perception and
affection, which is not believing, (n. 2533).
It is the literal sense of the Word which is
enlightened, (n. 3619, 9824, 9905, 10548).
8. THE WORD IS NOT UNDERSTOOD EXCEPT
BY MEANS OF DOCTRINE FROM THE WORD. The
doctrine of the Church must be from the Word,
(n. 3464, 5402, 6832, 10763, 10765). The Word
is not understood without doctrine, (n. 9025,
9409, 9430, 10324, 10431, 10582). True
doctrine is a lamp to those who read the Word,
(n. 10400). Genuine doctrine must be from
those who are in enlightenment from the
Lord, (n. 2510, 2516, 2519, 9424, 10105).
The Word can be understood by means of
doctrine formed by one who is enlightened,
(n. 10324). They who are in enlightenment
form doctrine from the Word for themselves,
(9382, 10659). There is a distinction between
those who teach and learn from the doctrine
of the Church, and those who do so from the
sense of the letter of the Word alone; its
8] THE WHITE HORSE
quality shown, (n. 9025). Those who are in the
sense of the letter of the Word without doctrine
do not arrive at any understanding of divine
truths, (n. 9409, 9410, 10582). They fall into
many errors, (n. 10431). When they who are
in the affection of truth for the sake of truth
become adults, and are able to see from their
own understanding, they do not simply remain
in the doctrinals of their Church, but find out
from the Word whether they are true, (n. 5402,
5432, 6047). Otherwise, everyone's truth
would be derived from another, and from the
land of his birth, whether he were born a Jew
or a Greek, (n. 6047). Nevertheless the things
which have become matters of faith from
the literal sense of the Word are not to be
blotted out except after full consideration,
The true doctrine of the Church is the
doctrine of charity and faith, (n. 2417, 4766,
10763, 10765), . The doctrine of faith
does not constitute the Church, but the life
of faith, which is charity, (n. 809, 1798, 1799,
1834, 4468, 4672, 4766, 5826,6637). Doctrinal
things are nothing unless man lives in accord
ance with them : everyone can see that they
are for the sake of life, and not for the sake of
the memory and something of thought there
from, (n. 1515,2049,2116). In the Churches
at the present time there is a doctrine of faith,
but not of charity; the doctrine of charity
has been degraded into a science, which is
THE W HlTE HORSE [8
given the name of moral theology, (n. 2417).
The Church would be one if men were acknow
ledged to be of the Church on account of life,
and so of charity, (n. 1285, 1316, 2982, 3267,
3445, 3451, 3452). How much superior is the
doctrine of charity to the doctrine of faith
separate from charity, (n. 4844). They who
know nothing of charity are in ignorance
concerning heavenly things, (n. 2435). They
who hold only the doctrine of faith, and not
that of charity, fall into errors, concerning
which see, (n. 2383, 2417, 3146, 3325, 3412,
3413, 3416, 3773, 4672, 4730, 4783, 4925,
8530, 8765, 9186, 9224, 10555), . Those
who are only in the doctrine of faith and not in
the life of faith, which is charity, were formerly
called the uncircumcised, or Philistines, (n.
3412, 3413, 3463, 8093, 8313, 9340). With the
ancients there was the doctrine of love to the
Lord and of charity towards the neighbour, and
the doctrine of faith was made of service to
this, (n. 2417, 3419, 4844, 4955).
Doctrine formed by one who is enlightened
can afterwards be confirmed by rational things
and by knowledges, (scientifica), and it is
thus more fully understood and corroborated,
(n. 2553, 2719,2720, 3052, 3310, 6047), [2557,
3057]. More concerning this subject may be
seen in THE NEW JERUSALEM AND ITS HEAVENLY
DOCTRINE, (n. 51). Those who are in faith
separate from charity would have the doctrinals
8-9] THE WHITE HORSE
of the Church simply believed without any
rational consideration, (n. 3394).
It is not the part of a wise man to confirm
dogma, but to see whether it be true before it is
confirmed, and this happens with those who are
in enlightenment, (n. 1017, 4741, 7012, 7680,
7950). The light of confirmation is natural
light, and not spiritual, and is possible even with
the evil, (n. 8780). All things, even those that
are false, can be so far confirmed as to appear
as if they were truths, (n. 2480, 2490, 5033,
9. IN THE WORD THERE IS A SPIRITUAL SENSE,
WHICH IS CALLED THE INTERNAL SENSE. No
one can know what the spiritual or internal
sense of the Word is, unless he knows what
correspondence is, (n. 2895,4322). Each and all
things that exist in the natural world, even
to the smallest single thing, correspond to
spiritual things, and thence signify them, (n.
Spiritual things, to which natural things
correspond, appear in what is natural under
another form, so that they are not distinguished,
(n. 1887, 2395, 8920). Scarcely anyone knows
wherein what is Divine resides in the Word,
when nevertheless it is in its internal and
spiritual sense, which at this day is not known
to exist, (n. 2899, 4989). The mystical element
of the Word is no other than that which its
internal or spiritual sense contains, and in
THE WHITE HORSE [9
which the Lord is treated of, the glorification
of His Human, His kingdom and the Church,
and not natural things which are of the world,
(n. 4923). In very many places the prophetic
parts would not be understood, and thus would
be of no use, without an internal sense, shown
by examples, (n. 2608, 8020, 8398). As, for
example, what is meant by the White Horse in
Revelation, (n. 2760 and following nos.) : what
by the keys of the kingdom of the heavens
given to Peter, (see Preface to Gen. xxii, and
n. 9410) : what by flesh, blood, bread and wine
in the Holy Supper, (n. 8682) : what by Jacob's
prophecies concerning his sons, (Gen. xlix,
n. 6306, 6333-6465) : what by many prophecies
concerning J udah and Israel, which do not
tally with that nation, and do not agree with
one another in the sense of the letter, (n. 6333,
6361, 6415, 6438, 6444), in addition to very
many other instances, (n. 2608). Further
concerning correspondence may be seen in the
work on REAYEN AND HELL, (n. 87-102, 103-115,
Concerning the internal or spiritual sense of
the Word in general, (n. 1767-1777, 1869-1879).
In each and all things of the Word there is an
internal sense, (n. 1143, 1984, 2135, 2333,
2395,2495,2619). These things do not appear
in the sense of the letter, but nevertheless they
are contained within it, (n. 4442).
