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Full tutorial on Capability driven development

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These slides present a full tuorial of Capability driven development presented in the CLEI 2014 conference. Contents:
Introduction
Enterprise modelling with 4EM
Capability design
Capabilities in runtime
Case studies
Conclusion

Authors: Sergio España & Tania González

Published in: Software
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Full tutorial on Capability driven development

  1. 1. FP 7 ICT Programme Collaborative Project no: 611351 Sergio España, Tania González Capability-driven development
  2. 2. Capability as a Service for digital enterprises FP 7 ICT Programme Collaborative Project no: 611351
  3. 3. FP 7 ICT Programme Collaborative Project no: 611351 Conferencia Latinoamericana en InformáticaCLEI 2014 Capability-driven development Desarrollo dirigido por capabilidades Agenda Introduction Enterprise modelling with 4EM Capability design Capabilities in runtime Case studies Conclusion Motivation Overview of CDD Situating CDD
  4. 4. This story has fictional elements! What is a capability?
  5. 5. CDD  Introduction  Motivation Contains elements from a presentation by Janis Stirna Let’s take a look in Google…
  6. 6. CDD  Introduction  Motivation Does the Capability term exist in your language? Contains elements from a presentation by Óscar Pastor It exists in English  capability /ˌkeɪpəˈbɪlɪtɪ/ n ( pl -ties) the quality of being capable; ability  the quality of being susceptible to the use or treatment indicated: the capability of a metal to be fused  (usually plural) a characteristic that may be developed; potential aptitude
  7. 7. CDD  Introduction  Motivation Does the Capability term exist in your language? Contains elements from a presentation by Óscar Pastor It exists in English  ability /əˈbɪlɪtɪ/ n ( pl -ties) possession of the qualities required to do something; necessary skill, competence, or power  considerable proficiency; natural capability: a man of ability  (plural) special talents
  8. 8. CDD  Introduction  Motivation Contains elements from a presentation by Óscar Pastor Does the Capability term exist in your language? It exists in English  capacity /kəˈpæsɪtɪ/ n ( pl -ties) the ability or power to contain, absorb, or hold  the amount that can be contained; volume: a capacity of six gallons  the ability to understand or learn; aptitude; capability: he has a great capacity for Greek  the ability to do or produce (often in the phrase at capacity): the factory's output was not at capacity  a specified position or function  a measure of the electrical output of a piece of apparatus such as a motor, generator, or accumulator  a former name for capacitance  the number of words or characters that can be stored in a particular storage device  legal competence: the capacity to make a will
  9. 9. CDD  Introduction  Motivation Does the Capability term exist in your language? Contains elements from a presentation by Óscar Pastor Not in Spanish  capacidad ▪ Talento o inteligencia: quedó patente su capacidad para los idiomas.  habilidad ▪ f. Capacidad, inteligencia y disposición para realizar algo: tiene una habilidad endiablada para liarte. ▪ Lo que se realiza con gracia y destreza: nos mostró sus habilidades al volante.
  10. 10. CDD  Introduction  Motivation What do we mean by capability? Capability is the ability and capacity that enable an enterprise to achieve a goal in a certain context. Contains elements from a presentation by Janis Stirna  Need to know how to do it (ability)  Need to have the resources (capacity)  Need to know when to do what (context)  Need to know how to make choices and why (goals and KPIs) … and this needs to be designed Bakery  Factory
  11. 11. Enterprise: Goal:. Goal KPI: Context: Ability: Capacity: CDD  Introduction  Motivation problem part solution part Capability definition template Capability is the ability and capacity that enable an enterprise to achieve a goal in a certain context.
  12. 12. CDD  Introduction  Motivation Enterprise: everis Goal: keep services available despite platform errors. Goal KPI: time service available / time error in platform Context: loss of connectivity w. other subsystems, workload. Ability: being able to deploy a maintenance portal. Capacity: eGOVeris, monitoring tool, developers, technicians. Enterprise: municipality Goal: provide an online marriage registration service to citizens. Goal KPI: service usage Context: marriage institution schedule Ability: the business process, knowing how to handle uncommon situations. Capacity: eGOVeris platform, clerks, marriage officers. Examples of capability definitions using the template
  13. 13. CDD  Introduction  Motivation Define one or two capabilities using the template. You can… • base them on a real project that you know, or • invent the case Enterprise: Goal: Goal KPI: Context: Ability: Capacity: Exercise
  14. 14. Exercise CDD  Introduction  Motivation In some cases, the context elements that affect the enterprise are easier to discover. E.g., a monitoring system for social and environmental commitments in hydrocarbon extraction activities Laura attended the CDD tutorial at CLEI 2014
  15. 15. CDD  Introduction  Motivation Exercise Define the capabilities for a swimming pool booking service. • The municipalities want to allow citizens to book a swimming pool so they can have a free bath (it is not a training course). • The citizen should be able to choose the swimming pool among the ones in the municipality, but the ones closest to the citizen should be recommended. • The citizen can choose a date and a swimming pool but there • Each swimming pool has a limit of swimmers. • The system should inform the citizen of the weather forecast in the swimming pool, if it is an outdoor swimming pool.
