An Outlook on Patterns as an Aid
for Business and IT Alignment with
Capabilities
Janis Stirna, Stockholm University
Kurt S...
Outline
• The need
• Capability
• Pattern concept
• Example cases
• Challenges
Problem: Enterprise models have a lot
of reusable knowledge….
How to identify?
How to capture?
How to represent?
How to sh...
A meta-model for capability design
amodel
Capability Goal
Indicator
Context Indicator
KPI
ContextSet
ProcessProcessVariant...
5
• In architecture
– "A problem which occurs over an over again in our environment and then
describes the core of the sol...
Example of the state of the art
• Problem: How to model a customer order and
different product quantities?
for
Concept 58
...
7
Pattern description
• A pattern is a self-contained logical system that is capable
of stating:
– that a given problem ex...
8
f1
The need for patterns in the
business setting
• Coupling of problem and solution
• Abstraction
• Repeatability
Patter...
Pattern elicitation
• Pattern detection: analyze (a large number of) sources in
the area under consideration (e.g. enterpr...
Example: Model supported knowledge
sharing at the Riga City Council
• Patterns used for
capturing best practices
• Created...
Example: Task Patterns at
Kongsberg Automotive
• Engineering process
patterns
• Created by methodology
experts
• Metis too...
Example: Information Demand
Patterns at Proton Engineering
• Address recurring information flow problems that arise for
sp...
Challenges for Supporting
Capability Delivery
• Way of modeling and repository management –
both dimensions of reuse
… and...
Name: PatterName
Problem: Some text here explaining
the problem
Context: Some text and/or context
model fragment
Solution:...
More Challenges
• Design oriented patterns (more traditional)
• Solution oriented patterns
– need to specify how to compos...
Time for a discussion
• Contact:
– Janis Stirna js@dsv.su.se
– Kurt Sandkuhl kurt.sandkuhl@uni-rostock.de
– CaaS project: ...
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2014 asdenca - An outlook on patterns as an aid for business and it alignment with capabilities

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This work discusses the future outlook on how pattern based approaches should be developed to support business and IT alignment and the concept of capability, as means to deliver context dependent organizational solutions

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2014 asdenca - An outlook on patterns as an aid for business and it alignment with capabilities