10] THE WHITE HORSE
10. THE INTERNAL SENSE OF THE WORD IS
INTENDED ESPECIALLY FOR ANGELS BUT IT IS
ALSO INTENDED FOR MEN. In order that it may
be known what the internal sense is, its quality
and its origin, this shall be stated in general.
In heaven they think and speak differently
from what they do in the world-in heaven
spiritually, in the world naturally; wherefore,
when man reads the Word, the angels who are
with him perceive it spiritually, whilst men
understand it naturally. Hence, angels are in
the internal sense, whilst men are in the external
sense. Yet, nevertheless, they make one by
correspondence. Not only do angels think
spiritually, but they also speak spiritually.
They are likewise present with man and their
conjunction with man is by means of the Word.
This may be seen in the work on HEAVEN AND
HELL, where it treats of the wisdom of angels of
heaven, (n. 265-275) ; their speech, (n. 234-245) ;
their conjunction with man, (n. 291-302);
and of conjunction by means of the Word,
The Word is understood in a different way
by angels in the heavens from what it is by men
on earth. With angels there is the internal or
spiritual sense, but with men there is the external
or natural sense, (n. 1887, 2395). Angels
perceive the Word according to the internal
sense, and not according to the external sense,
shown by the experience of those who have
spoken with me from heaven when I was
THE WHITE HORSE [10
reading the Word, (n. 1769-1772). Angelic
ideas of thought and also angelic speech are
spiritual, but human ideas and speech are
natural ; the internal sense, therefore, which is
spiritual, is for angels, (explained from ex
perience, n. 2333). Nevertheless, the sense of
the letter of the Word serves as a medium
for the spiritual ideas of angels, comparatively
as the words of speech express the sense of a
subject with men, (n. 2143). The things of the
internal sense of the Word fall into such things
as are of the light of heaven, thus into angelic
perception, (n. 2618, 2619, 2629, 3086). On
that account those things which angels perceive
from the Word are precious to them, (n. 2540,
2541, 2545, 2551). Angels do not understand
even one word of the sense of the letter of the
Word, (n. 64, 65, 1434, 1929). Neither do they
have any knowledge of the names of persons
and places mentioned in the Word, (n. 1434,
1888, 4442, 4480). Names cannot enter into
heaven, nor can they be pronounced there,
(n. 1876, 1888). All the names in the Word
signify things, and in heaven they are changed
into ideas of the things, (n. 768, 1888, 4310,
4442, 5225, 5287, 10329). Angels even think
abstractly from persons, (n. 6613, 8343, 8985,
9007). How elegant is the internal sense of the
Word, even where there are only names,
(shown by examples from the Word, n. 1224,
1888, 2395). Again, many names in series
express one thing in the internal sense, (n.
10] TIlE WHITE HORSE
5095) ; all numbers, also, in the Word signify
things, (n. 482, 487, 647, 648, 755, 813, 1963,
1988, 2075, 2252, 3252, 4264, 6175, 9488,
9659, 10217, 10253). Spirits, too, perceive the
Word in its internal sense, in so far as their
interiors are open to heaven, (n. 1771). The
sense of the letter of the Word, which is
natural, is, with angels, changed in a moment
into the spiritual sense, because of the cor
respondence that exists, (n. 5648). And this is
without their hearing or knowing what is in
the sense of the letter or external sense, (n.
10215). Thus the sense of the letter or external
sense is with man alone and does not pass
beyond him, (n. 2015).
There is an internal sense of the Word, and
also an inmost or supreme sense, (concerning
which, see, n. 9407, 10604, 10614, 10627).
Spiritual angels, that is, those who are in the
Lord's spiritual kingdom, perceive the Word in
the internal sense, and celestial angels, that is,
those who are in the Lord's celestial kingdom,
perceive the Word in the inmost sense, (n.
The Word is for men, and also for angels,
being adapted to both, (n. 7381, 8862, 10322).
The Word is what unites heaven and earth, (n.
2310,2493,9212,9216,9357). The conjunction
of heaven with man is by means of the Word,
(n. 9396, 9400, 9401, 10452).•On that account
the Word is called a covenant, (n. 9396),
inasmuch as covenant signifies conjunction,
TIlE WHITE HORSE [10
(n. 665, 666, 1023, 1038, 1864, 1996, 2003,
2021, 6804, 8767, 8778, 9396, 10632). There is
an internal sense in the Word, because the Word
has come down from the Lord through the
three heavens even to man, (n. 2310, 6597).
And in this manner it has become adapted to
angels of the three heavens, and also to men,
(n. 7381, 8862). Hence it is that the Word is
Divine, (n. 2899,4989),  ; that it is holy,
(n. 10276) ; that it is spiritual, (n. 4480) ; and
that it is inspired by the Divine, (n. 9094).
This is inspiration, (n. 9094).
Indeed, the man who is regenerated is actually
in the internal sense of the Word, although he
is unaware of it, since his internal man, which
has spiritual perception, is open, (n. 10400).
But with him the spiritual of the Word flows
into natural ideas and is thus presented
naturally, since while he lives in the world,
he thinks in the natural man, so far as it comes
to his perception, (n. 5614). Hence the light
of truth, with those who are enlightened, is
derived from their internal, thus, through the
internal, from the Lord, (n. 10691, 10694).
In that way, also, there is an influx of holiness
with those who regard the Word as holy,
(n. 6789). Since the regenerated man is actually
in the internal sense of the Word, and in its
holiness, although unaware of it, therefore
after death he comes into it of himself, and is
no longer in the' sense of the letter, (n. 3226,
3342, 3343). The ideas of the internal man are
10-11 ] THE WHITE HORSE
spiritual, but man, while he is living in the
world, does not notice them since they are
within his natural thought, to which they
impart its rational faculty, (n. 10236, 10240,
10551). But after death man comes into them
as into his own, because they are peculiar to
his spirit, and he then not only thinks but also
speaks from them, (n. 2470, 2478, 2479,
10568, 10604). Hence it .is, as has been stated,
that the regenerated man is not aware that he
is in the spiritual sense of the Word, and that
he has enlightenment therefrom.
11. THERE ARE INNUMERABLE ARCANA IN THE
INTERNAL OR SPIRITUAL SENSE OF THE WORD.
In the internal sense the Word contains
countless things which surpass human com
prehension, (n. 3085, 3086), even things which
are too great for words and incapable of being
explained, (n. 1965). These are apparent only
to angels and are understood by them, (n. 167).
