Discovering the dominant communication channels in linguistics and joining that scholarly conversationFinding and evaluating information sourcesLearning to think for yourself and express your ideas
Pair share here too!
Take good notes when doing research!Cite sources.Get help from the writing center or PDDI or your professor!Read scholarly articles very closely; note their language (what they paraphrase, what they quote) to see how they avoid plagiarism.
Define common knowledge as anything that can be found easily in a general encyclopedia.
Questions: what does accurately mean?
Neither paraphrase is all that great; it’s very hard to paraphrase well in a vacuum.
MODL Acknowledging Sources, 6/8/12
Acknowledging Sources and Academic Integrity Jody Bailey, Reference/Instruction Librarian UT Arlington Central Library, Rm. 312 email@example.com 817.272.7516 Adapted with permission from “Acknowledging Sources”: http://library.uta.edu/plagiarism/index.html
What’s the point of a writing assignment?• “Pair share” on this question!• Discovering the dominant communication channels in a given discipline and joining that scholarly conversation• Finding and evaluating information sources• Learning to think for yourself and express your Image: Lavinia Marin ideasJune 8, 2012 Jody Bailey 3
Intellectual Property • “Intellectual property (IP) refers to creations of the mind: inventions, literary and artistic works, and symbols, names, images, and designs used in commerce.” (“What Is Intellectual Property?” n.d.) • In the U.S., all intellectual property is automatically copyrighted as soon as it is created and set in a fixed format.Image: Ivan Petrov • Acknowledging sources is thus mandatory. June 8, 2012 Jody Bailey 4
What is plagiarism?• “When you take someone’s words or ideas and represent them as your own, you commit plagiarism. Plagiarism is using the work of others but not acknowledging the source.” (“Acknowledging Sources”)June 8, 2012 Jody Bailey 5
Plagiarism: Cultural Differences?• Students from Other • U.S. Academic Culture: Cultures: – Scholars work for years on – “When you really don’t know articles and books and other how to write your own research; if you use their composition, you can use words or ideas without other person’s paragraph or attribution, it’s viewed as sentences as a student.” (Shi stealing. 275) – By not citing your fellow – “I want to use people’s scholars, you are denying expressions in English the them public attribution for same way because their work and hence sometimes I have no other hindering their scholarly words. . . . I think [copying] a advancement. few words or a short expression is OK.” (Shi 273)• a short expression is OK.June 8, 2012 Jody Bailey 6
Examples• Copying/pasting text from a website.• Copying/pasting a graphic element from a website.• Copying material from printed books or magazines.• Copying someone’s spoken words or ideas.• Copying a unique or distinctive phrase.• Changing the wording of a source slightly and not citing the source.• Buying or using a paper written by someone else.• Taking another person’s ideas and acting as though they are yours.• Copying someone’s computer program.• Including artwork or music in a project without getting permission or citing the source.• Writing a paper for Professor X’s class and using it again for Professor Y’s class; this is called “self-plagiarism.” (“Acknowledging Sources”) You can use other people’s ideas in your own work as long as you give credit to the original author.June 8, 2012 Jody Bailey 7
Scholastic Dishonesty at UT Arlington • From UTA’s Office of Student Conduct, “What Constitutes Scholastic Dishonesty”June 8, 2012 Jody Bailey 8
Effects of Plagiarism• From UTA’s Handbook of Operating Procedures, Section 2- 301, “Authorized Disciplinary Actions”June 8, 2012 Jody Bailey 9
Effects of Plagiarism• University expels 34 students for cheating: “Students not expelled were put on probation or suspended for an academic year, the second-harshest punishment, for offences such as plagiarism, or purchasing projects or papers and submitting them as their own.” (Khalaf 2010)• Harvard Faker Adam Wheeler Pleads Guilty to 20 Counts: “indicted on 20 counts of larceny, identity fraud, falsifying an endorsement or approval, and pretending to hold a degree.” (Yu and Zauzmer 2010)June 8, 2012 Jody Bailey 10
Effects of Plagiarism • Karl-Theodor zu Guttenberg: elected to the Budestag (lower house of German parliament) in 2002. • “In February 2011, evidence was made public that Karl-Theodor zu Guttenberg had copied numerous unattributed passages from sources such as newspaper articles, speeches or term papers in his dissertation.” • Degree revoked in late February 2011. • zu Guttenberg resigned from the Bundestag on March 3, 2011 (“zu Guttenberg” 2011).June 8, 2012 Jody Bailey 11
