Rating scales


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Rating scales

  1. 1. Rating Scales<br />
  2. 2. Definition<br />Rating scales can help to evaluate the quality of the behavior of one student or many students.<br />It also measure the degree to which a student exhibits a specified behavior.<br />
  3. 3. Descriptors<br />Descriptors – provide detailed information regarding each of the levels of the rating scale.<br />These scales are useful when they are combined with other types of assessment, such as with data obtained from:<br /><ul><li>Interval Recording
  4. 4. Event Recording;
  5. 5. and the results of other assessment approaches.</li></li></ul><li>An Example of Descriptors in a Rating Scale<br />
  6. 6. Elliot, Busse, and Greshman (1993) suggested that the following issues be considered when using rating scales:<br />Ratings are summaries of observations of the relative frequency of specific behaviors.<br />Ratings of social behavior are judgments affected by one’s environment and rater’s standards for behavior.<br />The social validity of the behaviors one asses and eventually treats should be understood.<br />Multiple assessors of the same child’s behavior may agree only moderately.<br />Many characteristics of a student may influence social behavior; however the student’s sex is a particularly salient variable.<br />
  7. 7. Rating Scales<br />Several rating forms are commonly used in the assessment of behavior problems.<br />Many of these include forms for teachers and parents.<br />While rating scales can be useful, they have been criticized as being impressionistic,lacking interrater reliability, and being affected by the subjectivity of the observer<br />(Sattler, 2001).<br />
  8. 8. Examples <br />Teacher Report Form <br />(Achenbach, 1991b) <br />Child Behavior Checklist <br />(Achenbach, 1991a)<br />Behavior Rating Profile -2 <br />(Brown & Hammerhill, 1990)<br />Conners Teacher Rating Scales and Conners Parent Rating Scales <br />(1997)<br />
  9. 9. Teacher Report Form (Achenbach, 1991b) <br />The Teacher's Report Form (TRF) obtains teacher's reports of children's academic performance, adaptive functioning, and behavioral/emotional problems.<br />Teachers rate the children's academic performance in each subject on a five-point scale ranging from 1 (far below grade level) to 5 (far above grade level). <br />Cognitive and achievement test scores for the child, if available, can also be provided on the form.<br />
  10. 10. Teacher Report Form (Achenbach, 1991b) <br />For adaptive functioning, teachers use a seven-point scale to compare the child to typical pupils for how hard he/she is working, how appropriately he/she is behaving, how much he/she is learning, and how happy he/she is.<br />The Teacher Report Form is for students aged 5-18. Items on these instruments are closely related so that both parents and teachers are rating the student on similar dimensions<br />
  11. 11. Child Behavior Checklist (Achenbach, 1991a)<br />The Achenbach system allows for the student to be rated on both positive, or adaptive, behaviors and behavioral syndromes.<br /> A device by which parents or other individuals who know the child well rate a child's problem behaviors and competencies. This instrument can either be self-administered or administered through an interview. <br />
  12. 12. Child Behavior Checklist (Achenbach, 1991a)<br />The CBCL can also be used to measure a child's change in behavior over time or following a treatment. The first section of this questionnaire consists of 20 competence items and the second section consists of 120 items on behavior or emotional problems during the past 6 months. <br />Two CBCL forms are available for parents: one for children aged 2-3 years and another for students aged 4-18 years. <br />The Parent Form includes, in addition to the rating scales, some open – minded questions such as “What concerns you most about your child?” <br />
  13. 13. Youth Self-Report (Achenbach, 1991c)<br />The Youth Self Report (YSR) provides self-ratings for 20 competence and problem items paralleling those of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL)/Ages 6-18. <br />The YSR also includes open-ended responses to items covering physical problems, concerns, and strengths. <br />Youths rate themselves for how true each item is now or was within the past six months, using the same three-point response scale as the CBCL/6-18 and Teacher Report Form.<br />