  16. 16. ability-driven development of a SOA platform: a case study Case studyCDD  Introduction  Motivation
  17. 17. Case studyCDD  Introduction  Motivation
  18. 18. Case studyCDD  Introduction  Motivation
  19. 19. Case studyCDD  Introduction  Motivation
  20. 20. Case studyCDD  Introduction  Motivation
  21. 21. Current situation 200 services 250 municipalities 1.000.000 Spanish citizens Complex and dynamic context Customisation at code level
  22. 22. Main challenges Model the desired capabilities Model impact of context Towards context-aware, self-adaptive platform
  23. 23. People involved Public Sector and R&D Manager Business Consultant Technological Consultant 4 researchers from UPV and RTU
  24. 24. FP 7 ICT Programme Collaborative Project no: 611351 Conferencia Latinoamericana en InformáticaCLEI 2014 Capability-driven development Desarrollo dirigido por capabilidades Agenda Introduction Enterprise modelling with 4EM Capability design Capabilities in runtime Case studies Conclusion Motivation Overview of CDD Situating CDD
  25. 25. CDD  Introduction  Overview of CDD The metamodel
  26. 26. CDD  Introduction  Overview of CDD A meta-model for capability designpability metamodel Capability Goal Indicator Context Indicator KPI ContextSet ProcessProcessVariantPattern ContextElementRange Measurable Property ContextElementontextType ResourceContext Situation Context Element Value 0..1 requires 1..* * measured by 0..1 1..* requires 0..1 1 1..* * influences * * requires 1 0..1 supported by 1 1..* requires 1..* 1 defines * 1 has * 1..* motivates 1..* 1..* consists of 1 1 requires 0..1 1 requires 0..1 11..* 1 consists of 1..* 11..* 1 has value 1..* 1..* related to 0..1 Enterprise Modeling Reuse and Variability Context Contains elements from a presentation by Janis Stirna The metamodel
  27. 27. CDD  Introduction  Overview of CDD A vision of the methodology
  28. 28. CDD  Introduction  Overview of CDD Capability evolution (in a dynamic world) • The world changes rapidly, so capabilities are volatile. • We need dynamic capabilities • variability management • context monitoring • runtime adjustment, or rapid redesign (Helfat & Peteraf, 2003) Inspired by a presentation by Mohammad-Hossein Danesh and Eric Yu
  29. 29. CDD  Introduction  Overview of CDD Capability evolution (in a dynamic world)
  30. 30. CDD  Introduction  Overview of CDD Capability evolution (in a dynamic world)
  31. 31. CDD  Introduction  Overview of CDD A vision of the methodology
  32. 32. CDD  Introduction  Overview of CDD A vision of the tools
  33. 33. CDD  Introduction  Overview of CDD CDD goals and selling points
  34. 34. CDD  Introduction  Overview of CDD CDD goals and selling points
  35. 35. CDD  Introduction  Overview of CDD CDD goals and selling points
  36. 36. CDD  Introduction  Overview of CDD CDD goals and selling points
  37. 37. FP 7 ICT Programme Collaborative Project no: 611351 Conferencia Latinoamericana en InformáticaCLEI 2014 Capability-driven development Desarrollo dirigido por capabilidades Agenda Introduction Enterprise modelling with 4EM Capability design Capabilities in runtime Case studies Conclusion Motivation Overview of CDD Situating CDD
  38. 38. CDD  Introduction  Situating CDD On the notion of capability Contains elements from a presentation by Peri Loucopoulos
  39. 39. CDD  Introduction  Situating CDD On the notion of capability Contains elements from a presentation by Peri Loucopoulos
  40. 40.  A business capability is a particular ability or capacity that a business may possess or exchange to achieve a specific purpose or outcome.  A business capability does not communicate or expose where, why, or how something is done - only what is done.  A business capability is an abstraction enabling one to visualise a business ecosystem prior to engaging in a detailed analysis. Ulrich, W. and M. Rosen (2014). "The Business Capability Map: the ‘Rosetta Stone’ of business/IT alignment." Enterprise Architecture 14(2) Contains elements from a presentation by Peri Loucopoulos CDD  Introduction  Situating CDD On the notion of capability
  41. 41.  Dynamic Capabilities are the ability to determine whether the organization is performing the right activities, and then effectuate necessary change  “The capacity to create, extend, or modify the resource base” (Helfat et al, 2007)  May be embedded in organizational routines  Set the speed with which the organization aligns/realigns with requirements of and opportunities in the business environment C.E. Helfat, S. Finkelstein, W. Mitchell, M. A. Peteraf, H. Singh, D.J. Teece, and S.G. Winter (2007), Dynamic capabilities: understanding strategic change in organizations Contains elements from a presentation by Peri Loucopoulos CDD  Introduction  Situating CDD On the notion of capability
  42. 42. Enterprise modelling Goal Model Context Model BP Model Actor-Role Model Value Model System modelling Information Model Configuration Model Operation Model Capability Model Contains elements from a presentation by Peri Loucopoulos CDD  Introduction  Situating CDD Capability as a facilitator
  43. 43. Capability Driven Paradigm To continuously deliver value in dynamically changing circumstances Enterprise Modelling Application Software Context- awareness Adaptivity Variability Designin g Analyzing Adaptive RE Adaptive SOA Data & Process Analysis Value & quality Context Modeling Interactivity Service Change analysis Context Management Adaptin g Evolving Contains elements from a presentation by Peri Loucopoulos CDD  Introduction  Situating CDD Influences
  44. 44. CDD  Introduction  Situating CDD Capability as a service IaaS PaaS SaaS CaaS
  45. 45. Conferencia Latinoamericana en InformáticaCLEI 2014 Capability-driven development Desarrollo dirigido por capabilidades Agenda Introduction Enterprise modelling with 4EM Capability design Capabilities in runtime Case studies Conclusion Motivation Goal modelling Concepts modelling Business rules modelling Business process modelling Stakeholder modelling
  46. 46. CDD  Enterprise modelling  Motivation Contains elements from a presentation by Janis Stirna Why and what of enterprise modelling  Design or re-design your organization/business  Business processes or workflows  Build and information system  Ensure the quality of business operations  Standardize the way of working  Ensure acceptance and commitment to business decisions  Create a common “business” vocabulary  … Then do “something” The real world Inquiring Abstracting Structuring Categorizing Generalizing To establish paying services Goals 3 To achieve a top class standard of service Goals 6 supports To offer additional benefits for paying customers Goal 19 supports Service should be free of charge for students and academics Constraint 1 hinders To achieve high precision in all library transactions Goal 5 supports To minimise customer's waiting in the queue Goal 4 supports To keep the library catalogue regularly updated Goal 20 supports A customer is a bad customer id he/she does not follow library rules Rule 1 There should be no priority in waiting line for paying customers Rule 2 supports supports hinders supports A customer is a bad customer is he/she has overdue books twice consecutively Rule 3 A customer is bad customer is he/she delays books for more than 4 weeks Rule 4 Update library catalogue as soon as changes occur Rule 5 supports Notify all customers about all changes in library services immediately as changes occur Rule 6 supports Update library catalogue after each loan transaction Rule 5.1 Update library catalogue when new items and/or copies are acquired Rule 5.2 Update library catalogue when copy of item changes its state to "missing", or "in repair", "out of stock" Rule 5.3Every day check for delayed books Rule 10 supports Check physical condition of each copy when it is returned to library Rule 9 supports The model world The enterprise The modeler The process The model The real world The action
  47. 47. CDD  Enterprise modelling  Motivation Contains elements from a presentation by Janis Stirna Why and what of enterprise modelling Understandability Formality Completely formalSemi-formal approachesInformal Simple Easy to get an overview Need an expert Natural language text Diagrams, drawings Statistical graphs High level programming languages 4GL tools Flowcharts Low level programming languages Modal Logic Fuzzy Logic Neural nets Deductive methods Conceptual schemas Mathematical graphs Business models Forma specification languages When analysing business we need to involve stakeholders, which requires understandability, but in the same time we have to ensure clarity and correctness, which requires certain formality.
