Strengthening private forestry in Montenegro (2008 - 2010) by SNV
Netherlands development organisation MontenegroSTRENGTHENING PRIVATE FORESTRY IN MONTENEGRO (2008 – 2010) CASE STUDY by Franc Ferlin and Mensura Nuhodzic Podgorica, January 2011
ContextOne third of Montenegrin forest and other forest land – which cover 54% of thestate territory - is privately owned. Because of strong human influence and non-sustainable use in the past, the private forests are in much worst condition than thestate ones. The coppice forests and other, lower forest vegetation are now highlydominating (84%) having much lower production potential. It is estimated thatthere is about 50.000 private forest holdings in Montenegro. Consequently, theprivate forests are pretty small scattered, although the situation is better than inneighbouring countries. In spite of that, private forests play an important role inhousehold economy of private forest owners (PFOs), in mitigation of rural povertyas well as in the local and national economy. They are important also for theconservation of the nature and protection of the environment.The situation in forestry before 2007, when the new forest policy developmentproccess started, was characterised by a polarised relationship between privateforest owners (PFOs) and the Forest Administration (FA), and the lack of anyconstructive communication. The FA’s way of work in carrying out the forestryadministrative procedures and professionally-technical activities for PFOs wasauthoritative and non-service oriented. PFOs have not been organised yet by thattime. No any real forestry extension / education service existed.In order to stimulate the communication and dialogue between PFOs and the FA, toenable corresponding influence of PFOs on decision making in forestry, and toestablish the minimum institutional and human capacities of the weak private forestsector in Montenegro, SNV started with technical support to it in 2006. The supportwas firstly oriented to establishing the private forest owners associations (PFOAs) atmunicipal level. By the middle of 2008, already 8 municipal PFOAs were registered,representing majority of private forests of Northern Montenegro. Also the NationalPrivate Forest Owners’ Association (NPFOA), serving as umbrella organisation, wasestablished by that time under exclusive SNV’s support.In parallel to the establishing of PFOAs from 2007 to 2008 and later, SNV technicallysupported and facilitated the National forest policy (NFP) development, incollaboration with the Lux-Development “Forest sector development in Montenegro(FODEMO)” project. Within that support, SNV took particular care for theinvolvement of, and technical assistance to PFO(A)s. The resulting, inclusive NFPdocument, which reflects the PFOs’ interests and needs, was adopted by theGovernment in early 2008. It promotes, among others, the sustainablemanagement of state and private forests and anticipates Governmental technicaland financial support to private forests/owners. The document serves as frameworkfor development of new Forest law (FL), new Forestry strategy (FS) andcorresponding Budget programmes (BPs), as well as for institutional reforms andbuilding of human capacities.Based on good experiences and results of the described SNV’s technical support, theadopted NFP commitments and the expressed needs of clients, further support ofSNV to Montenegrin forest sector became indispensable, from that point on still inmore widened and comprehensive form. In addition to the support to privateforestry sector, it included also technical support to creation of new legalframework1.1 The assistance was carried out under the AA on Development of forest and related legislation in Montenegro (9/2008 – 12/2009, extended to 5/2010) – client the MAFWM and is a matter of another case study. 2
The case study includes technical support under three MOUs with the following fourAAs (for the period September 2008 - January 2011): a) Organizational2 development, training and advocacy skills of NPFOA (3/2009 – 12/2009) - client the NPFOA; b) Strengthening private forestry in Montenegro (9/2008 – 8/2010) - client the FA; c) Strengthening private forestry and related forest owners associations’ capacities in Montenegro (11/2008 – 8/2010) – client the NPFOA, and d) Strengthening regulatory technical framework3 and human capacities for sustainable forest management with particular attention to private forests (9/2010 – 1/2011) – clients the Ministry of agriculture, forestry and water management (MAFWM), the FA and the NPFOA.The main stakeholders interested in the technical support were the FA’s local units,the PFOAs and to lesser extent, the state forest concession holders. The main finalbeneficiaries in terms of capacity building were forestry professionals, members ofNPFOA/PFOAs management boards and individual PFOs, and in terms of promotionthe school children and general public.The technical support is in line with the UNFF (UN Forum on Forests) and the MCPFE(Ministerial Conferences on Protection of Forests in Europe) forestry commitmentsand guidelines, particularly related to the national forest programmes, andcontribute to realisation of the two MDG-based