Certificate in IPR Management Lecture 2

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This is part of a Certificate in IPR Managemen given by the Law Society of Ireland. Summer 2013

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  • Often hear that an IP right allows the owner to prevent someone using their IPOf course this is correct but the IP right is far richer that that.It’s a bit like saying a property right gives you the right to prevent someone coming onto your land or into your building but obviously property rights are far more that that.IP can be use a very effective tool to control the results of creativity and innovation. Preventing use is one thing but it also allows you to permit use, to move the results around in a safe and profitable way etc.
  • Certificate in IPR Management Lecture 2

    1. 1. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 Lecture 2 Commercialisation of IP July 2013
    2. 2. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 Outline • Recap on IP – 20 mins • Origins of IP – 20 mins • Commercialisation – 20 mins • IP Audit – 15 mins • Technology transfer and licensing – 30 mins • Break 15 mins • Heads Exercise – 15 mins • Licensing Exercise – 15 mins • Supply chain issues - 15 mins
    3. 3. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 IP RECAP Discussion
    4. 4. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 Recap- Patent • Monopoly rights for inventions – Novel – Inventive step – Industrial application • Not abstract, aesthetic or mental “as such” – Computer programs – Scheme for playing a game – Business methods – Presentation of information • Territorial • 20 years
    5. 5. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 Recap-Design • Appearance of whole or part of a product resulting from the features of, in particular, the lines, contours, colours, shape, texture, and/or materials of the product itself and/or its ornamentation. – Territorial (but RCD) – Cheap – 25 years subject to renewal – Becoming more important in mobile/UI etc
    6. 6. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 Recap-Trade mark • Sign – Graphical – Indicator of Origin • Indicator of origin – Protects consumers by indicating quality – Protects owners from unfair competition • Classes of goods and services • Indefinite subject to renewal and maintenance of validity • Territorial • CTM • Note collective and certification marks
    7. 7. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 Recap-Copyright • Literary, dramatic, musical or artistic works • Sound recordings, films, broadcasts, typogrpaphy • Criteria – EU: Author’s own intellectual creation – US: Spark of creativity • Idea/Expression • Restricted acts – Copy – Distribution right – Rental or lending rights – Performance right – Communication right – Adaptation right • Moral rights
    8. 8. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 Recap Database • Original database under copyright – Author’s own intellectual creation involved in the selection and arrangement of contents – E.g. compilations (even of facts or other non-copyright material) • Sui generis right – Substantial investment in obtaining, verifying or presenting contents of the database – But not creating! – Extraction and re-utilisation are restricted
    9. 9. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 Recap-Remedies • Pecuniary (i.e. $$$) – Account of profits – Damages • Non-pecuniary – Declaration (e.g. non-infringement) – Delivery up/destruction – Reveal information – Injunction • Customs suspension • Criminal • Threats
    10. 10. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 Sources of IP • Theory • International Law • EU Law • Domestic Law
    11. 11. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 THEORY OF IP Discussion
    12. 12. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 Welfare or incentive theory • Basics – It is rooted in utilitarianism, the principle that we should pursue “the greatest happiness for the greatest number.” – This is prospective (forward-looking) and collective (group-based) theory. – The “public goods problem”: Public goods (those that are nonrivalrous and nonexcludable) are under-produced. – government can solve the public goods problem in several ways. One way is to protect the producers of public goods against competition. Copyright does this. • Copyright policies welfare theory might favour – Protections calibrated to incentivize production of works without going “too far” • Copyright policies welfare theory might disfavour – Very long copyright terms – Retroactive extensions of copyright terms
    13. 13. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 Fairness • Basics – Each person has a natural right to the fruits of his or her intellectual labour. – It is based on Locke’s theory that labour upon land held in common gives the labourer a right to the land and the fruits. – Modified form (equity theory): A theory of distributive justice—each person deserves a share of the fruits of a collective project proportionate to the magnitude of his or her contribution to the venture. • Copyright policies fairness theory might favour – Rights to factual works – Fair compensation of contributors to composite works • Copyright policies fairness theory might disfavour – Tempering copyright to reflect contributions of materials from the public domain (but fairness theory might also favour this)
    14. 14. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 Personality (or personhood) theory • Basics – Many human needs (e.g. privacy, autonomy, self-realization) are served by private property rights. – Intellectual products are manifestations or extensions of the personalities of their creators. – Appreciation of creators’ personal interests provides support for “moral rights.” – Modern modification: All persons must be enabled to express themselves artistically, and creativity is increasingly dependent upon re-use of extant intellectual products. – Influence of Kant and Hegel • Copyright policies personality theory might favour – Policies that “protect” artists from themselves (such as termination of transfers) – Fair use (or a similar exception) for transformative works – Moral rights • Copyright policies personality theory might disfavour – Copyright terms that are shorter or longer than the life of the author – Work-for-hire doctrine