  48. 48. CDD  Enterprise modelling  Motivation Contains elements from a presentation by Janis Stirna Why and what of enterprise modelling  Enterprise modelling is a method for developing, acquiring, and communicating enterprise knowledge and user requirements by a structured, iterative, and modelling approach.  Product: the method produces several interrelated conceptual models, each focusing on a particular aspect of the enterprise and its information system.  Process: it involves a group of stakeholders and a modelling facilitator.  Tools: application in practice is usually supported by modelling tools. Goals Model Business Rules Model Concepts Model Business Process Model Actors and Resources Model Technical Components and Requirements Model defines, is_responsible_for motivates, requires affects, defined_by uses, refers_to refers_to supports triggers uses, produces performs, is_responsible_for defines defines, is_respon- sible_for uses, refers_to motivates, requires Business Rules Model motivates, requires
  49. 49. CDD  Enterprise modelling  Motivation Contains elements from a presentation by Janis Stirna A historical perspective on methods Enterprise Information Model (IBM) 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 DFD Data Modelling Goal analysis & Inf. Systems Analysis (Langefors) BSP Conceptual Modelling ABC-method(Plandata) Business Modelling (SISU) EKD - Enterprise Knowledge Development ER-modelling Participative Development Enterprise Modelling (Sheer, UK-group,...) Enterprise Modelling & Process Guidance (F3, SISU, UMIST, Paris) Strategy Development Methods Process Development Sw. dev. process guidance EKP - Enterprise Knowledge Patterns approach Organisational patterns Requirements engineering approaches 4EM Enterprise Modelling
  50. 50. CDD  Enterprise modelling  Motivation Contains elements from a presentation by Janis Stirna What 4EM is (and what it is not)  4EM is:  an integrated collection of methods, techniques, and tools that will support your process of analysing, planning, designing, and changing your business.  EKD supports your thinking, reasoning, and learning about the business.  EKD leads to more complete and consistent business designs.  4EM is not:  a “magic method” that relieves you from thinking and acting  a “software tool”  an approach that necessarily leads to a software system
  51. 51. CDD  Enterprise modelling  Motivation Contains elements from a presentation by Janis Stirna What 4EM is (and what it is not)  4EM is a method for enterprise modelling  UML is a method for IS requirements modelling and IS design  4EM can be applied in early stages if IS development and eliciting of business requirements  Modelling business requirements to IS such as organisation’s vision, problems, goals, business process with UML (including some of UML’s extensions) is inefficient.  Business modelling methods based on some variant of UML do exist  4EM is a method (language + modelling process).  UML is a language  RUP is an IS development method (UML as language + development process)  4EM can be extended by elements of UML is the project needs it
  52. 52. CDD  Enterprise modelling  Motivation Contains elements from a presentation by Janis Stirna What 4EM is A set of description techniques Stakeholder participation A set of guidelines for working A set of supporting tools
  53. 53. CDD  Enterprise modelling  Motivation Contains elements from a presentation by Janis Stirna 4EM applicability Resolve differences in perceptions about the business between stakeholders Convince stakeholders to commit to decisions/results Stimulate communication and collaboration between stakeholders Encourage active participation from involved stakeholders Maintain and share knowledge about the business Design/ redesign business processes Develop visions and strategies Design/Redesign business Develop the business Develop information systems Elicit business requirements Business goals Ensure the quality of business operations Create, document, maintain a "complete" and multi-faceted view (Enterprise Model) of the business Ensure acceptance for business decisions Acquire knowledge about the business from different stakeholders
  54. 54. CDD  Enterprise modelling  Motivation Contains elements from a presentation by Janis Stirna Objectives of 4EM  understanding the business  facilitate the process of organisational learning  improving communication between users (stakeholders) and developers  developing a "knowledge repository" for :  reasoning about the business including change and evolution  guiding the change process  tracing the chain of components and decisions that leads to various implementation decisions and information system components.  description of enterprises objectives, information concepts, processes, actors, and requirements which are more consistent and more complete than by using traditional, purely natural language based approaches.
  55. 55. CDD  Enterprise modelling  Motivation Contains elements from a presentation by Janis Stirna Objectives of 4EM 4EM taught us not to look for business applications of information technology but rather to look for solutions to our business objectives and problems. It strengthens “business pull” in organisations instead of “technology push”.
  56. 56. CDD  Enterprise modelling  Motivation Contains elements from a presentation by Janis Stirna Products and process of 4EM Process The modelling process describes how to develop the modelling product Ways of working Tools Goals Model Business Rules Model Concepts Model Business Process Model Actors and Resources Model Technical Components and Requirements Model defines, is_responsible_for motivates, requires affects, defined_by uses, refers_to motivates, requires refers_to supports triggers uses, produces performs, is_responsible_for defines defines, is_responsible _for uses, refers_to motivates, requires Business Rules Model Products A metamodel describes the modelling product (modelling primitives, syntax, semantics, graphical notation)
  57. 57. CDD  Enterprise modelling  Motivation Contains elements from a presentation by Janis Stirna Products of 4EM Goals Model Business Rules Model Concepts Model Business Process Model Actors and Resources Model Technical Components and Requirements Model defines, is_responsible_for motivates, requires affects, defined_by uses, refers_to refers_to supports triggers uses, produces performs, is_responsible_for defines defines, is_respon- sible_for uses, refers_to motivates, requires Business Rules Model motivates, requires
  58. 58. CDD  Enterprise modelling  Motivation Contains elements from a presentation by Janis Stirna Products of EKD To provide of service for customers 24h a day, 7 days per week. Goal 3 Sell items electronically Goal 5 Customers are geographically spread and live in different time zones Problem 1 To minimise customer servicing costs Goal 1 supportssupports supports The company has experience in developing B2C sites Opportunity 1 To increase the customer base Goal 2 supports supports To advertise for products globally Goal 4 supports supports Customer relations personnel Actor 1 Electronic transactions officer Actor 2 Purchased items should be sent out within 24 hours Rule 1 supports is_respon- sible_for Item Concept 1 Book Concept 2 Music CD Concept 3 Movie DVD Concept 4 refers_to Customer Ext.Process 2 Deliver items to customer Process 1 Purchase order Inf.Set1 Delivery items Inf.Set2 triggers performs is_respon- sible_for To support item dispatching from warehouse IS Goal 1 The system should keep track of all customer transactions IS Requirement 2 supports Customer service system Warehouse system requires motivates Fragment of Goals Model Fragment of Actors Model Fragment of Business Process Model Fragment of Business Rules Model Fragment of Concepts Model Fragment of Technical Components and IS Requirements Model uses
  59. 59. Goals Model Business Rules Model Concepts Model Business Process Model Actors and Resources Model Technical Components and Requirements Model defines, is_responsible_for motivates, requires affects, defined_by uses, refers_to motivates, requires refers_to supports triggers uses, produces performs, is_responsible_for defines defines, is_responsible _for uses, refers_to motivates, requires Business Rules Model CDD  Enterprise modelling  Motivation Contains elements from a presentation by Janis Stirna Products of 4EM  Each sub-model should be connected internally and between each other  Some quality guidance rules are derived from the meta- model of the method, e.g.  There must exist at least one goal in the GM, one process, one external process, one information/ material set in BPM, one concept in CM, and one actor in ARM.  Every Information or Material Set in the BPM must be related to a concept in the CM.  Every Process must be motivated by at least one goal from GM in some decomposition level  Every process must be related to at least one ARM role, which is responsible for that process.