  14. 14. Behavior Rating Profile -2 (Brown & Hammerhill, 1990)<br />A unique battery of six norm-referenced instruments that provides different evaluations of a student's behavior at home, at school, and in interpersonal relationships from the varied perspectives of parents, teachers, peers, and the target students themselves. <br />The diverse responses that are collected for the BRP-2 allow examiners to test several different diagnostic hypotheses when they are confronted with reports of problem behavior. <br />
  15. 15. Behavior Rating Profile -2 (Brown & Hammerhill, 1990)<br />The BRP-2 can identify students whose behavior is perceived to be deviant; it can identify the specific settings in which behavior problems are particularly prominent; and it can identify persons whose perceptions of a student's behavior are different from those of other respondents.<br />The BRP-2 is appropriate for students who range in age from 6-6 years through 18-6 years or who are enrolled in Grades 1 through 12. The BRP-2 components were all normed individually on large, representative populations. <br />
  16. 16. Conners Teacher Rating Scales and Conners Parent Rating Scales (1997)<br />Description of Test <br /> This test is a paper-and-pencil or computer –administered instrument used to evaluate problem behaviors of children as reported by the child’s teacher, parents or alternate caregiver.<br />Administration Time: Untimed<br />Publisher: Multi-Health Systems Inc.<br />Author: C. Keith Conners (1997)<br />
  17. 17. Conners Teacher Rating Scales and Conners Parent Rating Scales (1997)<br />Age/Grade Levels<br /> The Conners’ Parent Rating Scale can help identify behavior problems in children 3 to 17 years of age. <br /> The Conners’ Teacher Rating Scale provide measures for identifying a variety of behavioral problems in children 4 to 12 years old.<br />
  18. 18. Conners Teacher Rating Scales and Conners Parent Rating Scales (1997)<br />Conners Teacher Rating Scale<br />Conners Teacher Rating Scale - 39<br />The person providing the information about the child is the teacher. <br />This scale is utilized for children 3 to 17 years old.<br />The person providing the information about the child is the teacher.<br />This scale is utilized for children 4 to 12 years old.<br />
  19. 19. Conners Teacher Rating Scales and Conners Parent Rating Scales (1997)<br />Conners Parent Rating Scale - 93<br />Conners Parent Rating Scale - 48<br />The person providing the information about the child is the parent. <br />This scale is for children 6 to 14 years old.<br />The person providing the information about the child is the parent.<br />This scale is for children 3 to 17 years old.<br />
  20. 20. <ul><li>These forms measure a variety of behavioral characteristics group into several scales</li></ul>Conduct Problems<br />Conduct Disorder<br />Hyperactivity<br />Inattentive-passive<br />Anxious-passive<br />Asocial<br />Daydream attention problems<br />Emotional overindulgent<br />Anxious-shy<br />Hyperactive-immature<br />Learning Problems<br />Obsessive Compulsive<br />Psychosomatic<br />Restless-disorganized<br />Anxiety<br />Impulsive-hyperactive<br />
  21. 21. Strengths of the Conners Parent Rating Scale and Conners Teacher Rating Scales<br />The instrument has been used by professional for over 20 years.<br />This test is a thorough measure of a student’s behavioral characteristics because of the number of questions raised.<br />Materials presented on ADHD are in accordance with diagnostic criteria of the DSM-N<br />
  22. 22. Weaknesses of the Conners Parent Rating Scale and Conners Teacher Rating Scales<br />The test standardization sample is not well described, which may be problematic for generalizability.<br />The test has not been updated to measure more current definitions of ADD and ADHD. <br />
  23. 23. Sources<br />http://www.aseba.org/forms/schoolagecbcl.pdf<br />http://www.aseba.org/forms/trf.pdf<br />http://www.aseba.org/forms/ysr.pdf<br />http://cornerstonepeds.net/images/website231/conners_rating_2__parent_eval.pdf<br />http://www.pediatricpartnersmd.com/documents/ADD-HOMEEVALUATION.pdf<br />http://www.cerealcitypeds.com/upload/add-adhd-dr-dolbee-parent-and-teacher-forms.pdf<br />http://www.proedaust.com.au/psyc/details.cfm?number=33<br />http://vinst.umdnj.edu/VAID/TestReport.asp?Code=BRP2P<br />http://vinst.umdnj.edu/VAID/TestReport.asp?Code=CBCA<br />http://vinst.umdnj.edu/VAID/TestReport.asp?Code=YSR<br />http://vinst.umdnj.edu/VAID/TestReport.asp?Code=TRF<br />
  24. 24. Sources<br />Cohen, Libby, Spenciner, Loraine. Assessment of Children and Youth with Special Needs 3rd Edition . Prentice Hall, 2006.<br />Giuliani, George, Pierangelo, Roger. Assessment in Special Education: A Practical Approach . Merrill, 2008.<br />Overton, Terry. Assessing Learners With Special Needs An Applied Approach 4th Edition. Prentice Hall, 2002 .<br />