Blended learning in primary school a case of a learning process betweenthe physical classroom and online environments by Francesca Ravanelli, PhD University Bolzano
something about me...I live in Mezzocorona, a village in North-Italy, amongst mountains and vinyeards.
I have been a teacher in primary school for several years.I will introduce you to my class, 20 children from differentcountries of the world (1 from Sri-Lanka, 1 from Brazil, 2 fromRomania, 1 from Togo).I have been a teacher in this class for 5 years.
I have always updated my teaching(knowledge and practices)in the last years to make them more suitable to the needs ofnew students and new society.2006-I attended higher education courses on teaching andlearning with the help of technology;2010-I graduated in “Theories and methodologies of e-learningand Media-education”, at the University of Padua;2012-I have started a PhD at the University of Bolzano;
An experience of integrated learning environment: classroom + Moodle Platform in order to enrich learning process(increasing times/spaces/involvement/motivation/collaboration...)
Where? In a primary classWhen e How long? From 2007 to 2012. It has been a ﬁveyears long projectWho? My students and their parents, any othercolleague and obviously myselfWhy? I wanted to take advantage of the opportunitiesthat digital tools give in order to enrich learningprocesses and to break down the boundaries betweenschool and home, expanding times and spaces oflearning, taking the school at home and in the family.
The questions...How can we enhance and extend learningin order to bring the school into the lifeof students?How can we adapt Multimedia toenhance human learning?How can technologies help buildlearning communities?
The theoretical premisis of this workOur Students : Digital NativesCollaborative construction of knowledgeThe signiﬁcance of metacognitionThe multiple intelligencesLearning enviroments and learning communitiesMultimedia learningEmotional Intelligence
IV ES LN ATDIG ITAMarc Prensky calls youngpeople “digital natives”, asthey have developed speciﬁcand different ways oflearning andcommunicating.Derrick de Kerkhove callsyoung people “Googlegeneration”, sincethey can multitask and usemultimedia as an electronicpen.
COLLAB ORATIV E CONSTRUCT ION OF KNOWLEDGEAccording to Vygotskij, learning is an act distributed amongstpeople, tools and rules in context. It is also an act mediated bythe collaborative ways and by the interactions with thecommunity.(social origins of higher mental processes, cultural mediation, zone ofproximal development)
MULTIP LE INTELLIGENCESIn the 90s, H. Gardner developed his theory of the 7 forms ofhuman intelligence. Knowledge can be acquired throughmultiple ways and channels (language, logical-mathematicalanalysis, spatial representation, musical thinking, body use...)
RN I NG “Multimedia learning” refers speciﬁcally I AL EAto dual code, or dual channel learning IM ED(Mayer). M U LT Cognitive psycology explains themultimedia learning as a process ofacquisition and integration of stimuli thatare acquired through two different sensorychannels: the visual channel for picturesand words, and the auditory canal fornarratives and non verbal language sounds(Paivio) Mayer’s studies show that it is necessaryto follow some principles in the design ofmultimedia objects to avoid producingcognitive overload in students (7principles) Learner-centered approach design
LEA RN ING COMMUN ITYLearning community is a group of people who share an interest, aproblem or a passion for a topic... (Etienne Wenger)Community of practices give a solution to the conﬂicts, supportcommon memory, help newcomers, create a welcomingatmosphere (Varisco B.M.).
LEARNING ENVIROME NTSLearning environment is “a place where people can learnto work together and support each others as they use avariety of tools and information resources in their effortsto achieve the learning objectives and to solveproblems“ (Wilson)
EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCED. Goleman deﬁnes this kind of intelligence as “the ability torecognize our feelings and those of others from motivatingourselves and to manage our emotions positively, bothinternally and socially”.
T H E SI G N IFICA NCE OF M ETACOG N IT IONMetacognition is an awarness that the student has aboutlearning and about certain strategies available to solveproblems.