national development objectives:environmental sustainability and poverty reduction. At the same time, theinterventions are in line with EU forestry, environmental and rural developmentobjectives.Clients and partnersThe main clients of the technical support were the NPFOA and the FA(Headquarters). These are also two main institutions, representing private and stateforests and owners, playing crucial role in sustainable forest and forestrydevelopment.The NPFOA is a national umbrella organisation of municipal PFOAs and PFOs. Itsprimary mission is to participate in elaboration of policies, programs and plansrelated to forests and forestry with the aim to improve private forest condition,protect interests and increase benefits of PFOs, while acknowledging the principlesof sustainability and environment protection. At the moment of establishing (in2008), it represented 8 municipal PFOAs, while today 14 of them. Only SouthernMontenegro with predominantly coppice forests, macquis and bare land is notrepresented yet (because of not enough interests to establish local PFOAs). Throughits mission, it plays also an important role in reduction of poverty of PFOs. All kindsof technical support and capacity buildings, from the basic ones in terms of PFOAadministration and functioning, to the specific in terms of advocacy / representationof PFOs’ interests and potential service provision to PFOA members, have beenneeded. Potential of the NPFOA to influence the forest legislation and programmeswas estimated – based on the NFP experiences - as high. From the other side,potential of the NPFOA to make a difference in the field of private forestmanagement, including appurtenant service provision to its members, wasestimated as very law, mainly because of non-existent financing support system42 The assistance was carried out under the AA on Further establishment of NPFOA and remaining municipal PFOAs in Montenegro (6/2008 – 12/2009, extended to 3/2010) – client the NPFOA.3 This part is included into another case study on Development of forestry legal and regulatory framework.4 This has not been improved neither by the new FL.
and lack of voluntary human capacities, as main constraints. However, its potentialoutreach to numerous individual PFOs – through local PFOAs - could certainly bevery high.The FA is a centralized state administration organ (directly under Governmentstructure) in form of agency, in charge for administrative-technical procedures forall forests, the management and assuring utilisation of state forests and directingthe management of private forests. It has central and 15 local administration unitswith about 460 public employees. The administrative-technical procedures andbarriers for private forests / PFOs, which were of our main interests, include fellingrequests and approvals, obligatory marking and labelling of trees for felling5,measuring and stamping of timber assortments at the felling sites and approving ofthe sites (after forest order is made), and additional measuring and labelling oftimber assortments (before dispatching) at the forest road side6 which must beaccompanied with confirmations of their origin. An important, and until 2010 notreally implemented task of the FA is education of PFOs. The FA indirectly plays alsoa role in mitigation of rural poverty, e.g. by providing fuel wood to local peopleunder favourable conditions and granting the rights for collecting of non-wood forestproducts (NWFP) from state forests. The main FA capacity gaps in terms of privateforestry were identified in the forestry extension and communications skills (offoresters), in contemporary forest planning, sustainable and multipurpose forestmanagement and forest-related business knowledge. Potential of the FA to make adifference in terms of private forest management and particularly to outreach of abig number of forest owners, with which the foresters regularly cooperate, is veryhigh. The main constraints in this regard are in the lack of quantity, quality andnon-appropriate age structure of forestry professionals in charge for privateforests/owners, in ill or non-existent equipment and serious budget limitations forproviding private forest services.The main local partners as service providers were the Forestry Institute (FI) and theForestry and Wood Processing Secondary School (FWPSS). The FI was engaged withprovision of private forests data and information and the FWPSS with forestpromotion.The main international partners were Lux-Development - through the FODEMOproject - and the Slovenia Forest service (SFS). The mission of the FODEMO project– phase II (2007 – 2011) is to improve the institutional and technical frameworkconditions for sustainable forest sector development in Montenegro”. As it is similarto the SNV’s mission, a joint planning, coordination but also division of activities wasneeded. Cooperation with the SFS contributed to the development of forestryextension and a copyright for certain popular forestry education materials/brochuresin Montenegro.Intervention logic and methodsThe technical support included into the case study, contained the following goals byindividual fields of interventions with performed7 activities and methods used: a) Strengthening the NPFOA functional capacities (from 2008 onwards), mainly by SNV advisors, by:5 Under the new FL, this activity could now be performed also by licensed private persons.6 The responsibilities on the road side had now been transferred by the new FL from the FA to PFOs and concession holders.7 For rationality reason only the activities which have been realised, are presented. 4