The internal sense of the Word contains arcana
of heaven which relate to the Lord and to
His kingdom in the heavens and on earth,
(n. 1,2,3,4,937). Those arcana do not appear
in the sense of the letter, (n. 937, 1502, 2161).
There are many things in the Prophets which
appear as if unconnected, which, in the internal
sense, have continuous coherence in a beautiful
series, (n. 7153, 9022). In its original language
not a single word, nor even a single jot, can be
taken away from the sense of the letter of the
THE WHITE HORSE [11
Word without an interruption to the internal
sense. And, on that account, by the Lord's
Divine Providence the Word has been preserved
so very complete as to every tittle, (n. 7933).
There are countless things contained in every
single part of the Word, (n. 6617, 8920), and
in every expression, (n. 1689). Countless
things are contained in the Lord's Prayer and
in its every particular, (n. 6619) ; and also in
the precepts of the Decalogue, notwithstanding
that in its external sense there are some things
such as are known without revelation to every
nation, (n. 8862, 8902). There is something
holy in every tittle of the Word in the original
language, shown from heaven-as may be seen
in the work on HEAVEN AND HELL, (n. 260),
where the Lord's words are explained,
Not one jot or one tittle shall pass away from the law.
Matt. v 18.
In the Word, especially in the prophetical
parts, there are two expressions as it were of
the same thing, but one has relation to good,
and the other to truth, (n. 683, 707, 2516,
8339). Goods and truths are wonderfully
conjoined in the Word, but that conjunction is
manifest only to him who knows the internal
sense, (n. 10554). So it is that in the Word and
in its every particular there is the Divine Marr
iage and a heavenly marriage, (n. 683, 793,
801, 2173, 2516, 2712, 5138, 7022). The
Divine Marriage, which is the marriage of
Divine Good and Divine Truth, is thus the
11] THE WHITE HORSE
Lord in heaven, in Whom alone that marriage
exists there, (n. 3004, 3005, 3009, 5138, 5194,
5502, 6343, 7945, 8339, 9263, 9314). Again,
by Jesus is meant the Divine Good, and by
Christ the Divine Truth, and thus by both is
signified the Divine Marriage in heaven, (n.
3004, 3005, 3009). This marriage, and thus
the Lord as to Divine Good and Divine Truth,
is in every particular of the Word in its in-
ternal sense, (n. 5502). The marriage of good
and truth from the Lord in heaven and in the
Church is what is called the heavenly marriage,
(n. 2508, 2618, 2803, 3004, 3211, 3952, 6179).
Thus, in this respect, the Word is as it were
heaven, (n. 2173, 10126). Heaven is likened
in the Word to a marriage by reason of the
marriage of good and truth therein, (n. 2758,
3132, 4434, 4835).
The internal sense is the genu!l}e doctrine
itself of the Church, (n. 9025, 9430, 10400).
1leY who understand the Word according to
the internal sense, know the true doctrine
itself of the Church, because the internal sense
comprises it, (n. 9025, 9430, 10400). Again,
the internal of the Word is the internal of the
Church, as it is also the internal of worship,
(n. 10460). The Word is the doctrine of love
( to the Lord an:cr-orcharity towards the neigh-
bour, (n. 3419, 3420).
In the letter the Word is as it were a cloud
and the glory is in the internal sense, (Preface
to Genesis xviii, and n. 5922, 6343, where the
THE WHITE HORSE [11
words are explained, that the Lord would
come in the clouds of heaven with glory. In the
Word a cloud also means the Word in the sense
I of the letter, and glory the Word in the internal
l sense. (Preface to Genesis xviii and n. 4060,
10574). Those things which are in the sense of
the letter, compared with those in the internal
sense, are like the rough projections placed
around a polished optical cylinder from which
nevertheless there is brought forth to view in
the cylinder a beautiful representation of a man,
(n. 1871). In the spiritual world they who
wish for and acknowledge only the sense of the
( letter, are represented by an ugly old woman.
But they, who, at the same time wish for and
acknowledge the internal sense, are represented
by a virgin beautifully clothed, (n. 1774).
The Word in its whole complex is an image of
heaven, for the Word is Divine Truth, and
(Divine Truth constitutes heaven; and heaven
resembles one man, and in this respect t!le
Word is as it were the image of a inan, (n. 11S7).
(That heaven as a whole resembles one man
may be seen in the work on HEAVEN AND HELL,
n. 59-67 ; and that the Divine Truth proceeding
from the Lord makes heaven, n. 126-140,
200-212.) The Word is presented to the angels
themselves in a beautiful and charming way,
(n. 1767, 1768). The sense of the letter is as it
were the body, and the internal sense as it
were the soul ofthat-.£.ody, (n. 8943). Hence, the.
11-12] THE WHITE HORSE
life of the Word is from the internal sense,
(n. 1405, 4857). The Word is pure in the
internal sense but it does not appear such in
the sense of the letter, (n. 2362, 2395). The
things which are in the sense of the letter are
holy from the internal things, (n. 10126,
There is also an internal sense to the historical
parts of the Word, but it is within them, (n.
4989). Thus, equally with the prophetical, the
historical parts of the Word contain arcana
of heaven, (n. 755, 1659, 1709, 2310, 2333).
Angels do not perceive those parts as relating
I to history, but as to doctrine [dogmatice]
because they perceive them spiritually, (n. 6884).
The interior arcana contained in the historical
parts are less clear to man than those in the
prophetical parts, the reason being that the
mind is intent upon and paying attention to
the things relating to history, (n. 2176, 6597).
The quality of the internal sense of the woro is
again shown, (n. 1756, 1984, 2004, 2663, 3035,
7089, 10604, 10614), and illustrated by com
parisons, (n. 1873).
12. THE WORD IS WRITTEN BY CORRESPOND
ENCES AND THUS BY REPRESENTATIVES. As to
the sense of the letter the Word is written by
nothing but correspondences, and so by such
things as represent and signify the spiritual
things of heaven and the church, (n. 1404>
1408, 1409, 1540, 1619, 1659, 1709, 1783,2179,
THE WHITE HORSE [12
2763, 2899). This was done on account of the
internal sense in every particular, (n. 2899).
