Discovering the dominant communication channels in linguistics and joining that scholarly conversationFinding and evaluating information sourcesLearning to think for yourself and express your ideas
Pair share here too!Examples:Chinese: In a case where a Chinese student was accused of plagiarising there was an obvious difference in interpretation of the definition of plagiarism. The student did not think it was correct to rewrite an author’s words since the author was well known and respected. Hence he/she included it in his/her text. This reverence for authority clearly comes from a cultural worldview where respect for betters and elders is paramount. Indian: This student understood that plagiarism was not acceptable in the UK. However, the student chose to plagiarise because he/she felt that his/her English was not sufficiently proficient to explain the point clearly enough. He/she felt that the original author’s English was better. Greek: This student had plagiarised from the Internet. His/her interpretation was that copying from textbooks was wrong, but that copying from the Internet was acceptable. Spanish: This student was accused of plagiarising although what he/she had written was apparently acceptable in Spanish academic circles. This student was actually a visiting student and he/she was not fully aware of the Universities rules for plagiarism. African: When a Mauritian student was accused of plagiarism he was shocked as he had written as he would have done in his home institution. In Mauritian academic culture plagiarism is not considered wrong, but is widely accepted. (Introna, Hayes, Blair, & Wood 2003)
Take good notes when doing research!Cite sources.Get help from the writing center or PDDI!Read scholarly articles very closely; note their language (what they paraphrase, what they quote) to see how they avoid plagiarism.
Pull in something from LSA ethics guidelines??
Define common knowledge as anything that can be found easily in a general encyclopedia.
Questions: what does accurately mean?
Acknowledging Sources and Academic Integrity<br />Jody Bailey, Reference/Instruction Librarian<br />UT Arlington Central Library, Rm. 312<br />firstname.lastname@example.org<br />817.272.7516<br />Adapted with permission from “Acknowledging Sources”:<br />http://library.uta.edu/tutorials/Plagiarism/<br />
What’s the point of a writing assignment?<br />“Pair share” on this question!<br />Discovering the dominant communcation channels in linguistics and joining that scholarly conversation<br />Finding and evaluating information sources<br />Learning to think for yourself and express your ideas<br />August 22, 2010<br />Jody Bailey<br />2<br />
Intellectual Property<br />“Intellectual property (IP) refers to creations of the mind: inventions, literary and artistic works, and symbols, names, images, and designs used in commerce.” (World Intellectual Property Organization, n.d.)<br />In the U.S., all intellectual property is automatically copyrighted as soon as it is created.<br />Acknowledging sources is thus mandatory.<br />August 22, 2010<br />Jody Bailey<br />3<br />
What is plagiarism?<br />“When you take someone’s words or ideas and represent them as your own, you commit plagiarism. Plagiarism is using the work of others but not acknowledging the source.” (“Acknowledging Sources”)<br />August 22, 2010<br />Jody Bailey<br />4<br />
Plagiarism: Cultural Differences?<br />Other Cultures:<br />Using someone else’s words can be a form of homage or respect.<br />Copying from books is not acceptable, but it’s OK to copy from a website.<br />Students may think that their English skills are not good enough to represent the ideas of published authors (Introna et al. 2003)<br />U.S. Academic Culture:<br />Scholars work for years on articles and books and other research; if you use their words or ideas without attribution, it’s viewed as stealing.<br />By not citing your fellow scholars, you are denying them public attribution for their work and hence hindering their scholarly advancement.<br />August 22, 2010<br />Jody Bailey<br />5<br />
Examples of Plagiarism<br />Copying/pasting text from a website.<br />Copying/pasting a graphic element from a website.<br />Copying material from books or magazines.<br />Copying someone’s spoken words.<br />Copying a unique or distinctive phrase.<br />Changing the wording of a source slightly and not citing the source.<br />Buying or using a paper written by someone else.<br />Taking another person’s ideas and acting as though they are yours.<br />Copying someone’s computer program.<br />Including artwork or music in a project without getting permission or citing the source.<br />Writing a paper for Professor X’s class and using it again for Professor Y’s class; this is called “self-plagiarism.” (“Acknowledging Sources”)<br />You can use other people’s work in your own work as long as you give credit to the original author.<br />August 22, 2010<br />Jody Bailey<br />6<br />
