Chromium and insulin sensitivity

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Chromium and insulin sensitivity

  1. 1. CHROMIUM AND INSULIN SENSITIVITY PANAGIOTIS ANDREAKOS MEDICAL SCHOOL , NATIONAL & KAPODISTRIAN UNIVERSITY OF ATHENS
  2. 2. -CHROMIUM AS A CHEMICAL ELEMENT (AN , isotypes ,origins) chromium cytotoxicity (lung cancer etc) + required levels of chromium consumption ( new RDA) PHYSIOLOGY : INSULIN  tissues-goals(liver, fat tissue ,muscles) as a growth factor( others GH,IGF-1,IGF-2…) origin(b-cells of endocrine pancreas etc) PATHOLOGY :  diabetes a, b ,insulinoma  molecular mechanism, specific molecular pace therefore, chromium increases Insulin sensitivity how can chromium enhance exercise results and in what wayDIETARY PYRAMID
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION• Chromium is a chemical element which is symbolized Cr ,its atomic number is 24 and it is the first chemical element of group 6• Its name derives from the greek word chroma which means color(ΧΡΩΜΑ)
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION 2• Trivalent chromium is important in trace amounts for sugar and lipid metabolism , however its complete extraction from the diet does not often lead in chromium deficiency .• In larger amounts of trivalent chromium or in other forms , such as hexavalent chromium ,chromium can be toxic or even carcinogenic• NEW RDA FOR CHROMIUM: “ The US dietary guidelines for adequate daily chromium intake were lowered in 2001 from 50–200 µg for an adult to 30– 35 µg (adult male) and to 20–25 µg (adult female) “
  5. 5. INTRODUCTION 3• . Exposure to hexavalent Cr compounds is strongly associated with increasing risk of lung cancer. Extensive research at DNA level indicated that generation of ROS from the reduction of Cr(VI) leading to DNA damage is the major cause of the toxicity and carcinogenicity of Cr(VI).• Lei T, He QY, Cai Z, Zhou Y, Wang YL, Si LS, Cai Z, Chiu JF. Source : Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Xian Xian Jiaotong University, Xian, China. (NCBI)  The abstract
  6. 6. WHAT ABOUT INSULIN???•  polypeptide hormone produced by endocrine part of pancreas (b-cells)•  central biological role : regulation of carbohydrate and fat metabolism• main tissue- goals : fat ,muscle, liver•  regulates DNA replication via control of amino acid cell intake• growth factor : others : GH, IGF-1 ,IGF-2, estrogens, androgens , prolactin etc
  7. 7. PATHOLOGY RELATED TO INSULIN• DECREASED EXCRETION diabetes mellitus  type 1 Autoimmune-mediated destruction type 2 of b-cells that leads to insulin deficiency or absence.•  INCREASED EXCRETION Metabolic disorder that leads either to insulin insufficiency or to increased insulinoma insulin resistance and therefore HYPERGLYCEMIA. Tumor of b-cells derived from Islets of Langerhans which produces excess amount of insulin and is not regulated as strictly as required by glucose blood level.
  8. 8. CHROMIUM MODE OF ACTION ON INSULIN PATHWAY INSULIN PATHWAY
  9. 9. CHROMIUM MODE OF ACTION ON INSULIN PATHWAY 2Chromium Activates Glucose Transporter 4 Trafficking and Enhances Insulin-StimulatedGlucose Transport via a Cholesterol-Dependent Mechanism
  10. 10. DIETARY PYRAMIDCHROMIUM IS INCLUDED INFOOD DERIVED FROM ALLPYRAMID SCALES
  11. 11. CONCLUSION• Chromium trivalent is essential for lipid and sugar metabolism and acts on insulin pathway. Through this mechanism, glucose cell intake and glycogen synthesis is elevated.• Therefore , chromium III is very likely to enhance exercise performance and especially aerobic exercise.(elevated rate of glycogen stock)
  12. 12. BEWARE!!!!!!PHYSICALEXERSISEWITHOUTSUPPLEMENTS

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