Thus it was for the sake of heaven, since they
who are in heaven do not understand the Word
according to the sense of its letter, which is
natural, but according to the internal sense,
which is spiritual, (n. 2899). Because He spoke
from the Divine, the Lord spoke by corre
spondences, representatives and significatives,
(n. 9049, 9063, 9086, 10126, 10728). The Lord
thus spoke in His own person to the world and
to heaven at the same time, (n. 2533, 4807,
9049, 9063, 9086). The things spoken by the
Lord reached to the entire heaven, (n. 4637).
The historical parts of the Word are repre
sentative and the words significative, (n.
1540, 1659, 1709, 1783, 2686). The Word
could not have been written in any other
style in order that there might be communica
tion and conjunction with the heavens by means
of it, (n. 2899, 6943, 9481). They are greatly
mistaken who make little of the Word on
account of its apparently simple and rough style,
and who believe that, had it been written in a
different style, they would have accepted the
Word, (n. 8783). The most ancient people's
manner and style of writing was also by
correspondences and representatives, (n. 605,
1756, 9942). The wise people of ancient times
were delighted with the Word because of the
representatives and significatives therein;
(from experience, n. 2592, 2593). If a man of
12] THE WHITE HORSE
the Most Ancient Church had read the Word,
he would have seen those things clearly which
are in the internal sense, but obscurely those
which are in the external sense, (n. 4493).
The sons of Jacob were led forth into the land of
Canaan because, from the most ancient times,
all places in that land were made representative,
(n. 1585,3686,4447,5136,6516), and so that a
Word might be written there, in which places
were to be named on account of the internal
sense, (n. 3686, 4447, 5136, 6516). On account
of that nation, however, the Word as to the
external sense was entirely altered but not as to
the internal sense, (n. 10453, 10461, 10603,
10604). Many passages concerning that nation
are quoted from the Word, which must be
understood, however, according to the internal
sense, and so in a different way than according
to the letter, (n. 7051). Since that nation
represented the Church, and because the Word
was written among them and about them,
therefore Divine heavenly things were signified
by their names; as, for example, by Reuben,
Simeon, Levi, Judah, Ephraim, Joseph and the
rest. And, by Judah, in the internal sense is
signified the Lord as to celestial love and also
His celestial kingdom, (n. 3654, 3881, 5583,
So that it may be known what correspondences
are, their quality, and the quality of representa
tives in the Word, something shall also be said
THE WHITE HORSE [12
All things which correspond also represent,
and hence signify, so that correspondences and
representatives are one, (n. 2896, 2897, 2973,
2987, 2989, 2990, 3002, 3225). What corre
spondences and representatives are, shown from
experience and by examples, (n. 2763, 2987
3002, 3213-3226, 3337-3352, 3472-3485, 4218
4228, 9280). Among the ancients the science of
correspondences and representations was the
pre-eminent science, (n. 3021-3419,4280,4748,
4844,4964,4966, 6004, 7729, 10252), and prin
cipally among the people of the east, (n. 5702,
6692, 7097, 7779, 9391, 10252, 10407) ; and in
Egypt more than in other places, (n. 5702,
6692, 7097, 7779, 9391, 10407); and also
among the Gentiles, as in Greece and elsewhere,
(n. 2762, 7729). But at the present time,
especially in Europe, it is among the lost
sciences, (n. 2894, 2895, 2995, 3630, 3632,
3747, 3748, 3749, 4581, 4966, 10252). Yet this
science is the most excellent of all sciences,
since without it the Word is not understood,
nor the significance of the rites of the Jewish
Church of which we read in the Word; neither
is heaven's quality known, nor what is spiritual,
nor how there is an influx of the spiritual into
the natural, nor the manner of the influx of the
soul into the body, besides many other things,
(n. 4180, and in passages cited above). All
things which appear among angels and spirits
are representatives according to correspond
ences, (n. 1971, 3213-3226, 3475, 3485, 9457,
12] THE WHITE HORSE
9481, 9576, 9577). The heavens are full of
representatives, (n. 1521, 1532, 1619). Repre
sentatives are so far more beautiful and more
perfect as they are more interiorly in the
heavens, (n. 3475). Representatives therein
are real appearances since they are from the
light of heaven, which is Divine Truth, and this
itself is the essential of all things that come
into existence, (n. 3485).
The reason why each and all of those things
which are in the spiritual world are represented
in the natural world, is that the internal clothes
itself with concordant forms in the external,
by means of which it renders itself visible and
is seen, (n. 6275, 6284, 6299). Thus the end
adopts a suitable guise, that it may present
itself as the cause in a lower sphere, and then
that it may present itself as the effect in a
sphere still lower. And when the end, by means
of the cause, becomes the effect, it then becomes
visible or appears before the eyes, (n. 5711).
This may be illustrated by the influx of the
soul into the body, namely, that the soul is
clothed with such things in the body by means
of which all that it thinks and wills can be
expressed and manifest in a visible form.
Wherefore, when thought flows down into the
body, it is represented by such gestures and
actions as correspond to it, (n. 2988). The
affections of the mind are plainly represented
in the face by means of its various expressions
to such an extent that they may be observed
THE WHITE HORSE [12
there, (n. 4791-4805, 5695). Hence it is plain
that in each and all things of nature there is
interiorly concealed a cause and an end from
the spiritual world, (n. 3562, 5711), since the
things which are in nature are ultimate effects,
within which are things prior, (n. 4240, 4939,
5051, 6275, 6284, 6299, 9216). Internal things
are what are represented, and external things
are what represent, (n. 4292). What corre
spondences and representations are may be further
seen in the work on HEAVEN AND HELL, wherein
it treats of the correspondence of all things of
heaven, with all things of man, (n. 87-102);
the correspondence of heaven with all things
of earth, (n. 103-115) ; and reprefientatives and
appearances in heaven, (n. 170-176).
Since all things in nature are representative
of spiritual and celestial things, therefore in
ancient times there were Churches in which all
the externals, which were rituals, were repre
sentative. Those Churches were therefore called
representative Churches, (n. 519, 521, 2896).
The Church established among the sons of
Israel was a representative Church, (n. 1003,
2179, 10149). Therein all the rituals were
externals, which represented the internal things
which are of heaven and the Church, (n. 4288,
4874). The representatives of the Church and of
worship came to an end when the Lord
came into the world and manifested Himself,
because the Lord revealed the internals of
the Church, and because all things of that
12-13] THE WHITE HORSE
Church, in a supreme sense, looked to Him,
13. THE SENSE OF THE LETTER OR THE
EXTERNAL SENSE OF THE WORD. The sense of
the letter of the Word is expressed according
to appearances in the world, (n. 589, 926,
1832, 1874, 2242, 2520, 2533, 2719), [1408,
1410]. And it is adapted to the comprehension of
the simple-minded, (n. 2533, 9048, 9063, 9086).
