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Chapter 5 sped report


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Special Education

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Chapter 5 sped report

  2. 2. III. POSTNATAL CAUSES INCLUDE:  HEAD INJURIES- cerebral concussion, contusion or laceration.  INFECTIONS- encephalitis, meningitis, malaria, German measles, rubella.
  3. 3.  DEMYELINATING DISORDERS- post infectious disorders, post immunization disorders.  DEGENERATIVE DISORDERS- Rett syndrome, Huntington disease, Parkinson’s disease.
  4. 4.  SEIZURE DISORDERS- Epilepsy, toxic- metabolic disorders such as Reye’s Syndrome, lead or mercury poisoning.
  5. 5.  MALNUTRITION- lack of proteins and calories.  ENVIRONMENTAL DEPRIVATION- psychosocial disadvantage, child abuse and neglect, chronic social/sensory deprivation.
  6. 6. HYPOCONNECTION syndrome.
  7. 7. CHILDHOOD HEAD INJURIES SHAKEN BABY SYNDROME- crying infant is violently shaken by a frustrated caregiver.  Internal bleeding  Brain damage  Traumatic brain injury  Death
  8. 8. CULTURAL-FAMILIAL RETARDATION  Refers to the existence of lowered intelligence of unknown origin associated with a history of mental retardation in one or more family members.  The condition results from the lack of adequate stimulation during infancy and early childhood.  Disease of the mother during infancy may also result in mental retardation.
  10. 10. Sexually transmitted diseases such as • Syphilis , • gonorrhea • AIDS, • Toxoplasmosis (blood poisoning) and • rubella. Maternal rubella- most likely to cause retardation, blindness and deafness when the disease occurs during the first trimester of pregnancy.
  11. 11. LEARNING AND BEHAVIOR CHARACTERISTICS •Deficits in Cognitive Functioning •Deficits in Memory •Deficits in Adaptive Behavior
  12. 12. DEFICITS IN COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING  SUB-AVERAGE INTELLECTUAL SKILLS- below average mental ability as measured by standardized tests.  LOW ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT- mentally retarded are likely to be slower in reaching levels of academic achievement equal to their peers.  DIIFFICULTY IN ATTENDING TO TASKS- distracted by irrelevant stimuli rather than those that pertain to the lesson.  difficulties in remembering and generalizing newly learned lessons and skills.
  13. 13. DEFICITS IN MEMORY DIFFICULTY WITH THE GENERALIZATION OF SKILLS. often have trouble in Transferring their new knowledge and skills.  LOW MOTIVATION- • lack of interest in learning their lessons.  Develop learned helplessness where they continue to fail in doing certain tasks.  To avoid failure, people tend to set very low expectations for oneself.
  14. 14. DEFICITS IN ADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR SELF- CARE AND DAILY LIVING SKILLS- Direct instruction, simplified routine, prompts and task analysis, hygiene, grooming, eating, toileting, communication. SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT- limited cognitive processing skills, poor language development. Making friends and sustaining personal relationships.
  15. 15. BEHAVIORAL EXCESS AND CHALLENGING BEHAVIOR- difficulties in accepting criticisms  limited self- control, aggression or self- injury.
  16. 16. PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS- slower psychological development (toilet training, walking) POSITIVE CHARACTERISTICS- Friendliness and kindness.
  18. 18. A.INITIAL ASSESSMENT Assessed by regular teacher (CHECKLIST OF THE LEARNING AND BEHAVIOR characteristics ) B.FINAL ASSESSMENT Assessed by guidance counselor or sped teacher PROCESS: 1. More intensive observation and evaluation of the child’s cognitive and adaptive skills. 2. Analysis of medical history
  19. 19. c. DIAGNOSTIC ASSESSMENT A. Informal and standardized tests B. Home visit C. Interview D. Observation E. Evaluation report F. Inclusion and participation of family
  21. 21. A. TRADITIONAL ASSESSMENT - Parents fill in a pre-referral form - Referred to a team of clinical practitioners - Members of team are  developmental psychologist, early childhood special educator,early childhood educator,  speech/language pathologist(SLP), occupational therapist, physical therapist,
  22. 22. B. TEAM-BASED ASSESSMENT APPROACHES a. MULTIDISCIPLINARY ASSESSMENT- independently assessed the child and report results without consulting or integrating their findings with one another. b. INTERDISCIPLINARY ASSESSMENT- the members conduct an independent assessment and evaluation individually the findings are integrated together with the recommendations.
  23. 23. c. TRANSDISCIPLINARY ASSESSMENT - Allows other team members as facilitators during the assessment process. A natural extension of this approach is the involvement of the family in the decision making process
  24. 24. C. ACTIVITY- BASED ASSESSMENT - The assessment materials have a curriculum and evaluation components and do not require specialized materials or test kits. - CRITERION REFERENCED ASSESSMENT TOOLS-ARE; - Assessment evaluation and programming system for infants and children(AEPS) - Infant preschool Assessment Scale(IPAS)
  25. 25. Cognitive/Developmenta l Assessment Tools 1. Differential Ability Scales(DAS)
  26. 26. Wechsler preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence- revised(WPPSIR)
  27. 27. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III(WISC-III) Stanford- Binet : Fourth edition
  28. 28. ADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR ASSESMENT TOOLS 1. Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scale 2. AAMR Adaptive Behaviour Scale- School 3. Scales of Independent Behaviour revised(SIB-R)
  30. 30. Early Intervention Program Provision of an early intervention program to children with developmental delays . The skills that are normally learned during early childhood are taught at the time they are still young and more malleable than when he or she would have grown old and less flexible.
  31. 31. Early Intervention Program Staff members of Early Intervention Program have formal training in early childhood education and special education - Participate in in-service training programs and agencies, conferences and workshops. Intervisitation among programs and agencies.