providing a minimum office and IT equipment (from the SNV’s written off equipment); providing assistance to the PFOA management in completion of PFOAs’ membership lists; carrying out two (two-days) training workshops on internal strategic planning and project cycle management skills (in workshop form) for the NPFOA board members, in collaboration with local consultants; providing advice in preparation of an (IPA cross-border) project proposal related to private forestry; providing temporary administrative and communication assistance (national and international level); preparation of a popular information (brochure) on the NPFOA mission / objectives. The individual on-the-job learning and group learning (workshop-type) approach were used.b) Establishing the NPFOA’s professional advocacy / representation platforms and its own capacities for influencing the creation of enabling legal and other environment for sustainable development of private forest sector, by SNV advisor, by: elaboration of expert proposals (in 2008 and 2009) on possible legal solutions on e.g. adapted operational private forest planning; assured participation of PFOs in the forest planning and decision making; adapted timber harvesting procedures for PFOs (including marking of trees for felling, harvesting requests and approvals, registering and labelling timber assortments, approving of harvesting sites and issuing proofs of origin of harvested timber); assuring benefits of PFOs from the (third persons’) use of forest land, NWFP and forest function services including a mechanism for financing the NPFOA and the PFOAs through that income from private forests; introduction of compensations to PFOs for the lost income from protected private forests; adapted regulation of forest administration and extension service activities and possibilities for their privatisation / licensing; reduced financial contribution / tax the PFOs have to pay to the budget; introduction of an additional budget financing source from forest ecosystem services and introduction of an EU harmonised system of financial incentives to PFOs and PFOA; continuous representation PFOs’ and private sector’s interests through expert facilitation of new FL drafting and assuring the enabling proposals are included into Draft FL; providing technical bases for expression PFOs’ interests and needs (publically) within the First Montenegrin forest forum and public consultations on the Draft FL (all in 2010); providing expert advice for inclusion of PFOs’ interests and needs into forest management and development planning methodologies (to the FODEMO planning team); providing extensive expert review and recommendations, including amendments, to the final Proposal of FL prepared by Government without participation of stakeholders (in 2010); exploring possibilities and perform certain lobbying for Parliamentary political support to private forest sector (in late 2010) in order to return some (removed) PFOs’ benefits into the final FL proposal; temporary facilitation of NPFOA’s communication with forestry and other national institutions and providing other brief forestry-related advices.
The expert experiences, individual and group work and consultations, advocating and lobbying approaches were used.c) Development of new forestry extension service model in organisational and functional terms, by SNV advisor / consultant, based on: analysis of organization and functioning of administrative-technical activities of the FA (in 2008) related to private forestry (within the FA); elaboration of a detailed list of forestry extension activities (in 2009), included into draft FL; elaboration of final proposal for a new decentralised Forestry education and extension service unit (within the FA), including forest related SME / business promotion activities (in 2010), and a proposal for a new Forestry training centre (within the NPFOA). The expert experiences were used.d) Introduction and strengthening of forestry extension and communication capacities, by SNV advisor / consultant, based on: analysis of forestry education and training needs for foresters and PFOs (in 2008 and 2009); preparation of annual forestry extension / education plans for foresters and PFOs (within the FA); carrying out a number of basic forestry extension and communication trainings (in duration of 2 – 3 days each) for more than 70 foresters (5% of women) of foresters as well as advanced forestry extension trainings (in total duration of 6 - 12 days) for more than 15 candidates for the trainers (20% of them women) (from 2008 onwards); preparation of two detailed training modules (on proper cutting of trees with safety at work and tending of young forest) and two short education materials / brochures (on aforestation and tending of young forest) for publishing (in 2010); publishing of three short educational brochures (on tree cutting techniques and maintaining chainsaw, based on translation of the SFS originals, in edition of 9.000 pieces per brochure) and delivering them to the FA and the NPFOA for distribution among PFOs and executors of forest operations (in 2010). The participatory approach, the adults and group learning (workshop-type) approach and expert experiences were used.e) Introduction and strengthening of forestry business promotion capacities, by SNV consultant, based on; analysis of forestry SME situation, including wood processing in Northern Montenegro (in 2008); carrying out a complex training process of the Market analysis and development (MA & D) methodology, developed by FAO (in total duration of 10 days), for five candidates for SME facilitators (in 2009 and 2010); elaboration of complete business plans for the most promising three forest- related products / services and the three new pilot SMEs (in 2010); conducting of a corresponding knowledge transfer to the FA forestry and other professionals (over 20 of them) in form of a half-day workshop (in 2010). The participatory approach, the adults learning and group learning (workshop-type) and expert experiences were used. 6
f) Development of new forest planning methods with participation of PFOs, by SNV advisors / consultants (mainly in 2008), based on: preparation of a (Government to Government) project proposal on development of integral forest development and management planning in Montenegro8 (the FA and the MAFWM as beneficiaries); elaboration of a possible new forest management planning and information system framework model with particular attention to private forests / holdings, based on Slovenian experiences; advising the appurtenant (FODEMO) forest planning development teams by an SNV advisor (in 2010). The expert / advisory experiences and participatory planning approach were used. g) Introduction and strengthening of sylvicultural techniques for multipurpose forest management with particular attention to private forests, by an SNV advisor / consultant (in 2010), based on: introduction of international experiences and good practices from the multipurpose sylviculture; conducting of experimental marking of trees for felling (by a local team of 4 – 7 specialists, under SNV’s expert guidance) in a number of selected forest plots (7) in private and state forests, in few forest types (fir-spruce, spruce- fir, beech) and districts (Pljevlja, Mojkovac, Kolasin) in Northern Montenegro; elaboration of educational material on principles and experimental results and recommendations for implementation of the improved sylvicultural systems and marking of trees for felling in every day practice; conduction a corresponding knowledge transfer to local forestry professionals (over 25 of them) in form of a two-day’s field workshop. The experimental approach including experimental forest plots, and expert experiences were used. h) Strengthening basic knowledge of PFOs on proper execution of forest operations (in 2010), mainly by SNV advisors, based on: carrying out a larger number (more than 20) of one-day training courses for PFOs (by the FA and the NPFOA trainers) on selected forestry operations, e.g. aforestation, young forest tending, thinning with marking of trees, forest order, forest protection, forest fires, tree cutting techniques and safety at work, tailoring of timber assortments and maintenance of the chainsaw) for more than 210 interested PFOs. The adults’ and group learning approach was used. i) Introduction and strengthening professional exchange between Montenegrin and foreign private forest-related institutions (from 2008 to 2010), by SNV advisors, by: facilitating cooperation with Confederation of European forest owners (CEPF) and its project related to NPFOAs in selected WB countries; accompanying and empowering the representatives of the FA and NPFOA on international meetings related to international private forest policy (Serbia, 2009) and rural development issues (Macedonia, 2010); carrying out two study visits to selected foreign countries (Austria and BiH, in 2009) for the NPFOA and FA representatives as well as two receptions of8 This proposal has finally not been delivered by MAWFM to the Montenegrin EU Representation Office,mainly because the FODEMO’s launching of a tender with the similar terms.
neighbouring NPFOA representatives (Macedonia, Kosovo and Albania in 2009 and 2010); providing other support to the international communication. Existent personal and institutional connections were used. j) Raising general public awareness on importance of forests, by SNV advisors, by: a number of releases and reports on private forestry association issues and activities in daily newspapers and local TVs; organising public promotion events on aforestation within European forest weeks in collaboration with PFOs (in 2008) and for school children (in 2010, by a trainer from the FA ). Public relation and communication skills were used.OutcomesThe technical support described under the intervention logic and methods hascontributed to the following outcomes: Established and improved basic functioning of the