In the sense of the letter the Word is natural,
(n. 8783), because what is natural is the ultimate
in which spiritual and celestial things terminate,
and upon which they stand like a house upon
its foundation. Moreover, without an external,
the internal sense of the Word would be like
a house without a foundation, (n. 9360, 9430,
9433, 9824, 10044, 10436). Being of such a
character the Word is the containant of a
spiritual and a celestial sense, (n. 9407), and
because it is such there is a Divine holiness in
the sense of the letter as to each and all things
therein, even to every single jot, (n. 639, 680,
1869, 1870, 9198, 10321, 10637). Although
abrogated, the laws laid down for the Israelites
are still the Holy Word on account of the
internal sense within them, (n. 9211, 9259,
9349). Among the laws, judgments and statutes
laid down for the Israelitish or Jewish Church,
which was a representative Church, there are
some still binding both in the external and
internal sense ; there are some which ought to
THE WHITE HORSE [13-14
be wholly observed in their external sense;
some, which may be of use, if people wish
to observe them, and some which are entirely
abrogated, (n. 9349). The Word is Divine,
even as to those things which are abrogated,
on account of the heavenly things which lie
concealed within their internal sense, (n.
What the quality of the Word is in the sense
of the letter, if it is not understood at the same
time as to the internal sense, or, what is the
same thing, according to true doctrine from the
Word, (n. 10402). Without the internal sense,
that is, without genuine doctrine from the
Word, an immense profusion of heresies springs
up from the sense of the letter, (n. 104(0).
Those who are in externals without internals
cannot endure the interior things of the Word,
(n. 10694). Such were the Jews and such
also are they today, (n. 301, 302, 303, 3479,
4429, 4433, 4680, 4844, 4847, 10396, 10401,
10407, 10694, 10701, 10707).
14. THE LoRD IS THE WORD. In the inmost
sense of the Word the Lord alone is treated of,
and all the states of the glorification of His
Human are described ; that is, of His union
with the Divine Itself; and also all the states
involved in the subjugation of the hells, and of
the bringing into order of all things therein,
as well as in the heavens, (n. 2249, 7014).
So that the Lord's whole life in the world is
14] THE WHlTE HORSE
described in that sense, and by means of that
sense the Lord's presence with the angels is
continuous, (n. 2523). Accordingly in the
inmost of the Word there is the Lord alone,
and the Divinity and holiness of the Word
have their origin thence, (n. 1873, 9357).
The Lord's saying that the Scripture concerning
Himself was fulfilled, means that all things
contained in the inmost sense were fulfilled,
The Word means the Divine Truth, (n. 4692,
5075, 9987). The Lord is the Word because
He is the Divine Truth, (n. 2533). The Lord is
also the Word because the Word is from Him,
and concerning Him, (n. 2859), and in its
inmost sense concerning the Lord alone;
thus the Lord Himself is therein, (n. 1873,
9357) ; and because in each and all things of
the Word there is the marriage of Divine Good
and Divine Truth, which marriage is in the Lord
alone, (n. 3004, 3005, 3009, 4137, 5194, 5502,
6343, 7945, 8339, 9263, 9314), [5138J. Divine
Truth is the sole Reality, and that in which it is,
which is from the Divine, is the sole Substan
tiality, (n. 5272, 6880, 7004, 8200). Since the
Divine Truth, proceeding from the Lord as the
Sun in heaven, is light there, and the Divine
Good is heat there ; and because all things
therein come into being from these, just as all
things in the world come into being from light
and heat, which are also in their own substances,
and act by means of them ; and because the
THE WHITE HORSE [14
natural world exists by means of heaven or the
spiritual world; it is clear that all things which
were created, were created from the Divine
Truth and thus from the Word, according to
these words in John,
In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was
with God, and the Word was God, and by it were all
things made that were made; and THE WORD WAS
MADE FLESH. John i I, 2, 3, 14.
(n. 2803, 2894, 5272, 6880). Further particulars
concerning the creation of all things from Divine
Truth, thus by the Lord, may be seen in the
work on HEA YEN AND HELL, n. 137 ; and more
fully in the passage concerning the Sun in
heaven, where it is shown that it is the Lord,
and that it is His Divine Love, (n. 116-125) ;
and that Divine Truth is the light, and Divine
Good is the heat from that Sun in heaven,
The Lord's conjunction with man is through
the Word, by means of the internal sense,
(n. 10375). Each and all things of the Word
effect this conjunction, and hence the Word is
wonderful beyond comparison with every other
writing, (n. 10632, 10633, 10634). Since the
writing of the Word it is by this means that
the Lord speaks with men, (n. 10290). See, in
addition, the facts adduced in the work on
HEAYEN AND HELL, concerning the conjunction
of heaven with man by means of the Word,
15-16] THE WHITE HORSE
15. CONCERNING THOSE WHO ARE OPPOSED
TO THE WORD. Concerning those who ridicule,
blaspheme and profane the Word, (n. 1878) ;
their quality in the other life, (n. 1761, 9222).
They relate to the viscous things of the blood,
(n. 5719). How very dangerous it is to profane
the Word, (n. 571-582). How harmful it is, if
principles of falsity, especially those which are
favourable to the love of self and the world,
are confirmed by means of the Word, (n. 589).
They who have no affection for truth for the
sake of truth are utterly disdainful of those
things which belong to the internal sense of the
Word, and are nauseated by them. (Shown
from experience of such persons in the spiritual
world, n. 5702.) Certain persons in the other
life, who made an attempt to spurn utterly
the interiors of the Word, were deprived of
rationality, (n. 1879).
16. THE BOOKS WHICH CONSTITUTE THE
WORD. The books of the Word are all those
which contain an internal sense. Those, on the
contrary, which do not contain an internal
sense, are not the Word. The books of the
Word in the Old Testament are :-THE FIVE
BOOKS OF MOSES, THE BOOK OF
JOSHUA, THE BOOK OF JUDGES, THE
TWO BOOKS OF SAMUEL, THE TWO
BOOKS OF KINGS, THE PSALMS OF
DAVID, the Prophets ISAIAH, JERE
MIAH, THE LAMENTAnONS, EZEKIEL,
THE WHITE HORSE [16-17
DANIEL, HOSEA, JOEL, AMOS, OBA
DIAH, JONAH, MICAH, NAHUM,
HABAKKUK, ZEPHANIAH, HAGGAI,
ZECHARIAH, MALACHI. In the Ne~
T~am~nt, the four Evangelists :-MAT
THEW, MARK, LUKE, JOHN, and the
REVELATION. The rest do not contain an
internal sense, (n. 10325).