Statement of Professional Ethics, Modern Language Association• “As a community valuing free inquiry, we must be able to rely on the integrity and the good judgment of our members. For this reason, we should not . . . – plagiarize the work of others – practice deceit or fraud on the academic community or the public.” (“Preamble” sec., par. 3)• “A scholar who borrows from the works and ideas of others, including those of students, should acknowledge the debt, whether or not the sources are published. Unpublished scholarly material— which may be encountered when it is read aloud, circulated in manuscript, or discussed—is especially vulnerable to unacknowledged appropriation, since the lack of a printed text makes originality hard to establish.” (“Ethical Conduct in Service and Scholarship” sec., par. 2)June 8, 2012 Jody Bailey 12
How to Avoid Plagiarism?June 8, 2012 Jody Bailey 13
MLA Sample Citations (from Modern Language Association of America 193, 149)• Journal article from an online database: Chan, Evans. “Postmodernism and Hong Kong Cinema.” Postmodern Culture 10.3 (2000): n. pag. Project Muse. Web. 5 June 2008.• Print book: Franke, Damon. Modernist Heresies: British Literary History, 1883-1924. Columbus: Ohio State UP, 2008. Print.June 8, 2012 Jody Bailey 14
Sample In-Text Citations (from Modern Language Association of America 216)• AUTHOR’S NAME IN TEXT Tannen has argued this point (178-85).• AUTHOR’S NAME IN REFERENCE This point has already been argued (Tannen 178- 85).• AUTHORS’ NAMES IN TEXT Others, like Jakobsen and Waugh (210-15) . . . .• AUTHORS’ NAMES IN REFERENCE Others hold the opposite point of view (Jakobsen and Waugh 210-15).June 8, 2012 Jody Bailey 15
What do I cite?• Quotations? YES• Common knowledge? NO• Graphics, charts, tables? YES• Your original ideas? NO• Your original research (e.g., surveys, experiments)? NO• Paraphrases of others’ ideas? YESJune 8, 2012 Jody Bailey 16
Tips for Quoting & Paraphrasing • Quote accurately! • Paraphrase correctly; do not use the structure or language of the original – Pretend to explain the source to someone else – Summarize the source without looking at it – If it’s too hard to paraphrase, then quote! – Don’t just replace a word here and there using a thesaurus!June 8, 2012 Jody Bailey 17
Correct ParaphrasingSource: Paraphrase: Which is better? But it is important to remember that • In Allende’s The House of the Spirits, Allende consciously gives the world the author overtly stamps her of magic realism a feminine touch, fictional world of magical realism since it is the women who have a with a feminine touch, imbuing her sixth sense and not the men. Indeed, female characters with spiritual Esteban Trueba seems to spend much powers and a new solidarity. of his time attempting to stop the • In Allende’s The House of the Spirits, neighbours finding out about Clara’s the author fashions her female and Blanca’s powers of divination characters as powerful women, if not because of the public scandal this physically then spiritually, allowing may produce. Likewise the novel them to survive in a world dominated specifically refers to the spiritual by men. powers that the women possess as allowing them to construct a new solidarity between women, in effect, a passport to survival in a man’s world. (Hart 119)June 8, 2012 Jody Bailey 18
What do faculty do if they think someone has plagiarized?• TurnItIn.com• Google/Google Scholar• Wikipedia• Research databases (e.g., MLA International Bibliography)June 8, 2012 Jody Bailey 19
“How to Tell If You’re a Plagiarist” 1. DID YOU WRITE IT? [Yes/ No] 2. DID YOU CITE IT? [Yes/ No] ANSWER KEY • If you answered Yes, No, you are an honest student. • If you answered No, Yes, you are an honest student. • If you answered No, No, you are a plagiarist. • If you answered Yes, Yes, that doesnt even make sense. (Nolan, 2010) • http://gawker.com/5602360/h ow-to-tell-if-youre-a-plagiaristJune 8, 2012 Jody Bailey 20
ReferencesAcknowledging Sources. University of Texas at Arlington, 2005. Web. 2 March 2010.Hart, Stephen M. “Magical Realism in the Americas: Politicised Ghosts in One Hundred Years of Solitude, The House of the Spirits, and Beloved.” Journal of Iberian and Latin American Studies 9.2 (2003): 115-123. MLA International Bibliography. Web. 3 March 2010.Khalaf, Hala. “University expels 34 students for cheating.” The National. The National, 27 Dec. 2010. Web. 18 Jan. 2011.Modern Language Association of America. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 7th ed. New York: MLA, 2009. Print.Nolan, Hamilton. “How to Tell If Youre a Plagiarist.” Gawker. Gawker, 2 Aug. 2010. Web. 18 Jan. 2011.Shi, Ling. “Cultural Backgrounds and Textual Appropriation.” Language Awareness 15.4 (2006): 264-282. ERIC. Web. 2 March 2010.Statement of Professional Ethics. Modern Language Association of America, 2010. Web. 2 March 2010.What Is Intellectual Property? World Intellectual Property Organization, n.d. Web. 2 March 2010.Yu, Xi, and Zauzmer, Julie M. “Harvard Faker Adam Wheeler Pleads Guilty to 20 Counts.” Harvard Crimson. Harvard Crimson, 16 Dec. 2010. Web. 18 Jan. 2011.“zu Guttenberg, Karl-Theodor.” Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 3 Mar. 2011. Web. 3 Mar. 2011.June 8, 2012 Jody Bailey 21
Posttesthttp://libguides.uta.edu/MODLposttest This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, 444 Castro Street, Suite 900, Mountain View, California, 94041, USA.