  60. 60. CDD  Enterprise modelling  Motivation Contains elements from a presentation by Janis Stirna Products of 4EM Goal model Jan year 1Jan year 0 Continuing Business Area actions related to competence (when needed) (Duration: Jan- Dec) Process BA 3 Design and finalize the Business Areas' business plan with proposal for Balanced Scorecard (Duration: Sept-Nov) Process BA 14 Identify competency needs in -personell plan (number of people) -Recruitment plan (Duration:Jan) Process BA 17 Gap analysis (Duration: April) Process BA 18 Competence section within the Business Areas' business plan Information 19 Analysis of surrounding world Information BA 1 Market situation Information BA 2 Vattenfalls objectives Information BA 4 Business goals for Business Areas Information BA 5 Competitor analysis Information BA 3 Current situation regarding attitude Information BA 6 Current situation regarding available competency Information BA 7 CEO's preconditions for Business planning work Information 3 Identify the Business Areas' area of control (CSFs) (soft hard goals) (Competence is an area of control ) (Duration: Sept-Nov) Process BA 4 Choice of key indicators, measurements such as SIQ, SEI (Duration: Sept-Nov) Process BA 6 Identify competency needs for overall area (Duration: Sept-Nov) Process BA 5 Objectives for competence area of control X % Y items (Duration: Sept-Nov) Process BA 7 Formulate a strategy to achieve business goals (Duration: Sept-Nov) Process BA 2 Carry out a SWOT analysis for amongst other things competency (Duration: Sept-Nov) Process BA 1 SWOT analysis for competency Information BA 8 High-level strategy to achieve business goals Information BA 10 Identified area of control, amongst others; competence Information BA 12 Overall competency need for example: -Traders -Project leaders -Product developers Information BA 13 Strategy to achieve competency goals Information BA 16 Measurement Information BA 14 Objectives for competence area of control Information BA 15 -Comprehensive need -Business Area competency goals -Business Area´s strategy -Comprehensive actions Information BA 18 Bring forward strategy to achieve competency goals (Duration: Sept-Nov) Process BA 8 Formulate/summarize comprehensive competence section within the Business Areas' business plan (Duration: Sept-Nov) Process BA 11 Balancing of the companies' scorecard/competence plans ("bottom-up" applicable for P och N) Process BA 10 Plan comprehensive actions for achieving competency goals (Duration: Sept-Nov) Process BA 9 Quarterly and annually follow up measurements and indicators Process BA 21 Planned comprehensive actions Information BA 17 Base data for Business Area personell function business plan Information BA 20 Finalized business plan and scorecard for Business Areas Information BA 24 Market plan Div/company or -production plan - business plan at P and company Information BA 25 Decomposition to market plan (Duration: Jan) Process BA 15 Formulate competence - goal profiles at an individual -group level (Duration: Feb) Process BA 16 Need of Competence Information 26 Dialogue between manager and employee to map competency (Duration: Mar-Apr) Process BA 12 Identify internal and external available competence (Duration: April) Process BA 13 Bring forward actions to achieve competency goals (Divisions) (Duration: April) Process BA 19 Individual developm ent plan Information BA 21 Goal contract Information BA 22 Activity goal/individual Information BA 23 Available competence Information BA 27 Competens overlapping / underlapping Information BA 28 Actions for competency Information BA 29 Implement planned actions (Duration: April Year 1 - Mar Year 2) Process BA 20 Measurement of implemented actions and results of measuring Information 9 Follow-up values: indicators goal measurements Information BA 9 Strategic plan within the competency field Information 11 part of Business Areas planning at the activity level. Detailed planning (Business Areas common development activities) (Duration: Feb) Process 22 Competency planning at the Business Area level Proposal for strategic plan within the competency field Information 17 - Personell plans (number of people) -Recruitment plan Comprehensive need of competency from finalized business plan Current situation in resp. Business Areas' competence section in the business plan Information BA 31 Controlling of Business Areas' business plan related to competence Process K7 Corrections of competency plan Information BA 32 Formulate business goals for Business Areas (Duration:Sept- Nov) Process BA35 Implement Satisfied Employee Index Finalize Vattenfall's scorecard in KL planning meeting and compile base data for the Board of Directors (dec year 0); Finalize BA´s and the Group's scorecard and economic forecast incl competencies in the Board of Directors (jan year 1) Process K2 Quarterly follow up of Business Area goals and checking off against scorecard Process K3 Plan of actions regarding improvements of Business Areas The Competence Audit Process Process AUDIT0 Business areas' implemented activities regarding competency Information BA 33 Dialogue between O and BA about surplus/shortage Reports on actions Information BA 34 Business process model Why do we perform this? How to implement this vision? Who performs this process? Who is responsible for this goal? KTH Main Library O.Unit. 1 ELECTRUM Library Budget Capital 1 ELECTRUM Library O.Unit. 2 Library Clerk Role 1 Customer Role 2 John Smith Individual 1 Non-paying Customer Role 3 Paying Customer Role 4 Bad Customer Role 5 cuts uses provides_ service_for Library Information System Role 12 support_work_of works_for Library manager Role 9 accounts_to is_managing Ericsson Radio AB O.Unit. 3 playsplays Actor model What is this? What do we mean by this? Bad customer Concept 11 KTH Concept 1 KTH library Concept 2 Department or faculty Concept 3 Academic staff Concept 4 Student Concept 5 ELECTRUM Library Concept 6 Service Concept 7 Customer Concept 8 Non-paying customer Concept 9 Paying customer Concept 10 works_for studys_in receives Copy Concept 12 Budget Concept 13 has owns provides Item Concept 14-N of Book Concept 15 Periodical Concept 16 Document Concept 17 Loan Concept 18 Catalogue search Concept 19 of Paying service Concept 21 Ordered loan Concept 22 Video conferences Concept 23 Copying of material Concept 24 Purchasing material Concept 25 Electronic item Concept 26 has State Concept 27 in Return datehas Concept model
