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  1. 1. English 273History of the English Language (H.O.T.E.L.)
  2. 2. LinguisticsTo study English linguistically is to study itsstructure, its historical development, and itsvariety and relationship to other languages.
  3. 3. English: the Lingua FrancaA Lingua franca is a bridge language, allowingpeople from different cultures to communicateeven if they have different native languages.
  4. 4. English: the Lingua Franca•India•Official Language: Standard Hindi•Primary Language: English (Indian English)
  5. 5. English: the Lingua FrancaKenya•Official Language: Bantu Swahili•Official Language: English
  6. 6. International UsageEnglish is a Lingua Franca, not because it is spokenby more people than any other language, butbecause many people speak it and because it hasgreater international usage than any other language.
  7. 7. Lingua FrancaEnglish has remained a Lingua Francaeven after colonization because theonset of the technologicalrevolution, particularly the use of theInternet, increased the need to knowEnglish.
  8. 8. Lingua FrancaThe power of the Internet in maintainingEnglish as a Lingua Franca has beenchanging recently because of foreignInternet browsers and because of thetranslation capabilities of U.S. browsersand websites.
  9. 9. NgugiwaThiongo•NgugiwaThiongo is an Kenyan author who currentlyteaches Comparative Literature at the University ofCalifornia at Irvine. He wrote Decolonizing the Mind whileimprisoned for speaking against the Kenyangovernmental authorities.
  10. 10. In 1967, Thiongo eventuallyrenounced English and beganwriting exclusively in his native language: Gikuyu (kikuyu)
  11. 11. Caribbean EnglishBecause of colonization, the Caribbeanis divided, with some areas beingFrench-speaking, other areas Spanish-speaking, still other areas Dutch-speaking, and finally, someareas, English speaking.
  12. 12. Jamaican English•Creole English Sometimes referred to as Jamaican Patois or Jamaican Creole; it has no standardized spelling and is often used in informal settings and in popular music.
  13. 13. Jamaican English•Jamaican Standard English (JSE) Combination of American and British English, particularly in terms of vocabulary. It incorporates some lexicon from Jamaican Patois and is usually the language of education, government, and media. JMS is used for writing and is used within educational institutions.
  14. 14. English in IndiaIndia Official Language: Standard Hindi Primary Language: English (Indian English)
  15. 15. Today, English remains a primarylanguage in India because of theclass associations with language and because of globalization.
  16. 16. National Variations of American EnglishOne of the most important terms in the studyof English in American (U.S.) is dialect.
  17. 17. National Variations of American EnglishDialect--a dialect is the variation of astandard language used by a particularcultural, social group
  18. 18. Dialects of SAEAfrican American Vernacular English(AAVE)--this is the largest dialectWhite Vernacular English (WVE)(sometimes referred to as EAVE--European American VernacularEnglish)Hispanic Vernacular English (HVE)
  19. 19. Dialects of SAEEach dialect of SAE has its own variations--according toregion, ethnicity, economics, and gender.
  20. 20. AAVE Examples of words and phrases in the AAVE LexiconAshySadittyKitchenPotLiquorGet my praise onNiggaDogg
  21. 21. AAVE•It is not only the lexicon which distinguishesAAVE from SAE but also the highlymetaphorical nature of AAVE
  22. 22. AAVEBeing rooted in the language of the newly arrivedAfricans and their descendants, AAVE became notonly a language to communicate but also alanguage of hidden meaning.

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