    15. 15. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 Culture Theory • Basics – Human nature is mysterious but discoverable. It causes people to flourish more under some conditions than others. Social and political institutions should be organized to facilitate that flourishing. – Certain conditions (e.g. life, health, autonomy, but see map) are necessary for the full realization of personhood. – It favours a certain kind of distributive justice and is based on the premise that diversity, art, education, and democracy (political and semiotic) are desirable. • Copyright policies culture theory might favour – Increased opportunities (under fair use or similar) for creative reuse of works – Moral right of attribution – Formalities • Copyright policies culture theory might disfavour – Privileges for “consumptive” uses (such as Sony) – Moral right of integrity
    16. 16. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 SOURCES OF IP LAW Discussion
    17. 17. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 Historical • UK – Statute of Monopolies (1623) – Statute of Anne (1709) – US constitution • Up to 19th century national in scope with little international cooperation
    18. 18. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 Article 1, Section 8 of US Constitution
    19. 19. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 TFEU
    20. 20. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 International Harmonisation • International Treaties to set minimum standards – Berne convention – Paris convention – WIPO Treaties – TRIPS, ACTA and other free trade agreements • Trend is for more harmonisation driven by Western (i.e. US) priorities
    21. 21. EU Harmonisation IP Rights  TM  Designs  Copyright  SPC  Patent* Decreasing Harmonisation
    22. 22. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 Domestic Legislation • Patents Act • Trade Mark Act • Industrial Designs Acts • Copyright and Related Rights Act etc.
    23. 23. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 Common Law Rights • Passing off – Complements registered trade mark rights – Goodwill – Misrepresentation – Damage to goodwill • Confidentiality • Privacy – E.g. image rights – Poorly defined – Overlap with data protection and other law – Varies with jurisdiction
    24. 24. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 COMMERCIALISATIONS
    25. 25. Source: OECD
    26. 26. Source: Acacia
    27. 27. Source: Ocean Tomo
    28. 28. Intellectual Property is the legal right to control the results of creativity and innovation
    29. 29. Intellectual Property strategy is how you use the intellectual property system to your advantage
    30. 30. Monetize Exclude Interact Licence Sell Collateralise Enforcement Threat Access other innovation Leverage Standards Interoperability
    31. 31. The Business Model Investors Prefer, MIT Sloan Management Review June 22 2011
    32. 32. Business Value • Defence • Cost avoidance • Revenue Generation • Strategic
    33. 33. Defensive Patents Trade Marks Know-How Relationships Conflict Avoidance/Resolution • Protection (exclude others) • Design Freedom • Cross-licensing (defensive) • Litigation bargaining power • Protection (exclude others) • Protection (trade secret) N/A Offensive Revenue Generation • Products and Services: Sales, Licensing, JV, Optimisation of core tech, Value from non-core tech, Integration • Patents: Sales, Licenses, Infringement policing • Increased bargaining power (e.g. suppliers, customers, affiliates, JV partners) • Market penetration • Increased speed to market • Products and Services: Sales, JV, Alliance • TM: Sales, licensing, co- branding, Infringement policing • Sales • Licenses • JV • Strategic Alliances • Integration • Increased speed to market • Product and services sales Cost Reduction • Litigation avoidance • Access to technology of others • Improved knowledge transfer • Reduce knowledge gaps • Litigation avoidance • Access to tech of others • Litigation avoidance • Improved knowledge transfer • Reduced marketing costs Strategic Position • Reputation/image • Exclusivity/blocking • Barrier to competition • Supplier control • Customer control • Optimization of core technology • Name recognition • Customer Loyalty • Barrier to comp • JV • Alliance • Reputation/image • Barrier to entry • Reputation/Image • Customer loyalty • Barrier to entry Adapted from “Edison in the boardroom revisited” S Harrison and P Sullivan 2012
    34. 34. 36 What needs to change? Business Value Business IP Technology Creation Business Technology Now Future CIPO
    35. 35. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 IP AUDIT
    36. 36. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 IP Audit External Internal
    37. 37. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 Source: WIPO Source: WIPO
    38. 38. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 External • Patent searching and landscape • TM databases • Design right filings • Competitive intelligence
    39. 39. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER
    40. 40. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 Types of Agreement • Pure IP Licence – E.g. patent • Technology Transfer – Mixed know-how and IPR • Technical assistance – Communicate technology and provide services
    41. 41. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 Motivation • For the licensee: – need for up-front cash to reduce the cash burn; – freeing up resources for further development of other products; – lack of expertise and know-how if the technology/product in question has spun off from other technologies or products; – benefit from the development expertise of licensor; – reduction of development cost in favour of other products; – avoidance of patent litigation if the licensee could potentially block the commercialisation of the product or technology. • For the licensor: – fill in gaps in the product pipeline; – access technology rather than building expertise in-house; – expansion into new areas; – gain earlier access to market compared with in-house developed products; – build or strengthen a franchise in a particular territory; – total amount available for licensing a technology or product.