  61. 61. CDD  Enterprise modelling  Motivation Contains elements from a presentation by Janis Stirna The process of 4EM  is a purposeful, goal-driven activity which explores different options  captures, exposes, and records reasons behind decisions taken  is participative: stakeholders become designers working towards a common set of goals  leads to achieving consensus
  62. 62. CDD  Enterprise modelling  Motivation Contains elements from a presentation by Janis Stirna The process of 4EM  is a purposeful, goal-driven activity which explores different options  captures, exposes, and records reasons behind decisions taken  is participative: stakeholders become designers working towards a common set of goals  leads to achieving consensus
  63. 63. CDD  Enterprise modelling  Motivation Contains elements from a presentation by Janis Stirna The process of 4EM (Steering committee) Project manager (Reference group) Modelling technicians Application group The modelling group
  64. 64.  What do you think F should do?  What are the major tasks of F?  Describe a typical process P within F.  Which goals should F follow considering process P?  Which are the main problems F experiences in P?  Define possible actions for F to achieve its goals for P. Ideas to kick off the first modelling session Assume the problem is to analyze and to improve the way a particular company function F works. CDD  Enterprise modelling  Motivation The process of 4EM Contains elements from a presentation by Janis Stirna
  65. 65. • Large plastic sheet (taped up on a sizeable wall). • Differently colored pieces of paper for each component type (component names are pre-printed). • Pre-prepared pieces of adhesive gum. • Non-permanent felt-tip pens. • A computer-based graphic tool to later model the results. CDD  Enterprise modelling  Motivation Tools for the modelling session Contains elements from a presentation by Janis Stirna
  66. 66.  Listen  Respect other people's opinions  Discuss differences  Innovate  Collaborate  Analyse  Generalise  Summarise and reflect  Focus on the problem at hand  Make progress  Be polite!!! CDD  Enterprise modelling  Motivation General rules at a modelling session Contains elements from a presentation by Janis Stirna
  67. 67.  Simple tools - to capture the ideas generated during the modelling seminar, to serve as meeting minutes (e.g. Visio, FlowChater, Omnigraffel)  CASE tools -- to document the model in order to be refined later, included in a report or a repository, or the model is going to be kept “alive” (e.g. Metis, Aris, MetaEdit)  Other types of tools e.g. CSCW tools might be needed in some projects (e.g. BSCW, CURE, Groupsystems) CDD  Enterprise modelling  Motivation Tool support Contains elements from a presentation by Janis Stirna
  68. 68. MDD CAiSE’1 2 70 CDD  Enterprise modelling  Motivation Tool support Contains elements from a presentation by Janis Stirna
  69. 69. CDD  Enterprise modelling  Motivation Contains elements from a presentation by Janis Stirna The process of EKD … is participatory A “real life” EKD Goal Model after 10 hours of modelling with 12 people from the customer site
  70. 70. CDD  Enterprise modelling  Motivation Contains elements from a presentation by Janis Stirna The process of EKD … is participatory 1. mērķis RTU sagatavo pasaulē konkurētspējīgus absolventus 3. mērķis Sagatavot informācijas sabiedrības pilsoni. 4. mērķis Piesaistīt labākos Eiropas / pasaules mācību spēkus. 2. mērķis Ar e-studiju palīdzību popularizēt RTU, spodrināt prestižu studijām RTU. atbalsta Veicina 11. mērķis Masveida augstas kvalitātes izglītība. 27. mērķis Samazināt nesekmīgu (atskaitāmo) studentu skaitu. 26. mērķis Ieviest jaunāko pedagoģijas metodiku. 34. mērķis Ieviest e-studijas kā masu apmācības tehnoloģiju Veicina atbalstaatbalsta atb als ta atb als ta atbalsta 38. uzdevums Prezentēt steidzamos darbus dekānu padomē. U. Sukovskis I. Slaidiņš E. Beķeris 15. uzdevums Jāizstrādā cena kursam „Inovācija augstākajā izglītībā”. 16. uzdevums Izsludināt kursus „Inovācija augstākā izglītībā” ar cenām utt. 17. uzdevums Izveidot štata divas (2) vietas atbildīgajiem par e-studiju: - metodiku; - tehnoloģiju. Rektors 18. uzdevums Sagatavot pamatojumu tehniskā un metodiskā atbalsta e-studijās centra izveidei. Mācību prorektors I. Slaidiņš 14. uzdevums Popularizēt kursu „Inovāciju menedžments” internetā TSC mājas lapā. A. Kapenieks 11. problēma Trūkst iemaņu e-studiju materiāla radīšanai 63. mērķis Izveidot tehnisko un metodisko atbalsta centru e-studiju ieviešanai. 62. mērķis Organizēt akadēmiskā personāla apmācību. 11. uzdevums Apmācīt min 100 pasniedzējus e-studiju kursu izstrādē. 12. uzdevums Aptaujāt pasniedzējus par gatavību izveidot e-kursus. 12. problēma Lielas daļas mācībspēku vājā sagatavotība moderno tehnoloģiju pielietošanā. 13. problēma Pasniedzēji nemīl (negrib) darboties ar to ko nesaprot un neprot. RTU cena 100 Ne RTU cena 200 19. uzdevums Nopirkt un ieviest gatavu „Super e-kursu” 1. kursam. I. Slaidiņš 35. mērķis 10 gadu laikā nodrošināt studentus ar vislabākajiem mācību materiāliem pasaulē 10 gadu laikā 36. mērķis Nodrošināt ar e-studiju materiālu max daudz RTU priekšmetu. 37. mērķis Mērķis ir nodrošināt: - studiju materiālu RTU pirmo kursu studentiem. 38. mērķis Izstrādāt e-studiju kurus. 41. mērķis Radīt un apkopot „success stories” par e-learning. 40. mērķis Nodrošināt augsta līmeņa svešvalodu apguvi radot priekšnosacījumus eksistējošo e-studiju resursu izmantošanai. 39. mērķis Mudināt studentus izmantot eksistējošos e-studiju resursus svešvalodās. veicina 28. uzdevums Jādibina centralizēta RTU IT pārvalde DITF dekāns Mācību prorektors 29. uzdevums Izstrādāt RTU IT stratēģiju 30. uzdevums Iekļaut e-studijas RTU attīstības stratēģijā IT pārvalde 31. uzdevums Jāraksta projekta pieteikumi par: - administratīvu pārvaldību; - e-learning atbalstu 14. problēma ... pasīva RTU bibliotēkas piedāvāto resursu izmantošana studiju procesā. Veicina 20. uzdevums Izstrādāt RTU nolikumu par e-studiju materiāliem. Mācību prorekt. 