NPFOA including internal administration, IT and action planning skills as well as capacity for management and representation of the organisation and communication with state forestry institutions; Established all necessary NPFOA’s professional advocacy / representation platforms and its own, minimum capacity for influencing the creation of enabling legal and other environment for sustainable private forest sector development, resulting in adoption of an inclusive draft (and somewhat less inclusive final) FL, as well as in participative forest planning concept9; the empowered NPFOA (by such SNV’s expert support) recognized as a main stakeholder and partner in the forest sector; Adopted management-level decision for establishing of a new Forestry extension service unit (within the FA) at central and local levels, as well as expressed interest for establishing of a new Forestry training centre (within NPFOA); Established and improved forestry extension and communication capacities of a significant number of foresters and candidates for trainers (within the FA and the NPFOA) for successful forestry extension service provision, based on contemporary public participation and adults’ learning approaches; Established forest-related business / SME promotion capacities of a minimum number of candidates for trainers (within the FA and the NPFOA), based on a specific MA & D approach, explored market possibilities and created technical conditions (business plans) for registering of a few pilot SMEs; Developed a possible new forest management planning and information system framework concept, with particular attention to private forests / holdings; Improved specific forestry knowledge of a significant number of forestry professionals (mainly from the FA) on multifunctional forest management / sylvicultural techniques and appurtenant marking of trees for felling, and contemporary forest management planning, with particular attention to private forests; Improved basic knowledge of a significant number of PFOs on proper execution of various forest activites and operations;9 The methodology currently under development (by the FODEMO). 8
Improved professional exchange between national and foreign private forest- related institutions; Raised public awareness on private forests and forestry, particularly on local level.ImpactThe technical support has, through influencing the creation of enabling forestrylegal, organizational, functional, planning and business environment, throughimproved capacities and performance of forestry institutions (the FA and theNPFOA) and increased knowledge of PFOs about sustainable forest management,significantly contributed to possibility for higher, more qualitative and save forestproduction, higher need for employment and higher forest-related income fromprivate forests for PFOs as well as for other rural households (as it would be withoutour technical support in the circumstances of global economic crisis), based onprinciples of sustainability, mitigation of rural poverty and environment protection.According the Annual report of the MAFWM10, the main forest sector result indicatorsfor 2010 are:- increased forest production compared to 2009 for 36 %, realized largely on the account of private forests (in which the index of realization of the plan was 1,45 times higher than in state forests);- increased amount of tree seedlings planted (2.110.625 in all forests, of that 400.000 in private forests);- increased contribution of the forest sector to GDP (statistical figure not available yet).In terms of other sectoral indicators, which are more of long-term nature, thesituation could be assessed as follows:- the private forest area is increasing due to both, natural and the denationalization processes;- the private forest growing stock, increment and carbon stock are increasing;- extent of private forest utilization work and number of forest operators are increasing;- income of private forest holdings is increasing.Our technical support is certainly contributing to these sectoral indicators. Moreconcretely, significant economic benefits could potentially be realized, for example,through the legally introduced:- private forestry planning and technical assistance in forest utilization and protection, which is gratis for PFOs (financed from state budget);- subsidies to PFOs for sustainable forest management, which will increase their income;- decreased financial burden / tax needed to be paid by PFOs, which will lower their forest related expenditures;- various financial compensations to PFOs (for use of their forest land and forest roads for different non-forestry purposes and for the lost income from protected forests) as source of their additional income;- rights for gratis collection and utilization of fuel wood as well as possibility for selling of the fuel and technical wood under favorable conditions to local people (for their own needs) from the state forests;- the right for gratis collection of NWFPs by local people from the state forests (only buyers/processors pay the compensation).10 Available at http://www.minpolj.gov.me/vijesti/101959/Izvjestaj-o-realizaciji-medunarodnih-projekata-u-sumarstvu-za-2010-godinu.html.