    42. 42. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 Checklist • Preliminary – Availability of protection (patent, confidentiality) – Direct exploitation – Sale of technology – Licensing – Choosing a suitable licensee
    43. 43. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 General considerations • Royalty levels – Degree of exclusivity – Industry practice – Benefit to licensor – Differential rates • Confidentiality • Heads of agreement • Local law • Competition law • Technical Assistance • Tax
    44. 44. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 Licence Provisions • Parties • Recitals • Definitions • Scope • Royalties • Licensee’s obligations • Warranties • Infringement • Improvements • Confidentiality • Termination and consequences • Jurisdiction • Registration
    45. 45. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 Confidential information • No IP right per-se • Circumstances giving rise to obligation – Contract – Implied by circumstances/relationship – Statute
    46. 46. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340
    47. 47. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340
    48. 48. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 HEADS EXERCISE
    49. 49. 52
    50. 50. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 LICENSING 53
    51. 51. 54
    52. 52. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 LICENCE EXERCISE 55
    53. 53. 56
    54. 54. BORDER MEASURES 57
    55. 55. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 Introduction • Border Measure Regulation (BMR) is an important tool for the IP strategist advising global companies • Procedures for customs authorities relating to goods suspected of infringing certain intellectual property rights • Normally to facilitate infringement proceedings • Goods imported or exported or transiting EU customs area • Supply chain consequences 58
    56. 56. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 59
    57. 57. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 Strategy • Understand your supply chain • Identify points of import/export/transit in EU Customs area • Strategic use of various national and community rights • Risk analysis for potential infringements • Surveillance program for potential infringers • Preparation for action or reaction – Forms/contacts – Proofs – IP right coverage of goods • Readiness to initiate or defend judicial procedures • Readiness to walk away from a shipment? 60
    58. 58. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 Customs Procedures • Which rights • Where to apply • How to apply • What will customs do? • When to apply • Who to apply to 61
    59. 59. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 Counterfeit Goods Unauthorised TM use 62
    60. 60. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 Pirated Goods – Copies made without consent of copyright or design right holder 63
    61. 61. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 Infringement • Patent • Supplementary Protection Certificate • Plant variety right (national or community) • DO and GI (national or community) • Geographical designation (community) 64
    62. 62. 65 IP Right National Rights Community Rights Registered Trade Mark Unregistered Trade Mark Copyright + Related Rights Registered Design Unregistered Design Sui generis Database Patent Utility Model SPC (medicines and plants) Geographical Indication Designation of origin Geographical Designation Plant Variety Right Semiconductor Topography
    63. 63. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 Irish Law • Regulation is directly effective • SI 244/2005 is implementing regulation • Designates Revenue as competent customs authority • Offences – False or misleading details in an application – False declaration – Aiding and abetting – Summary offence up to €5,000 fine – Personal and corporate criminal liability – Probation Act does not apply 66
    64. 64. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 Goods in Transit • Are they put on the market • Manufacturing fiction • Over ruled in Philips/Nokia • Challenged by India and Brazil before WTO • New guidelines on goods in transit • Mere placing under customs control not infringement • Must be a “commercial act” directed at the European market – Sale or offer – Advertising – Apparent from documents incl. Instruction manuals – Risk of fraudulent diversion – Destination not provided where it is required – Lack of identity where it is required 67
    65. 65. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 Infringement • Infringement under law of Member State in which the application for customs action is made – Note copyright law is quite fragmented • Understand what the infringement is and whether or not there are any local law issues • UK, NL, DE etc 68
    66. 66. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 Procedure • RTFM! – http://ec.europa.eu/taxation_customs/resources/documents/custom s/customs_controls/counterfeit_piracy/right_holders/manual_en.pdf • Use the forms • Who – Rights Holder – Licensee – Representative of above 69
    67. 67. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 • Customs can act ex-oficio (i.e. off their own bat) • Application can be made with effect lasting up to a year • No need for actual knowledge of infringement – Can be used if suspicion – General surveillance • No Fee but applicant pays for translations • Can be renewed with 30 day processing time • No procedure for automatic extensions • Two procedures – National covers one member state and a national right – Community can cover multiple member states but limited to community rights 70
    68. 68. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 • Mandatory information – Proof of right • Certificate or other – And if licensee or representative • License • Letter of authority/proxy – Technical information concerning goods – Any specific information concerning type or pattern of fraud – Name and address of contact person appointed by right-holder – Article 6 declaration – For Community Applications also name and address of right holder in each of the member states concerned – Other information 71