21. uzdevums Izpētīt autortiesības un īpašumtiesības uz e- kursiem un rast risinājumu. Tālmācības studiju centrs 22. uzdevums Uzrakstīt skaidrojumu kā rīkoties autortiesību (īpašumtiesību) jautājumā veidojot e-studiju kursus. 32. uzdevums Izpētīt visoptimālāko e-studiju vidi. 33. uzdevums Veidot datorklases ar printeriem , video konferencēm utt. 34. uzdevums Uzrakstīt projektu par datoru iepirkšanu 2500 studentiem. 15. problēma Nepietiekošs finansējums visaptverošas e-studiju infrastruktūras ieviešanai. 18. problēma Nav RTU vietas kur materiālus izdrukāt, nokopēt pēc plkst. 18:00 19. problēma Nepietiekoša datoru pieejamība studentiem. 57. mērķis Centralizēta RTU IT pārvaldība. X 35. uzdevums Jāaptaujā un jāizvēlas biznesa struktūra, kas nodarbosies ar klēpjdatoru nodrošināšanu studentiem. 36. uzdevums Veikt RTU IT auditu Profesionāls IT auditors Rektors 52. mērķis Nodrošināt e-studiju infrastruktūru. 53. mērķis Nodrošināt virtuālu pieeju laboratorijas aprīkojumam. 54. mērķis Piedalīties starptautiskos e-studiju attīstības projektos. 20. problēma Nav brīvu pieeju eksperimentālajai. bāzei. risina 17. problēma Nepietiekama Interneta pieejamība fakultātēs. 56. mērķis Vienoties ar „NOTEBOOKU” tirgotājiem par datoriem uz nomaksu studentiem. 16. problēma Ierobežotas iespējas piekļūt e-resursiem (Digital Divide) 55. mērķis Izmantot to, ka e-studijas ir starp Lisabonas deklarācijas „valzivīm”! R is in a 37. uzdevums Uztaisīt bezvadu tīklu visā RTU Atbalsta Atbalsta Risina 1. problēma Studentam trūkst motivācijas studēt! 28. mērķis Teikt, ka mācīties ir stilīgi. 8. mērķis Piesaistīt maksimāli iespējamu studēt gribētāju skaitu. 21. mērķis Piesaistīt ārzemju studentus. atbalsta 6. mērķis Uzlabot RTU administratīvo kapacitāti. 4. problēma Ierobežota administratīvā personāla kapacitāte. Kavē Atbalsta 15. mērķis Paaugstināt studentu informētību par viņa studiju gaitu -------------------------------------- Akadēmiski un administratīvi. 14. mērķis Atbrīvot RTU akadēmiskā personāla radošo potenciālu sadalot to divās daļās: - tie kas grib un var; - tie kas vairs negrib. 16. mērķis Vienota augstskolas pārvaldība sistēma. Kanclers 33. mērķis Vienota studentu reģistrācijas sistēma (no atzīmju uzskaites līdz parolēm datorklasēs un virtuālā studiju vidē). Atb alsta Atbalsta X 13. mērķis Ģenerēt „ģeniālu” (optimālu) nodarbību sarakstu. 5. problēma Neefektīvs lekciju plānojums: - 1 un 3 lekcija; - 2 un 4 lekcija... 6. problēma Zems studentu „servisa” nodrošinājums RTU. Minimālas uz klientu piesaistes un pakalpojumu vērstas darbības. 32. mērķis Izveidot vienotu „visa” (visas informācijas) reģistru. Kavē 9. mērķis Nodrošināt pastāvīgu saiti ar patērētājiem (industriju). 22. mērķis Uzlabot studentu profesionālās prasmes. 23. mērķis Paplašināt zināšanu apvārsni. atbalsta atbalsta 5. mērķis Modernizēt esošo studiju sistēmu. 30. mērķis E-studiju efektivitātes un attīstības pētīšana. 12. mērķis Modernizēt pētījumu prioritātes RTU 29. mērķis Apmierināt pieprasījumu pēc doktorantūras starpdisciplinārās pētījumu jomās. 31. mērķis Palielināt zinātnisko rakstu skaitu starptautiski atzītos žurnālos. 2. problēma Normatīvo aktu ierobežojumi. Kavē 3. problēma Profesori pietiekoši nepiesaka pētījumu projektus. Kavē Atbalsta Atbalsta Atbalsta Atbalsta 58. mērķis Izveidot doktorantūras programmu e-studiju pētījumu jomā. Atbalsta 1. uzdevums Pieteikt licencēšanai doktorantūras programmu. realizē 7. mērķis Izstrādāt un ieviest kvalitātes vadības sistēmu. 19. mērķis Pilnveidot studiju procesa kontroli. 17. mērķis Nodrošināt augstāku kvalitātes studiju procesu. 18. mērķis Ieviest RTU „Benchmarking” principu: līdzināties X konkrētai augstskolai. 7. problēma Pasniedzēju atalgojums ļoti vāji saistīts ar darba efektivitāti. 8. problēma Pasniedzēji, kas „izlaiž” cauri visus studentus. 9. problēma Studentu viedoklis neietekmē pasniedzēja komfortu. risina risin a risina 10. problēma Pārāk zemas prasības studentam, lai nokārtotu kursu. 10. uzdevums E-studiju kvalitātes sistēmu integrē neesošajā RTU kvalitātes sistēmā. 6. uzdevums Organizēt konferenci par augstskolu kvalitātes sistēmām. Attīstības un startēšanas departaments. 8. uzdevums Izstrādāt kvalitātes sistēmu: - administratīvajam procesam - akadēmiskajam procesam. 7. uzdevums Ieviest funkcionējošu kvalitātes sistēmu (tuvākajos 5 gados). 9. uzdevums Iekļaut projekta noslēguma konferenci kvalitātes sekciju ar „Invited Speacers”. 20. mērķis Katrā e-studiju kursā jābūt iebūvētam kursa novērtēšanas mehānismam. atbalsta atbalsta atbalsta atbalsta 44. mērķis Radīt pasniedzējiem motivāciju iesaistīties e- studiju kursos. 45. mērķis Organizēt pasniedzēju apmācību eksotiskā vietās. 48. mērķis Motivācija būs tikai tad, kad tiek nodrošināta konkurence. Atbalsta 50. mērķis Jāpārveido algu sistēma RTU, t.i. tā lai „maka” turētājs nenoteiktu savu un padoto algu apmēru 46. mērķis Nominēt e-studiju Oskaru balvām. 49. mērķis Motivācija ar burkānu un pātagu. Burkāns - samaksas saistība ar pasniegšana kvalitāti. Pātaga - sankcijas studentu neapmierinātības gadījumā 51. mērķis No augšas jāuzšauj ar pātadziņu. 47. mērķis Motivācija personālam: - e-studijas nolikt uz biznesa pamatiem; 31. problēma Lielai daļai mācībspēku ne ieinteresētība (vienaldzība) iesaistīties ar pārmaiņām saistītajos studiju procesa uzlabojumos. 30. problēma Maz ieinteresēto mācībspēku. 29. problēma Motivācijas trūkums pasniedzējiem mainīt sava kursa saturu un metodiku. risina 10. mērķis Jāizveido 2-9 izglītojošie e- kursi tiem, kam tas ir nepieciešams. 24. mērķis Nodrošināt informācijas patības iemaņu apgūšanu. 25. mērķis Ieviest informācija pratības kursu. 61. mērķis Iemācīt studentiem kā orientēties informācijā. 59. mērķis Izveidot „0” 1 sagatavošanas kursu. 60. mērķis Iemācīt studentus strādāt ar viņiem pieejamiem informācijas avotiem (tradicionāliem un elektroniskiem) priekš tālākā darba visā dzīvē! 22. problēma Studentu negatavība intensīvam darbam. 23. problēma Studentu vājās zināšanas matemātikā. 24. problēma 1. kursa studentu dažādie zināšanu līmeņi. 25. problēma Studentu vājās zināšanas nestandarta datorlietošanā. risina 21. problēma Studentu vājā sagatavotība studijām. Atbalsta RisinaKavēAtbalsta kavē 13. uzdevums Popularizēt kursu „RTU Blackboard” M. Treijere 39. uzdevums Izstrādāt kritērijus kā vērtēt pasniedzēju darba kvalitāti. 