  32. 32. RATIONALE FOR EARLY INTERVENTION 1. During intervention secondary disabilities can be observed. 2. Prevent the occurrence of secondary disabilities, 3. Lessen the chances for placement in a residential school. 4. Family gains information 5. Hasten the child’s acquisition of the desirable learning and behaviour characteristics.
  34. 34. 1. HOME-BASED INSTRUCTION PROGRAM Its goal is to provide a continous program of instruction both school and home. Utilizes the Filipino adaptation of the Portage Project (NCR, REGION V, DAVAO). Monitoring and evaluation of the program show positive results.
  35. 35. 2. HEAD START PROGRAM Head start program in Manila City schools division addresses preschool education for the socially and economically deprived children four to six years old. The program operates on the principle of early intervention as a preventive measure against behaviour problems among young children The participants are siblings of youth offenders, slum dwellers, street children and other preschool age.  Adopted by the Special education centers of manila,.
  36. 36. 3. COMMUNITY- BASED REHABILITATION(CBR) SERVICES  World Health Organization ,defines community based rehabilitation as measures taken at the community level  Use to build on the resources of the community  Assist in the rehabilitation of those who need assistance(disabled and handicapped person) - Acclaimed as the answer to the rehabilitation needs in poverty- stricken areas were institution-based rehabilitation programs are not available. - Piloted by National Commission for the Disabled persons(NCWPD) in Bacolod - Expanded to selected communities in Luzon, Visayas, Mindanao - Employed and maximized in providing rehabilitation programs to urban and rural communities.
  37. 37. 4. URBAN BASIC SERVICE PROGRAM An early intervention scheme based on the principle of home based instruction was adopted by the urban basic service program as its education component. Utilized the Filipino adaptation of the Portage Guide to Early Intervention
  38. 38. 4. URBAN BASIC SERVICE PROGRAM Twelve(12) barangays or villages identified as depressed and underserved Twenty two parents are trained yearly to early intervention Minimizing the effects of the disabilities and increasing the children’s readiness and response to rehabilitation programs.
  40. 40. THE CURRICULUM Students with mental retardation needs a functional curriculum that will train them on the life skill. It goal is toward self- direction and regulation and the ability to select appropriate options in everyday life Fosters independent living Enjoyment of leisure and social activities Improved quality of life
  41. 41. Curriculum programs for children with developmental disabilities Implemented in United states and western coutries
  42. 42. Cognitive Curriculum For Young Children (CCYC)  is a major curriculum effort based on Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development, and Feuerstein’s concept of mediated learning.  CCYC builds its instructional program around the child’s deficits in cognition where mediated learning is applied. Estimates of a child’s maximum learning potential are derived from his zone of proximal development that is determined by comparing the child’s actual level of performance to his performance under the teacher’s direct supervision
  43. 43. INSTRUMENTAL ENRICHMENT PROGRAM - The child is trained to develop a sense of intentionality and a feeling of competence as a result of structured mediated learning environments Another intervention program Is
  44. 44. Montessori Method Aim to develop the child’s : sense of self mastery, mastery of the environment and independence by focusing on his/her perceptual and conceptual development as well as in the acquisition of skills in self care and daily living activities.
  45. 45. Ypsilante Perry Preschool Project  Used in teaching disadvantaged children with mild mental retardation who are three to four years old. Portage Project  Parents are trained to teach their children using behavior modification procedures. Carolina’s Abcedarian Project  Includes parent training, social work services, nutritional supplement, medical care and transportation.
  46. 46. Methods of instruction
  47. 47. (ABA) Applied Behavioral Analysis One such method of teaching (ABA) Applied Behavioral Analysis Is derive from the theory and principles of behavior modification and effect on the environment on the learning process.
  48. 48. Task analysis Process of breaking down complex or multiple skills into smaller, easier-to- learn subtask. Active student response Or the observable response made to an instructional antecedent is correlated to student achievement.
  49. 49. Systematic feedback Through positive reinforcement is employed whenever needed by rewarding the student correct responses with simple positive comments, gestures or facial expression. Meanwhile incorrect responses are immediately corrected (error correct technique) by asking the student to repeat the correct responses after.
  50. 50. Student with Mental Retardation in Inclusive Education The Educational placement is called Inclusive education because the regular class has student with a disability a who has been assessed to be capable of learning side by side with normal students
  51. 51. Suggestions for SPED and regular teachers who classes student with mental retardation are mainstreamed
  52. 52.  together study, the student’s IEP and agree on the teacher’s roles and responsibilities Set regular meetings with each other Encourage acceptance of the student by the classmates Use instructional procedures Abstract concepts, provide multiple concrete examples. Supplement verbal instructions Assign a peer tutor to assist
  53. 53.  Vary the tasks in drills and practice activities  Encourage the use of computer- based tutorials  Utilize the lecture-pause technique  Have a volunteer tape- record reading assignments if the student is unable to read.  Use cooperative learning strategies involving heterogeneous group of students.  Use multilayered activities involving flexible learning objectives to accommodate the needs of students with diverse abilities.  Pair students with mental retardation  Encourage regular students to assist students with mental retardation as they participate in class activities
  54. 54. Transition service-  Provide the bridge to life after school and help individual in both community, adjustment and employment.
  55. 55. Thank you!!