THE NEW CITIZENSHIP SKILLS defined bythe European Union Communication in the mother tongue Communication in foreign languages Mathematical competences and basic competences in science and technology Digital competence Learning to learn Social and civic competence Sense of iniziative and entrepreneurship Cultural awarness and expression
Digital competence Digital competence is a complex skill in which these four dimensions overlap Tecnology Meta-cognitiveto use tools for ﬁnding info to select and evaluate sources DIGITAL COMPETENCE Ethics Social-partecipatory to follow rules and to relate constructivly,negotiate, respect people collaborate...
...in order to integrate TECHNOLOGY IN THE LEARNING PROCESS Jonassen says “We think technology as a cognitive tool” This tool can help interconnect people and knowledge, individuals with the groups, the speciﬁc discipline with the complexity of thought This tool can also help students to achieve a “well built mind”, advocated by Edgar Morin
ON LINE CLASS- every child has an Internet connection,- every family accepts this experience,- every student receives username and password to connect to theplatform,- Children and parents were taught some simple steps in order towork with Moodle
We (teachers, children and parents) called the on-linespace”Community in progress” because “this space will serve to build our community...brick by brick...yours with mine...” This is the macro-goal of our work
sub-goalsto learn to use technology in a safe environmentto expand times and spaces of learningto create an archive of documents about activities in the classroom (photos,ﬁlms...)to give voice to all children and their parents (forums, questionnaires, surveys...)to mediate the relationship between the students and Internet (in order todevelop critical thinking)to increase the relationship between pupils and teachers (chat, messaging,forums)to increase the time of cooperative learning (wiki)to integrate the educational resources with multimedia and interactive sourcesto allow the sick students to attend lessons too (blended learning)
...to extend the time and the space of COMMUNICATION (with classmates and teachers)
...to extend the time and the space for... COLLABORATION and MAKING things TOGETHER
...to extend the time and the space to...GET TO KNOW and HELP NEWCOMERS ...
...to allow the sick students to attend lessons too (distance learning) ...
...to integrate traditional resources withMULTIMEDIA and INTERACTIVE TOOLS and SOURCES (multiple intelligences)
...to share multimedia contents produced by children (producers not only consumers)
...to learn by doingin the real context and by thinking through authentic tasks
...and by playing and enjoing oneself too! and more...
and more......to involve actively parents in the learning path (fathers aswell)...to go to school with less anxiety and fear, always ﬁnding ateacher who listens to you...to become aware users of Internet...to support cultural development of the family, that becomesan input for research, exploration, both in the network and inthe real context...to personalize learning path for children with special needs...to use technology in proactive and creative way
...in conclusion...to become a learning Community
work in progress: FEEDBACK 1 most interesting activity to watch multimedia resources reviewing and rethinking to share with classmates experiences doneabout classroom with parents activities
FEEDBACK 2 : most usefull to deepen learning activitiesto have the opportunity to to share the learning keep in touch with activities withclassmates and teachers on parents or friends holidays too
What should the theacher do? ...somesuggestions of mine...to pay attention to the design of the v.e. (simple and welcomingatmosphere)to arrange the resources and activities clearlyto be really present in v.e.(responding, supporting, providingscaffolding, monitoring, helping...)to pay attention to the communicative aspects (emoticons orgraphic features)to document all of the physical classroom’s experiences (photo,video...) and share them in v.e.
Some critical aspects... teachers need some (simple) digital skills teacher should extend their teaching time beyond the school time teachers should change their teaching method, from the transmission of content to the organization of research and relationships for the construction of knowledge Internet connection is required Conﬁdence and cooperation of parents are required
“We think of the changes assmall steps toward the big changethat will happen....and I think taht the best way to dothis is to create the situations inwhich children follow their passionswith the heart, bring forwardprojects that are really interested,discoveries are made by taking theinformation they need from theInternet, working together, doingimportant things...The teacher advises them, guidesthem. And then, the teacher must getused to the idea of respectingstudents as individuals who learn torecognize that they produce...Technology makes possible therealization of the dreams of the oldpedagogues...Seymor Papert
T E NT ION . . . R YO U R AT T HA NK FO Questions? firstname.lastname@example.org Comments... http://francescaframes.blogspot.com Sharing http://www.slideshare.net/ francescashare http://www.slideshare.net/ francescaframesConference Diverse2012, 4 luglio 2012, Leuven Be