41. uzdevums Pieņemt lēmumu, ka algu sadalē un/vai pārvēlēšanā ņem vērā sasniegtos kvalitātes kritērijus. 44. uzdevums Uzskatīt e-kursus kā metodiskos materiālus. 43. uzdevums Izveidot vienotu e- studiju materiālu krātuvi ar recenzijām un novērtējumiem. 42. uzdevums Izstrādāt ieteikumus (nolikumu) par e- studiju materiāla novērtēšanu. 40. uzdevums Sagatavot priekšlikumus akadēmiskā personāla un citas nozīmes amatos vēlēšanās iekļaut e-studiju materiālu kā metodisko materiālu. E-studiju struktūrvienība Kavē Atb alsta Atb alsta Atbalsta 2. uzdevums Atdot ietaupītos 200000 Ls Atbalsta 43. mērķis Popularizēt e-studijas. 24. uzdevums Struktūrvienībām pilnveidot savas mājas lapas. 25. uzdevums RTU mājas lapā jāieliek tālmācības centra kursi (viegli atrodami) 26. uzdevums Mājas lapā sadaļu: „Tālāk izglītība” pārdēvēt par „Tālāk izglītība un tālmācība” 23. uzdevums E-studiju mārketings RTU iekšpusē un ārpusē. 27. uzdevums Studiju programmu novērtēšanas procesā organizēt diskusiju par kvalitāti, kurā noteikti uzaicināt Tālmācības centra speciālistus Atbalsta risina risina risina izpildaatbalsta izpilda atb alsta izpilda atbalsta atbalsta atbalsta izpilda izpilda izpilda izpilda izpilda izpilda atbalsta Kavē atbalsta izpilda izpilda Atbalsta A. Kapenieks atbalsta atbalsta atbalsta izpilda izpilda izpilda atbalsta atbalsta risina risina Atbalsta izpilda izpilda izpilda Z atbalsta izpilda IT pārvalde --------- ? izpilda izpilda izpilda atbalsta kavē Atbalsta Atbalsta veicina veicina 64. mērķis E-mācībās integrēta piekļuve pasaules informācijas resursiem 65. mērķis Dot iespēju studentam operatīvi jautāt un saņemt atbildi. 66. mērķis Pārbaudīt kādas kvalitātes vadības sistēmas e-studijās ir pierādījušas efektivitāti. 67. mērķis Ieviest RTU jau izstrādātos e-kursus. 68. mērķis Atrisināt ar autortiesībām saistītos jautājumus un saskaņot ar likumdošanu. 69. mērķis RTU vajadzētu spiest uz „BLENDED” apmācību - iestrādāt e-materiālos 70. mērķis Iesaistīt aktīvā kontaktā students <-> mācībspēks. DISKUSIJU TELPA 42. mērķis Studijas padarīt pieejamākas cilvēkiem ar kustību traucējumiem u.c. veselības problēmām. atbalsta EKD modelis E-studiju platformas izveidei RTU ESF projekts: "E-studiju platformas izveide RTU inženierzinātņu studiju programmām" VPD1/ESF/PIAA/04/APK/3.2.3.2./0057/0007 risina 74. mērķis Mērķis ir panākt studenta uzticēšanos lektoram. 75. mērķis Atjaunināt valsts programmu skolu informatizācija. 71. mērķis Izstrādāt vispārīgu pētniecības metožu kursu maģistratūras / doktorantūras programmas studentiem. 72. mērķis Mudināt un finansiāli atbalstīt doktorantu piedalīšanos starptautiskās konferencēs. 76. mērķis Iemācīt studentus patstāvīgi mācīties un domāt! 26. problēma Piedalīties starptautiskās konferencēs kuru materiālus publicē SCI žurnālos. 27. problēma Rektors savās runās maz runā par mērķiem un nākotni. 28. problēma Tiek kopts melīgs mīts, ka jauni cilvēki negrib strādāt RTU. Dažādi 73. mērķis Iesaistīt sievietes e-kursu attīstīšanā, jo viņas ir labas rokdarbnieces. Atbalsta 4. uzdevums Koordinēt projektu priekšlikumus. Rektors Mācību prorektors 3. uzdevums Jāveido RTU stratēģiskās attīstības departaments. 5. uzdevums Izveidot struktūrvienību, kas atbild par e-studijām. izpilda izpilda A “real life” EKD Goal Model after 10 hours of modelling with 12 people from the customer site
  71. 71. CDD  Enterprise modelling  Motivation Contains elements from a presentation by Janis Stirna The process of EKD … is participatory  Importance of participative modelling  The quality of the Enterprise Model is enhanced  Consensus is enhanced  Achievement of acceptance and commitment
  72. 72. CDD  Enterprise modelling  Motivation Contains elements from a presentation by Janis Stirna The process of EKD … is iterative Goals Modelling Concepts modelling Business Rules Modelling Business Process Modelling Actors and Resources Modelling Technical Components and Requirements Modelling T1 T2>T1 Note: (1) the kind of models developed depend entirely on the PURPOSE of modelling. (2) You do not necessary have to start with goals modelling
  73. 73. CDD  Enterprise modelling  Motivation Contains elements from a presentation by Janis Stirna The process of EKD … supports change management Initial State Enterprise Model Future State Enterprise Model Objectives Current Business Processes New Objectives New Business Processes Vision for change Process for change Enterprise Knowledge Modelling Enterprise Knowledge ModellingChange Process Modelling Change Process Model
  74. 74. Conferencia Latinoamericana en InformáticaCLEI 2014 Capability-driven development Desarrollo dirigido por capabilidades Agenda Introduction Enterprise modelling with 4EM Capability design Capabilities in runtime Case studies Conclusion Motivation Goal modelling Concepts modelling Business rules modelling Business process modelling Stakeholder modelling Technical requirements
  75. 75. CDD  Enterprise modelling  Goal modelling Contains elements from a presentation by Janis Stirna The products of EKD Goals Model Business Rules Model Concepts Model Business Process Model Actors and Resources Model Technical Components and Requirements Model defines, is_responsible_for motivates, requires affects, defined_by uses, refers_to refers_to supports triggers uses, produces performs, is_responsible_for defines defines, is_respon- sible_for uses, refers_to motivates, requires Business Rules Model motivates, requires
  76. 76. CDD  Enterprise modelling  Goal modelling Contains elements from a presentation by Janis Stirna Purpose of goal modelling Purpose:  to describe what the enterprise and its employees want to achieve, or to avoid, and when  to describe the goals of the enterprise along with the problems associated with achieving these goals  to explain why, or why not, processes, rules and requirements exist or do not exist WHY?
  77. 77. CDD  Enterprise modelling  Goal modelling Contains elements from a presentation by Janis Stirna Purpose of goal modelling  Where should the organisation be moving?  Which are the goals of the organisation?  Which opportunities and strengths exist?  What is the importance, criticality, and priorities of goals?  How are goals related to each other (conflict, support)?  Which problems (threats, weaknesses) are hindering achievement of goals?