The book of Job is an ancient book in which,
indeed, there is an internal sense, but not in a
connected order, (n. 3540, 9942).
17. FURTHER PARTICULARS ABOUT THE
WORD. In the Hebrew tongue WORD means
various .things, such as the (spoken word,
l.. thought.?of the mi~d, every thing that really
3 comes into existence,J and also ~something,
L (n. 9987). ' The Word signifies I5ivmelfuth
and the Lord, (n. 2533, 4692, 5075, 9987).
Words denote truths, (n. 4692, 5075). They
signify do~rinal trungs, (n. 1288). The Ten
Words mean all Divine Tn~ths, (n. 10688).
In the Word, and es pecially in the pro
phetical parts, there are two expressions for
one and the same trung. One relates to good
and the other to truth, which are thus conjoined,
(n. 683, 707, 2516, 8339). It cannot be known,
except from the internal sense of the Word,
which expression has relation to good and which
to truth. For there are special words used to
express what relates to good, and others to
express what relates to truth, (n. 793, 801).
17] THE WHITE HORSE
This is so consistently the case, that merely
from the words used, it may be known whether
they treat of good or of truth, (n. 2722).
Again, at another time, one expression involves
something general, and the other some par
ticular derived from that general principle,
(n. 2212). There is a kind of reciprocation in
the Word, (concerning which, see n. 2240).
Most things in the Word have also an opposite
sense, (n. 4816). The internal sense is in keeping
with its own subject after the manner of a
predicate, [no 4502].
They who have taken delight in the Word,
in the other life receive the warmth of heaven,
in which is heavenly love, according to the
quality and degree of their delight from love,
APPENDIX TO THE WHITE HORSE [1-2
APPENDIX TO THE WHITE HORSE
1. Since it cannot but appear strange at
the present day that a horse should mean the
un--9~standing of tr.!:!.th, and in an opposite
sense, reasonings in confirmation of falsity,
as if from perception, I wish to bring together
still more passages from the Word where the
horse is mentioned. They are the following:
Is Thy wrath against the sea, 0 Jehovah, that Thou
didst ride upon Thine horses? Thy chariots are
[A. V. of] salvation. Thou hast trodden [A. V. didst
walk through] the sea with Thine horses, the mire
of the waters [A.V. the heap of great waters].
Hab. iii 8, 15.
The hoofs of the horses of Jehovah shall be counted
like rocks [A.V. flint]. Isa. v 28.
At Thy rebuke both the chariot and horse have
fallen asleep [A.V. are cast into a dead sleep].
Ps. Ixxvi 6.
I will overthrow the throne of kingdoms ; and I will
overthrow the chariots, and those that ride in them ;
and the horses and their riders shall come down.
Hagg ii 22.
I will cut olf the horse from Jerusalem, and he shall
speak peace unto the nations [A.V. heathen].
Zech. ix 10.
2. By a horse, in these passages, is meant the
understanding of the truth of the Church.
By a chariot is meant the doctrine derived
therefrom, and by those who ride in chariots
2] APPENDIX TO THE WHITE HORSE
and on horses, those who are in the under-
standing and in doctrine from the Word.
This appears still more clearly from these
Gather yourselves on every side to My sacrifice.
Ye shall be filled at My table with horse and chariot.
So will I set My glory among the nations [A.V.
heathen]. Ezek. xxxix 17, 20, 21.
Gather yourselves together unto the supper of the
great God, and [A.V. that ye may] eat the flesh of
horses, and of them that sit on them. Rev. xix 17, 18.
Here the New Church to be established by the
Lord is treated of ; and that then the under- I
standing of the Word will be opened and me?-l
will be instructed in the doctrine of trutn;
therefrom. What otherwise would it be but
nonsense, that they should be filled at the Lord's
table with horse and chariot: and that they
should eat the flesh of horses and of them that
sit on them! In addition to the passages
adduced the meaning of a horse and chariot
is evident from the following:
Gird Thy sword [A. V. upon Thy thigh], a Mighty !
Mount up, ride upon the Word of truth [A.V. ride
prosperously because of truth]. Ps. xlv 3, 4.
Sing ye ; extol Him that rideth upon the clouds
[A.V. heavens]. Ps. Ixviii 4.
Jehovah rideth upon a cloud. Isa. xix I.
a sing praises unto the Lord ; To Him that rideth
upon the heaven of heavens, which was of old.
Ps. Ixviii 32, 33.
God rode upon a cherub. Ps. xviii 10.
APPENDIX TO THE WHITE HORSE [2-3
Then shalt thou delight thyself in Jehovah ; and I
will cause thee to ride upon the high places of the
earth. [Isa. lviii 14]. Deut. xxxii 13.
I will make Ephraim to ride. Hosea xII.
In these passages to ride means to instruct
and to be instructed in the truths of doctrine,
and so to become wise. By thehigh -places' of
the earth are signified the sublimer truths of the J
Church. By Ephraim, also, is meant the under
standing of the Word. Similar things are meant
by horses and chariots, by the four chariots
going forth from between the mountains of
brass, and by the four horses harnessed to them,
which were red, black, white and grisled,
which are also called spirits, and are said to
have gone forth from standing before the
Lord of all the earth, (Zech. vi 1-15). Similar
things are also meant by these words :
When the Lamb opened the seals of the Book, there
went forth horses in order; at first, a white horse,
secondly a red horse, thirdly a black horse and
fourthly a pale horse. . . Rev. vi 1-8.
By the Book whose seals the Lamb opened, is
understood the Word. It is evident that nothing
else could come forth from this but the under
standing of it. How otherwise could it be
understood that horses went forth out of an
opened Book !
3. It is confirmed that a horse means the
understangi!!g of truth, and a chariQt doctrine,
fromtne same things when mentioned in an
3J APPENDIX TO TIlE WHITE HORSE
opposite sense. In this sense a horse signifies
the understanding under the influence of
reasonings from the falsification of truths,
and a chariot, the doctrine or heresy arising
therefrom, as in the following passages :
Woe to them that go down to Egypt for help; and
stay on horses ; and look not unto the Holy One
of Israel; for Egypt is man [A.V. the Egyptians are
men] and not God; and his [A.V. their] horses
flesh and not spirit. Isa. xxxi 1, 3.