Scholastic Dishonesty at UT Arlington<br />From UTA’s Office of Student Conduct, “What Constitutes Scholastic Dishonesty”<br />August 22, 2010<br />Jody Bailey<br />7<br />
Interesting Sites<br />“How to Tell If You’re a Plagiarist”<br />http://gawker.com/5602360/how-to-tell-if-youre-a-plagiarist<br />“Plagiarism Lines Blur for Students in Digital Age”<br />http://www.nytimes.com/2010/08/02/education/02cheat.html<br />August 22, 2010<br />Jody Bailey<br />9<br />http://gawker.com/5602360/how-to-tell-if-youre-a-plagiarist<br />
Linguistic Society of America Ethics Statement<br />“Linguists are subject to the standards of conduct found in other disciplines. They should practice honesty (e.g., by not plagiarizing or fabricating data) and carefully cite the original sources of ideas, descriptions, and data.” http://www.lsadc.org/info/pdf_files/Ethics_Statement.pdf<br />August 22, 2010<br />Jody Bailey<br />10<br />
How to Avoid Plagiarism?<br />August 22, 2010<br />Jody Bailey<br />11<br />
Linguistics Citation Style<br />Language: Journal of the Linguistic Society of America, “Style Sheet”: http://lsadc.org/info/pubs-lang-style.cfm<br />See also the “Unified Style Sheet for Linguistics Journals”: http://linguistlist.org/pubs/tocs/JournalUnifiedStyleSheet2007.pdf<br />August 22, 2010<br />Jody Bailey<br />12<br />
Sample Citations(from Language “Style Sheet”) <br />Journal article:Hale, Kenneth, and Josie White Eagle. 1980. A preliminary metrical account of Winnebago accent. International Journal of American Linguistics 46.117-32.<br />Book:Dorian, Nancy C. (ed.) 1989. Investigating obsolescence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.<br />August 22, 2010<br />Jody Bailey<br />13<br />
Sample In-Text Citations<br />“Give only a brief citation in parentheses consisting of the author's surname, the year of publication, and page number(s) where relevant: (Rice 1989) or (Yip 1991:75-6).”<br />“a. If a cited publication has more than two authors, use the surname of the first author, followed by et al.”<br />“b. If the author's name is part of the text, then use this form: Rice (1989:167) comments ...” (“Style Sheet,” Language)<br />August 22, 2010<br />Jody Bailey<br />14<br />
What do I cite?<br />Quotations? <br />Common knowledge?<br />Graphics, charts, tables?<br />Your original ideas?<br />Your original research (e.g., surveys, experiments)?<br />Paraphrases of others’ ideas?<br />August 22, 2010<br />Jody Bailey<br />15<br />YES<br />NO<br />YES<br />NO<br />NO<br />YES<br />
Tips for Quoting & Paraphrasing<br />Quote accurately! <br />Paraphrase correctly; do not use the structure or language of the original<br />Pretend to explain the source to someone else<br />Summarize the source without looking at it<br />If it’s too hard to paraphrase, then quote!<br />Don’t just replace a word here and there using a thesaurus!<br />August 22, 2010<br />Jody Bailey<br />16<br />
Correct Paraphrasing<br />Source:<br />“Currently, the two language varieties employed by GCs [Greek-Cypriots] in their daily interactions are Standard Modern Greek (SMG) and the Greek-Cypriot Dialect (GCD). SMG is the official and prestigious language variety that is learnt through schooling and employed in formal environments and in writing” (Papapavlou & Sophocleous, 2009).<br />Paraphrase: Which is better?<br />Greek-Cypriots speak both Standard Modern Greek and the Greek-Cypriot dialect; the former is considered higher prestige and formality level.<br />The two language varieties used by Greek-Cypriots in their daily life are Standard Modern Greek and the Greek-Cypriot dialect. Standard Modern Greek is more prestigious and official.<br />August 22, 2010<br />Jody Bailey<br />17<br />
What do faculty do if they think someone has plagiarized?<br />TurnItIn.com<br />Google/Google Scholar<br />Wikipedia<br />Linguistics databases<br />August 22, 2010<br />Jody Bailey<br />18<br />
References<br />“Acknowledging sources.” 2005. University of Texas at Arlington Web site. http://library.uta.edu/tutorials/Plagiarism/<br />Introna, Lucas, Niall Hayes, Lynne Blair& Elspeth Wood. 2003.Cultural attitudes towards plagiarism: Developing a better understanding of the needs of students from diverse cultural backgrounds relating to issues of plagiarism. Lancaster University. http://www.jiscpas.ac.uk/images/bin/lancsplagiarismreport.pdf<br />Linguistic Society of America. 2009. Ethics statement. http://www.lsadc.org/info/pdf_files/Ethics_Statement.pdf<br />Papapavlou, Andreas & AndrySophocleous. 2009. Relational social deixis and the linguistic construction of identity. International Journal of Multilingualism 6.1-16.<br />World Intellectual Property Organization. (n.d.). What is intellectual property? http://www.wipo.int/about-ip/en/<br />August 22, 2010<br />Jody Bailey<br />19<br />