Whereas the first four benefits are directly contributing to the increased income ofPFOs, the last two of them are contributing to the increased income of other ruralpeople and the mitigation of rural poverty.Lessons learnedTaking into account that our objectives were almost fully realised, it could be alsostated that our approaches worked very well. There was no any of them which didnot work.The following lessons have been learned: An encouraging forestry extension potential already exists (in the FA) and presents a real potential for establishment of a new forestry extension service unit and its future work; Team approach which combines an international forestry advisor/consultant and (best) selected national professionals is very efficient and brings most satisfactions; Realization of planned forestry technical activities by local professionals is however usually questionable because there is a small/limited number of capable professionals available and different activities are often targeting the same of them; Employees of forestry institutions do not refresh their basic forestry knowledge (internal education do not exists) and are the more thankful for capacity building / education on new trends and developments in forestry; However, many forestry professionals already have a lot of knowledge and experience, and they just need somebody to encouraged and guide them in order to provide certain additional contribution.Critical success factors which made the impact possible could be summarized asfollows: freshly established private forestry organization and PFOs were particularly susceptible for good proposals; forestry professionals very much welcomed and were willing to accept contemporary knowledge and international experiences; there was very good cooperation established with local forestry professionals; crucial in terms of ability to make a difference was in high professional and other capacities of SNV advisors; crucial in terms of concrete cooperation was in assuring the SNV’s financial support (also for the clients’ experts).SustainabilityThe outcomes of this case study are different in terms of sustainability for thefuture. In general, such sustainability in the Montenegrin conditions, taking intoaccount specific peoples’ mentality, is hardly to achieve as there is lack of humanand financial capacities, enthusiasm, self-motivation, innovativeness, stimulationand consequently preparedness of people to work and produce new values.With regard to the NPFOA self-functioning and representation capacities, it could bestated that it is not sustainable yet without external technical and financial support.Main reason is in the fact that the system of financing of the NPFOA/PFOAs, whichwould allow at least a part of professionalization, e.g. employment of forestryprofessional(s), is not yet assured. 10
With regard to the FA, sustainability in terms of implementation of new forestryextension organisation model seems to be assured after new systematisation isadopted. Inclusion of specific forest business promotion activities within the forestryextension unit, or the FA in general, does not seems to have a promising future,also because of the fact that such activities are usually a domain of other agencies.The forestry extension / advisory capacities of foresters, including some specificcontemporary forestry knowledge, are well assured for the near future. However,further maintenance of the capacities and introduction of additional forestryknowledge seems not to be self-sustainable without external technical and financialsupport. Provision of the forestry extension services to PFOs and executors of forestoperations, except of obligatory administratively-technical businesses, resulting inincreased number of educated individuals, is also assessed as not assured for thenear future yet without additional technical and financial support from donors’projects.Sustainability in international professional knowledge exchange between privateforest-related institutions is also not assured yet without external technicalassistance. Similar seems to be true also in terms of forestry public promotion.The final impacts of these case study interventions depend on the (level and qualityof) implementation of the new forest legislation and the clients’ capacities andperformances. They are all mainly of medium or long-term nature. Only the impactof educated final beneficiaries, e.g. forestry professionals (who directly create theforest development) and forest owners / operators (who execute the forestoperations) could be considered as immediate or short-term. However, also thatimpact, when considered at sectoral level, could only be shown in long-term.This case, which followed the national private forest sector development needs, hasalready its follow-up and provides useful backgrounds for other international actors,such as Lux-Development and EU. In order to sustain the SNV interventions for thefollow-up, including further development of forestry regulatory technical framework,forestry capacity building, advocacy and related assistance, the SNV’s core financingshould continue indispensably.The main opportunity in terms of partnership is continuation of the cooperation withthe Lux-Development which is also taken over the management of a new EU IPAForestry capacity building project. The FODEMO project extension (until 2012) andthe IPA project (2011-2013) are offering big opportunities for resource mobilisation,mainly through competing on its future tenders for providing the forestry capacitybuilding services. However, the fact that SNV did not extend the contract with itsinternational forestry advisor and that it remains only with a local forestry advisornow, is a serious bottleneck for such resource mobilisation.Photos and quotesPhotos for this document are attached in compressed form and will be uploaded asinstructed.QuotesMr Miodrag Bakic, President of NPFOA: “Thanks to SNV we obtained a most inclusivedraft forest law which optimally expresses private forest owners’ needs.”Mr Joveta Terzic, Head of forest utilisation section of the FA: “It is very muchappreciated that we could work with SNV also in the very forest”.
Mr Vidan Jakic, Head of forest utilisation section of the FA: “SNV is assisting us innot only how to develop the forest policy than also to tend the forest itself”.Mr Dragoljub Ivanovic, local forestry engineer in the FA: “With its sylviculturalassistance, SNV has returned as back to our forestry profession”.Standard dataStart and end date of the contracts within which the interventions occurred: September 2008 – January 2011;Composition of the team: SNV-staff/LCBs and external consultants: Franc Ferlin, Mensura Nuhodzic and Aleksandra Redzic as SNV staff, over 20 LCBs and 3 international consultants;Number of PP-days invested per category (staff/LCB/external consultant): 670 days (270 of advisors, 220 of LCBs and 180 of external consultants)Relevant partnerships: non-formal partnership with Lux-Development FODEMO project and the Slovenia forest service.The financial resources invested (programme costs only): €66.000Clients satisfaction and enhanced capacity scores: output – 3.90, outcome 3.88. 12