  1. 1. An Outlook on Patterns as an Aid for Business and IT Alignment with Capabilities Janis Stirna, Stockholm University Kurt Sandkuhl, University of Rostock
  2. 2. Outline • The need • Capability • Pattern concept • Example cases • Challenges
  3. 3. Problem: Enterprise models have a lot of reusable knowledge…. How to identify? How to capture? How to represent? How to share and apply? … a solution – use patterns
  4. 4. A meta-model for capability design amodel Capability Goal Indicator Context Indicator KPI ContextSet ProcessProcessVariantPattern ContextElementRange Measurable Property ContextElement ResourceContext Situation Context Element Value 0..1 requires 1..* * measured by 0..1 1..* requires 0..1 1 1..* * influences * * requires 1 0..1 supported by 1 1..* requires 1..* 1 defines * 1 has * 1..* motivates 1..* 1..* consists of 1 1 requires 0..1 1 requires 0..1 11..* 1 consists of 1..* 11..* 1 has value 1..* 1..* related to 0..1 Enterprise Modeling Reuse and Variability Context
  5. 5. 5 • In architecture – "A problem which occurs over an over again in our environment and then describes the core of the solution to that problem, in such a way that you can use this solution a million times over, without ever doing the same twice" Alexander, 1977 • In O-O design – "An object-oriented pattern is an abstraction of a doublet, triplet or other small grouping of classes that is likely to be helpful again and again in object- oriented development" Coad, 1992 – "A design pattern is a description of communicating objects and classes that are customised to solve a general problem in a particular context" Gamma, 1994 • In business analysis – "An idea that has been useful in one practical context and will probably be useful in others" Fowler, 1997 – "Generic and abstract organisational design proposals that can be easily adapted and reused in different organisational situations" Bubenko, Persson, and Stirna, 2001 The pattern concept
  6. 6. Example of the state of the art • Problem: How to model a customer order and different product quantities? for Concept 58 E-Shop customer Concept 59 Customer orderplaces Concept 6 Product • Solution: Introduce order line with attribute quantity shown below Order Line Item -quantity Product • When applied for Concept 58 E-Shop customer Concept 59 Customer orderplaces Concept 6 Product Concept 6 Line item consists of Quantity Pattern:
  7. 7. 7 Pattern description • A pattern is a self-contained logical system that is capable of stating: – that a given problem exists within a stated range of contexts, and – that in the given context, a given solution solves the given problem. • Typically described according to a template: – Problem - describes the issues that the pattern wishes to address within the given context and forces – Context - describes the preconditions under which the problem and its solution seem to occur – Forces - describe the relevant forces and constraints and how they interact/conflict with one another and with goals we wish to achieve – Solution - describes how to achieve the desired result, in terms of the work needed. It can be expressed in natural language, enterprise models, drawings, multimedia, etc.
  8. 8. 8 f1 The need for patterns in the business setting • Coupling of problem and solution • Abstraction • Repeatability Pattern (generic description) Organisation C Organisation B Useful for reuse of experience and management of knowledge in enterprises Organisation A Organisation X Specific business solution Organisation specific and potentially reusable solution Pattern applications
  9. 9. Pattern elicitation • Pattern detection: analyze (a large number of) sources in the area under consideration (e.g. enterprise models, software designs, etc.) for recurring solutions • Pattern derivation: use knowledge from related areas (e.g. process models, information flow diagrams, enterprise models) and derive patterns from this knowledge • Pattern construction: use expert knowledge in the domain and construct patterns based on this knowledge • Community-based pattern development: use communities of people with knowledge in the field (on the web, wikis, in conferences (e.g. PLoP) or associations) to develop patterns.
  10. 10. Example: Model supported knowledge sharing at the Riga City Council • Patterns used for capturing best practices • Created by experts and employees of the RCC • Used by employees within the RCC
  11. 11. Example: Task Patterns at Kongsberg Automotive • Engineering process patterns • Created by methodology experts • Metis tool • Integrated with an execution environment – the AKM platform
  12. 12. Example: Information Demand Patterns at Proton Engineering • Address recurring information flow problems that arise for specific roles and work situations in an enterprise and presents a conceptual solution to it.
  13. 13. Challenges for Supporting Capability Delivery • Way of modeling and repository management – both dimensions of reuse … and execution
  14. 14. Name: PatterName Problem: Some text here explaining the problem Context: Some text and/or context model fragment Solution: Some text and/or model fragment Usage guidelines: Some text explanatio here Keywords: Keyword1, Keyword2, Keyword3 Examples: A context model of a company A context model fragment relevant to this pattern Proc. Ext Sales process Inf. 1 Description of the project Inf.2 Information about reference people (Who knows what?) Inf3. Similar projects in the past Inf 4. Description ot the service concept Inf 5. Templates Inf 6. Earlier projects with the same customer Inf 7. Information from sister companies about similar projects Inf 8. Description of delivery process Inf 9. PPS Inf 10. Patterns Inf 11. Information about employees (Workload, competence, experience, personality type). Inf 12. External experiences from similar projects Inf 13. Knowledge about the information content Input to Proc 1: Plan project/ assignment Proc. 1.1 Plan project/ assignment Inf 14. Additional background information about the assignment Proc. 1.2 Passing over Role1: Sales person persorms performs Role 2: Project manager Role 3: Project participant performs participates Proc. 1.1.1 Verify if project description is complete enought part of Inf. 15 Additional requirements from the customer Inf. 16 Project plan Proc.1.3 Approval of the project plan Inf. 16 Approved project plan Role 4: Project group performs Role 2: Project manager leads Role 5: Customer is part of Business Process 1: Plan project A specific useful model Reusable solution part of the pattern New business solution, e..g process model containing pattern * * * * trac e Variation point trac e trac e
  15. 15. More Challenges • Design oriented patterns (more traditional) • Solution oriented patterns – need to specify how to compose the solution and how to run it • What should the formalisms be: – Process models and concepts models have been widely used – What other types of models (e.g. goals, services, actors, IS architecture)? – How to represented algorithms within pattern?
  16. 16. Time for a discussion • Contact: – Janis Stirna js@dsv.su.se – Kurt Sandkuhl kurt.sandkuhl@uni-rostock.de – CaaS project: caas-project.eu

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