Thou shalt set a king over Israel, whom Jehovah
shall choose; but he shall not multiply horses to
himself nor bring back the people into [A.V. cause
the people to return to] Egypt, to the end that he
may multiply horses. Deut. xvii 15, 16.
These things are said because Egypt signifies
the natural man, who perverts the truths of
the Word by reasonings from the bodily
senses. What else :::an be meant by the horses
of Egypt being flesh and not spirit, and by the
king not multiplying horses, but falsities of
Asshur shall not save us ; we will not ride upon a
horse. Hosea xiv 3.
Some in a chariot, and some in horses: but we will
glory in [A.V. remember] the name of our God.
Ps. xx 7.
An horse is a lying thing for safety. Ps. xxxiii 17.
The Holy One of Israel hath said ; in confidence
shall be your strength. But ye said, No ; we will
flee upon an horse, we will ride upon the swift.
Isa. xxx 15, 16.
APPENDIX TO THE WHITE HORSE [3
Jehovah shall make Judah as a horse of glory ;
and the riders on horses shall be made ashamed
[A.V. confounded]. Zech. x 3, 5.
I will bring against Tyre the king of Babylon, with
horse, and with chariot, and with horsemen; by
reason of the abundance of his horses their dust shall
cover thee : thy walls shall shake at the voice of the
horseman, and of the chariot. With the hoofs
of his horses shall he tread down all thy streets.
Ezek. xxvi 7, 10, 11.
By Tyre in the Word is meant the Church as to
the cognitions 1 of good and truth, and by the
king of Babylon, their falsification and profana
tion. It is on this account that it is here said
that he would come with horse, and with
chariot and with horsemen, and that by reason
of the abundance of horses their dust would
Woe to the city of bloods, it is all full of a lie [A.V.
lies] . . . the neighing horse and the jumping
chariot. Nahum iii 1, 2.
By the city of bloods is meant doctrine drawn
from falsified truths of the Word. As well as
in other passages, as in: Isa. v 26, 28 ; Jer. vi
23; viii 16; xlvi 4, 9; 1 37, 38, 42; Ezek.
xvii 15 ; xxiii 5, 6, 20; Hab. i 6, 8, 9, 10 ;
Ps. lxvi 11, 12 ; cxlvii 10. The understanding
IThe term cogniliones, here used in the Latin, js translated U cognitions "
to distinguish these knowledges from those that are meant by the Latin
scientifica also used in the Writings of Swedenborg.
Two of the meanings most commonly associated with cogllillones are,
(1) a particular species of knowledge. as knowledges of the Word, of good
and truth, or of spiritual things (A.C. 24, 3665, 9945 ; N.J.H.D. 51 ;
H.H. 111, 351,469,474,517,518); and (2) a higher type of knowledge
which is from understanding and perception (A.C. 1486-7 ; H.H. 353).
3] APPENDIX TO THE WHITE HORSE
of the truth of the Word, when it is falsified
and destroyed, is also meant by the red, black
and pale horses, in Rev. vi 4, 5, 8. Since,
therefore, horse signifies the understanding
of truth, and in an opposite sense the under
standing of falsity, it is evident of what quality
the Word is in the spiritual sense.
It is well known that in E.,gypt there were
hieroglyphics, and that these were inscribed on
the columns and walls of the temples, etc. ;
but at the present time no one knows what
things were signified by them. They weLe .
nothing else than correspondences of natural
qnd spiritual things, which the Egyptians
studied more than any other people in Asia
of their time, and according to which the orae~t
writers of Greece composed their fables.
The most ancieIltStyle of writing was no other.
To this I will add this new information, that
all things which appear in the spiritual world
before angels and spirits are nothing but
correspondences. It is on this account that the
whole Sacred Scripture is written by corre
spondences, so that by means of it, because it is
such, there might be conjunction between men
of the Church and angels of heaven. Moreover,
because the Eg1Qli.ans, and with them others
of the kingdoms or Asifl, began to turn those
correspondences into idolatries, to which the
sons of Israel were inclined, therefore the latter
were forbidden to make any use of them of
their own accord. This is clearly evident from
APPENDIX TO THE WHITE HORSE [3
the first commandment of the Decalogue,
where it is said :
Thou shalt not make to thyself a graven image,
of any form that is in the heavens above, or that is
in the earth beneath, or that is in the waters under
the earth: Thou shalt not bow down thyself unto
them, nor serve them, for I am Jehovah thy God.
Deut. v 8, 9.
besides in very many passages elsewhere. From
that time the science of correspondences has
been obliterated by degrees to such an- extent
Ithat at the present day it is scarcely known
that it ever existed and that it was something
of importance. Now, however, because a
New Church founded upon the Word is to be
I established by the Lord, which is understood
by the New Jerusalem in Revelation, it has
pleased the Lord to reveal that science, and thus
to open the Word such_as it (s interiqrly in its
bosom, that is, in the spiritual sense. This has
been done through me in ARCANA CAELESTIA,
published in London, and later in APOCALYPSE
REVEALED, published in Amsterdam. Since
.that science of corresPQ.lli!.en-ces was regarded
It by the ancients as the science of sciences, their
wisdom being derived from it, it is important
that someone of your Academy should devote
his attention to the study of it. This can
be done, in the first instance, from the
cor!:.espondences disclosed in APOCALYPSE
REVEALED, and proved from the Word. Should
it be desired, I am willing to _explain the
3] APPENDIX TO THE WHITE HORSE
Egyptian hierogJyphics, which are nothing
but correspondences, and to publish their
meaning, which cannot be done by anyone else.
ANCIENT CHURCHES. They were representative
Churches, 4. All their externals or rituals were repre
APOCALYPSE REVEALED. The work mentioned, App. 4.
ARCANA CAELESTlA. Contents of the work, 5.
Extracts from it, I, 2, 6-17. The work mentioned,
ASSEMBLY OF INTELLIGENT AND WISE. Seen by
Swedenborg in the Spiritual World, 3.
CANAAN. All places in that land were made representa
CHARIOT. Signifies doctrine from the Word, 2, App. 2.
Also false doctrine, App. 3.
CHURCH. The Ancient Churches were representative, 4.