    69. 69. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 Practical Tip • Tell customs what a regular shipment looks like and what an irregular shipment should look like. 72
    70. 70. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 Article 6 Declaration 73
    71. 71. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 • 30 Working days to make a decision • Duty to notify customs if – rights cease to be valid – No longer enforceable by right holder – Change in contact information – New information – Withdrawal 74
    72. 72. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 If a shipment is discovered • Customs may detain or suspend release • Inform – Customs office that processed application – Right holder – Holder of the goods • Names and address of consignor etc • Samples • Note obligations on use of information 75
    73. 73. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 Procedure after detention • Simplified procedure where there is a settlement • 10 working days to initiate proceedings – Max 10 day extension – Shorter period, no extension for perishable goods • For certain rights goods may be released pending litigation once security is provided by owner or related party 76
    74. 74. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 77
    75. 75. 78
    76. 76. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 Statistics 79
    77. 77. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 80
    78. 78. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 81
    79. 79. 82
    80. 80. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 83
    81. 81. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 84
    82. 82. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 85
    83. 83. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 86
    84. 84. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 87
    85. 85. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 88
    86. 86. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 89
    87. 87. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 Cases • Class International – Aquafresh • Montex – Diesel • Philips – Electric shavers intercepted at Antwerp port – Detained • Nokia – Nokia phones and accessories intercepted at Heathrow – Released applying Montex 90
    88. 88. 91
    89. 89. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 Manufacturing Fiction 92
    90. 90. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 Resources • DG Customs and Tax • Revenue Commissioners • Case Law • Irish Law 93
    91. 91. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 94 http://www.revenue.ie/en/customs/leaflets/counterfeit-pirated-goods.html
    92. 92. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 Proposed New BMR • Part of Strategy on IPR and Single Market Act • New rights – Trade Name – Semiconductor Topography – Utility model – Parallel trade (by removing current Article 3) – Circumvention of technical measures • Simplified procedure – “where it is clear that the goods are counterfeit or pirated” – Small postal e-commerce transactions – No right holder involvement and customs pays for destruction – Recipient is not sanctioned 95
    93. 93. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 • Traders’ rights and Charter of Fundamental Rights – Timelines – Information release – Destruction procedures for cases other than counterfeiting and piracy • Broadens who can act including collecting societies and professional defence bodies 96
    94. 94. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 Issues • BMR as a detention procedure versus customs becoming enforcers • Complexity of investigating infringement • Creation of new IP rights in particular for transit and parallel trade • Due process issues • Free trade and supply of medicines into countries where no rights exist (usually poor countries) • Balance with harm caused by infringements 97
    95. 95. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 ACTA • Anti Counterfeiting Trade Agreement • ACTA is an international trade agreement that will help countries work together to tackle more effectively large-scale Intellectual Property Rights violations. Citizens will benefit from ACTA because it will help protect Europe's raw material – innovations and ideas. • Sets international standards for IPR enforcement and allows for information exchange and other cooperation 98
    96. 96. 99
    97. 97. 100
    98. 98. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 When you are explaining you are losing • ACTA does not – Monitor the Internet – Change EU law – Favour industry over fundamental rights – Prevent online sharing of content – Poor countries from buying cheap medicines 101
    99. 99. 102 Rejected by resounding majority in the European Parliament July 2012
    100. 100. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 Current Status - EU • Commission asks ECJ to clarify whether ACTA is incompatible - in any way - with the EU's fundamental rights and freedoms – such as freedom of expression and information or data protection. The European Commission is convinced that ACTA is fully in line with the EU's high standards and does not interfere in citizen's fundamental rights of freedom of expression and data protection. • Commission wants to provide the European citizens, the National Parliaments and the European Parliament with the most detailed and accurate information possible, and therefore looks forward to receiving an independent opinion of Europe's highest court. In this way the debate will again be based upon facts and not upon misinformation or rumours. 103
    101. 101. www.newmorningip.com +353 1 254 2340 Current Status Worldwide 104 Comes into force in ratifying countries once 6 countries have ratified
    102. 102. fred.logue@newmorningip.com +353 (0)1 254 2340 l www.newmorningip.com l @newmorningip

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