Performance Grammar

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  • This type of grammar enables the students to use the language in oral and written discourse. Though it is understood that competence in the language is very important in order for them to understand and form sentences which are grammatically correct, it is still essential for them to be given the chance to make linguistic outputs so that they will truly experience the essence of having language as a medium of communication, whether oral or written, and this should be given importance in the teaching and learning process for them not only to master linguistic competence, but also, linguistic performance.
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  • Performance Grammar (PG) is a psycho linguistically motivated grammar formalism. It aims to describe and explain intuitive judgement and other data concerning the well-formed sentences of a language, but at the same time it contributes to accounts of syntactic processing phenomena observable during language.Garret identifies two stages of syntactic processing: an early ' functional' and later 'positional ' stage.Furthermore, PG thus centers attention on language production.
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  • Performance Grammar, as its name suggests, is a kind of grammar that pertains to the production of language base from the knowledge in language and communication skills of a person. There are some factors that may affect the language production; like memory lapse, the linguistic competence or unconscious linguistic knowledge of the speaker-hearer, the need to pause for the person to breathe and other biological factors.

    According to Chompsky, there are two kinds of language the externalized language (E-language) and internalized language (I-language). Externalized language is about collecting samples of language and understanding their properties while internalized language is about what speakers know about their language. According to him, PG is more of internalized language (I-language). It is not about describing the regularities of a language in the form of a grammar.
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  • Performance as used in linguistic theory especially in generative grammar refer to a language seen seen as a set of specific utterances produced by native speakers as encountered in corpus, analogous to Saussure's concept parole which is the actual utterance. It is an external manifestations of a language. John B. Carroll, 'Promoting language Skills' Perspectives in School Learning: Selected Writings of John B. Carroll. ed. by L.W. Anderson. Erlbaum, 1985 defines performance grammar as a description of the syntax of English as it actually used by the speakers in dialogues. So PG confirms with the syntax.Therefore it is also dependent with mental grammar. The wider the mental grammar the speaker-hearer has, the more that performance grammar is observed . Performance grammar centers attention on the language production. The actual utterances and the dialogues that we used everyday are the products of PG.
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  • The latest two decades of linguistic research have witnessed a dramatic increase in studies that emphasize the usage-based nature of language, with regard to both individual linguistic representations and grammatical systems at large. On this view, grammatical categories, patterns and constraints are emergent phenomena that are abstracted from recurrent usage events. Typically speakers can select, on any such event, from a variety of grammatical constructions that provide a sufficient match to the specific conceptualization of the experience to be conveyed. This intrinsic link between patterns of language use and properties of grammatical systems is at the heart of Performance Grammar. Nevertheless, it aims at a certain degree of comprehensiveness with the use of a language.
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  • Psycholinguists study how word meaning, sentence meaning, and discourse meaning are computed and represented in the mind
  • A regional or social variety of a language distinguished bypronunciation, grammar, or vocabulary, especially a way of speaking that differs from the standard variety of the language. 
  • The distinctive speech of an individual, considered as a linguisticpattern unique among speakers of his or her language or dialect.
  • Performance Grammar

    1. 1. PERFORMANCEGRAMMAR
    2. 2. John B. Carroll"Towards a PerformanceGrammar of Core Sentences inSpoken and WrittenEnglish," Journal of StructuralLearning, 1975
    3. 3. • "This performance grammar thus far centers attention on language production; it is my belief that the problem of production must be dealt with before problems of reception and comprehension can properly be investigated.“- (John Carroll, "Promoting Language Skills," in Perspectives on School Learning: Selected Writings of John B. Carroll, ed. by L. Anderson. Erlbaum, 1985)
    4. 4. • A description of the syntax of English as it is actually used by speakers in spontaneous dialoges.
    5. 5. PERFORMANCE• term used in linguistic theory, and especially in generative grammar, to refer to language seen as a set of specific utterances produced by native- speakers, as encountered in a corpus; analogous to the Saussurean concept of parole Page 5
    6. 6. de Saussure’s Theory• Parole is the actual utterances.• It is an external manifestation of langue. It is the usage of the system, but not the system
    7. 7. La Langue• It has a large number of elements whereby meaning is created by the arrangements between the elements and their consequent relationships.
    8. 8. • While learning a language, we master the system of grammar, spelling, syntax and punctuation (elements of langue).
    9. 9. Performance vs. competence• is opposed, in this sense, to the idealized conception of language known as competence Page 9
    10. 10. • utterances of performance will contain features irrelevant to the abstract rule system- hesitations- unfinished structures -arising from the various psychological and social difficulties acting upon the speaker Page 10
    11. 11. • e.g. lapses of memory, or biological limitations, such as pauses being introduced through the need to breathe These features must be discounted in a grammar of the language, which deals with the systematic process of sentence construction
    12. 12. POSSIBLE IMPLICATION OF THIS VIEW• performance features are unimportant• strongly criticized in recent years• factors which contribute to performance grammars are now of considerable interest Esp. in Psycholinguistics
    13. 13. Linguistic Performance• -the sentences that we actually produce--is limited by these factors. Furthermore, the sentences we actually produce often use the more simple grammatical constructions
    14. 14. • Our speech is full of false starts, hesitations, speech errors, and corrections. The actual ways in which we produce and understand sentences are also in the domain of performance.
    15. 15. Chomsky (1986)• distinguished between externalised language (E- language) and internalised language (I-language)
    16. 16. E-language linguistics• is about collecting samples of language and understanding their properties• it is about describing the regularities of a language in the form of a gramma
    17. 17. I-language linguistics• is about what speakers know about their language
    18. 18. • For Chomsky, the primary aim of modern linguistics should be to specify I-language: it is to produce a grammar that describes our knowledge of the language, not the sentences we actually produce."
    19. 19. Linguistic performanceSome of the factors which influence linguistic performance are:(a) the linguistic competence or unconscious linguistic knowledge of the speaker-hearer,
    20. 20. • (b) the nature and limitations of the speaker-hearers speech production and speech perception mechanisms,
    21. 21. • (c) the nature and limitations of the speaker-hearers memory, concentration, attention and other mental capacities,
    22. 22. • (d) the social environment and status of the speaker-hearer,
    23. 23. • (e) the dialectal environment of the speaker-hearer,
    24. 24. • (f) the idiolect and individual style of speaking of the speaker-hearer,
    25. 25. • (g) the speaker-hearers factual knowledge and view of the world in which he lives,
    26. 26. • (h) the speaker-hearers state of health, his emotional state and other similar incidental circumstances.
    27. 27. Each of the factors mentioned is a variable in linguistic performance and, as such, may influence the nature and characteristics of a particular instance of linguistic performance and its product(s).
    28. 28. • http://grammar.about.com/od/pq/g/ performancegrammarterm.htm
    29. 29. QUESTIONS?  THANK YOU!FRANCELLE CALUB

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