Charity constitutes the Church, 8. A New Church is
understood by the New Jerusalem, App. 2, 4.
CLOUD. Means the Word in the sense of the letter, 11.
CONJUNCTION OF THE LORD WITH MAN. Effected
through the Word, 14.
CORRESPONDENCE. What it is, 9. The internal and
external senses of the Word make one by it, 10. The Word
is written by correspondences, 12. The Science of corre
spondences a pre-eminent science among the ancients,
12. The Lord spoke by correspondences, representatives
and significatives, 12. Knowledge of correspondences
lost, App. 4. Now revealed anew, App. 4.
DOCTRINE. Is necessary to understand the Word, 8.
Must be from those who are in enlightenment, 8. Can be
confirmed by rational things, 8. The internal sense is the
genuine doctrine itself of the Church, 11.
EGYPT. Represents the natural man, App. 3. Hierogly
phics, App. 4. Rise of idolatry in Egypt, App. 4.
ELIJAH AND ELISHA. Represented the Lord as to the
ENLIGHTENMENT. Is necessary to understand the Word,
7. Is given when the Word is read from a love of truth
and good, 7. Is an actual opening of the interiors of the
GLORIFICATION OF THE LORD'S HUMAN. Is
described in the inmost sense of the Word, 14.
GREECE. Fables from correspondences, 4, App. 4.
HEAVEN. As a whole resembles one man, 11. Is likened
to a marriage, 11. The heavens are full of representatives,
14. The conjunction of heaven with man, 14.
HEAVEN AND HELL. The work referred to, 9, 10, ll,
HIEROGLYPHICS. Are correspondences, App. 4.
Swedenborg willing to explain them, App. 4.
HORSE. Means understanding, 2. Its signification derived
from representatives in the Spiritual World, 3, and from
the Ancient Churches, 3. Pegasus, 4. Trojan horse, 4.
Explained as to correspondence, App. 1-4.
INFLUX. Of soul into body, 12.
INMOST SENSE OF THE WORD. Treats of the Lord
INSPIRATION OF THE WORD. How explained at this
daY,6. What it is, 10.
INTERNAL SENSE OF THE WORD. Intended especially
for angels, 10. Contains countless arcana, I I. Is the
genuine doctrine itself of the Church, 11. There is also an
internal sense to the historical parts of the Word, I I.
JOB. Book of, 16.
JUDAH. In the internal sense signifies the Lord as to
celestial love and also H is celestial kingdom, 12.
JUSTICE. Is the merit which belongs to the Lord alone, I.
MARRIAGE. There is a marriage of Divine Good and
Divine Truth in the Word, 11.
NAMES. In the Word signify things, and in heaven are
changed into ideas of the things, 6. Reuben, Simeon,
NEW CHURCH. Is meant by the New Jerusaiem, App. 2.
Science of correspondences is now revealed for this
New Church, App. 4.
NEW JERUSALEM AND ITS HEAVENLY DOCfRINE.
The work mentioned, 6, 8.
PHILISTINES. Those in the doctrine of faith and not in
the life of faith were formerly called Philistines, 8.
PLACES IN THE WORD. Were named on account of the
internal sense, 12.
PROFANATION OF THE WORD. Its danger, 15.
REVELATION. Its necessity, 6. Its various forms, 6.
The revelation of the internal sense of the Word, App. 4.
SENSE OF THE LETTER OF THE WORD. Is not
consistent with itself, 7. Serves as a medium for the
spiritual ideas of angels, 10. In the sense of the letter
the Word is as it were a cloud, 11. IS wntten by pure
correspondences, 12. Is expressed in accordance with
appearances in the world, and adapted to the com
prehension of the simple-minded, 13. From the sense of
the letter, without the internal sense, an immense profusion
of heresies springs up, 13.
VASTATION OF THE CHURCH. Takes place when there
is no longer any understanding of truth, 2.
WHITE HORSE. Description in Rev. xix 11-14, 16 in I.
Represents the understanding of the Word as to interior
things, I, 5.
WORD, THE. The Lord as the Word, I. Its necessity and
excellence, 6. The Ancient Word, 6. Cannot be under
stood except by those who are enlightened, 7. Is not
understood without doctrine, 8. Is for men and angels,
being adapted to both, 10. Unites heaven and earth and
hence called a Covenant, 10. Has come down from the
Lord through the three heavens, 10. The reason for its
Divinely providential preservation, 11. The Divine and
heavenly marriage is therein, 11. Is as a cloud in the
letter, and the glory in the internal sense, 11. Is an image
of heaven, 11. Is the containant of a spiritual and a
celestial sense, and hence is Divine as to every jot, 13.
The Lord is the Word, 14. The Lord's conjunction with
man is through the Word, 14. The Books which constitute
the Word, 16. Opened by the Lamb, App. 2.
INDEX OF SCRIPTURE PASSAGES
QUOTED OR REFERRED TO
xlix 9 xvii 15 App.3
xlix 17, 18 2 xxiii 5,6,20 App.3
xxvi 7,10, I1 App.3
DEUTERONOMY xxxix 17,20,21 App.2
v 8, 9 App.4
xvii 15,16 App.3 HOSEA
x 1I App.2
2 KINGS xiv 3 App.3
ii 11, 12 2
vi I7 2 NAHUM
xiii 14 2, 3 iii 1,2 App.3
xxxix 17,18,19 2 i 6,8,9,10 · App.3
PSALMS iii 8, 15 . 2, App. I
xviii 10 App.2
xx 7 App.3 HAGGAI
xxxiii 17 ii 22 App.l
xlv 3,4 · App.2
xlv 4 ZECHARIAH
2 vi 1-15
Ixvi 11,12 App.2
lxviii 4 App.2 ix 10 App.l
Ixviii 32,33 App.2 x 3,5 App.3
Ixxvi 6 App.l xii 4 2
cxlvii 10 App.3 xiv 20 2
v 26,28 : App. 3 v 18 11
v 28 App. I
xix 1 · App.2 JOHN
xxx 15, 16 · App.3 i 1-3, 14 14
xxxi 1,3 App.3
Iviii 14 App.2 REVELATION
vi 1-8 App. 2, 3
JEREMIAH vi 4, 5, 8 · App.3
vi 23 App.3 xix 11-14,16 1
viii 16 App.3 xix 17,18 · App.2
xlvi 4, 9 App.3 xix 17, 18, 19,
I 37,38,42 App.·3 20,21