  78. 78. CDD  Enterprise modelling  Goal modelling Contains elements from a presentation by Janis Stirna Components of the goal model Components:  goal, used for expressing goals regarding the business or state of business affairs the individual or organisation wishes to achieve. They may be expressed as a measurable set of states, or as general aims, visions or directions. Goals can be several meanings, such as, goals, needs, requirements, desired states, etc.  problem, used for expressing that the environment is, or may become, in some non-desirable state, which hinders the achievement of goals. There may be two sub-types of problems: threat and weakness.  constraint, used for expressing business restrictions, rules, laws, policies from outside world affecting components and links within the Enterprise Model.  opportunity, used for expressing situations that we may want to take advantage of. If so, the Opportunity should be transformed into a Goal.
  79. 79. CDD  Enterprise modelling  Goal modelling Contains elements from a presentation by Janis Stirna Goal modelling guidelines  Beware of ambiguity  Pay close attention to the language and expressions.  Make sure that all participants understand them in the same way --> discuss before you put something on the wall !!! What do you mean by the best? Goal: To accept the best papers We do not have enough best papers Should we accept only the best? Goal: To accept only those papers that are above average in terms of originality, relevance, and significance. Goal: To accept papers that have no mark 2 or below for originality, relevance, and significance. What about average but still interesting papers?
  80. 80. CDD  Enterprise modelling  Goal modelling Contains elements from a presentation by Janis Stirna Goal modelling guidelines Ambiguous, uncertain goal: Extra money Goal-17.2 Clearly stated goal: The goal is to have an external finance source of 500 KSEK in next 3 years Goal-17.2  A good rule of thumb is that, for example, goals should be always expressed in a full sentence starting with "The goal is...".
  81. 81. CDD  Enterprise modelling  Goal modelling Contains elements from a presentation by Janis Stirna Goal modelling guidelines There are no more training schools inside VF (can be brought from outside consultants) Problem 5 Initially stated problem: may be rephrased to problem and opportunity: There are no more training schools inside VF Problem 5 Trianing of personel can be brought from outside consultants) Opportunity 7  Try not to merge to different statements inside the same modelling component.
  82. 82. CDD  Enterprise modelling  Goal modelling Contains elements from a presentation by Janis Stirna Goal modelling guidelines Specific Measurable Accepted Realistic Time frame Larsson L., Segerberg R., An Approach for Quality Assurance in Enterprise Modelling, to appear, MSc Thesis, Stockholm University, 2004 Apply this to every goal in your model
  83. 83. CDD  Enterprise modelling  Goal modelling Contains elements from a presentation by Janis Stirna Example To maintain and improve the library's services Goal 10 To have an external finance source supplying 500 KSEK in next 3 years Goal 11 supports To establish paying services Goal 3 To minimise customer's waiting in the queue Goal 4 To achieve a top class standard of service Goal 6 supports supports To attract outside customers Goal 19 To make the library organisation more cost-effective Goal 7 The library's budget will be cut by 200 KSEK within a year and by 500 KSEK within 3 years Theat 1 hinders The library is infrequently used Weakness 2 hinders There is a long waiting list for borrowing books Problem 4 hinders In ELECTRUM there are many high-tech companies Opportunity 1 supports Service should be free of charge for students and academics Constraint 1 hinders Service in the library is not as good as it should be Weakness 3 supports To achieve interactive customer support Goal 2 supports supports To achieve high precision in all library transactions Goal 5 To minimise Library's operational costs Goal 21 supports hinders To provide advanced services for library customers Goal 22 Source: ELECTRUM Library Case
  84. 84. CDD  Enterprise modelling  Goal modelling Extracted from España, S., González, T., Grabis, J., Jokste, L., Juanes, R., Valverde, F. "Capability-driven development of a SOA platform: a case study", in ASDENCA 2014, pp. 100-111 Example Strategic goalsBusiness goals Technical goals Design-time goals Run-time goals
  85. 85. CDD  Enterprise modelling  Goal modelling Extracted from España, S., González, T., Grabis, J., Jokste, L., Juanes, R., Valverde, F. "Capability-driven development of a SOA platform: a case study", in ASDENCA 2014, pp. 100-111 Example Goal templates G-1. To improve the usage of the services Currently, EVR provides up to 200 services for 250 municipalities, but 100 are in active use and not in all municipalities. The goal is to improve the usage of the services. Category: Strategic goal Stakeholder: S-3. EVR KPIs: Percentage of users consuming the services (target=25%) Percentage of completed service actions / submissions (target=90%) G-5. To promote service usage in service catalog EVR provides a huge amount of services in SOA platform service catalog. Each service must contain sufficient up-to-date information to help to the end users find and use the services. Category: Strategic goal Stakeholder: S-3. EVR, S-4. Municipality KPIs: Frequency of catalog update Number of services in catalog
  86. 86. CDD  Enterprise modelling  Goal modelling Example
  87. 87. CDD  Enterprise modelling  Goal modelling Example
  88. 88. CDD  Enterprise modelling  Goal modelling Create a goal model of the case you selected or of the swimming pool reservation case. • The municipalities want to allow citizens to book a swimming pool so they can have a bath. • The citizen should be able to choose the swimming pool among the ones in the municipality, but the ones closest to the citizen should be recommended. • Each swimming pool has a limit of swimmers. • The system should inform the citizen of the weather forecast in the swimming pool, if it is an outdoor swimming pool. Exercise: create a goal model
  89. 89. Conferencia Latinoamericana en InformáticaCLEI 2014 Capability-driven development Desarrollo dirigido por capabilidades Agenda Introduction Enterprise modelling with 4EM Capability design Capabilities in runtime Case studies Conclusion Motivation Goal modelling Concepts modelling Business rules modelling Business process modelling Stakeholder modelling Technical requirements
  90. 90. CDD  Enterprise modelling  Concepts modelling Contains elements from a presentation by Janis Stirna The purpose of concepts modelling Purpose:  to define the "things" and "phenomena" one is talking about in the other models  to more strictly define expressions in the Goals Model as well as the content of resources in the Business Processes Model WHAT?
  91. 91. CDD  Enterprise modelling  Concepts modelling Contains elements from a presentation by Janis Stirna The purpose of concepts modelling  What is the “business language” used?  What concepts is the enterprise about (including their relationships to goals, activities and processes, and actors)?  How are they defined? Their attributes?  How are the Concepts related?  Which business rules and constraints monitor these concepts?....
  92. 92. CDD  Enterprise modelling  Concepts modelling Contains elements from a presentation by Janis Stirna Example Bad customer Concept 11 KTH Concept 1 KTH library Concept 2 Department or faculty Concept 3 Academic staff Concept 4 Student Concept 5 ELECTRUM Library Concept 6 Service Concept 7 Customer Concept 8 Non-paying customer Concept 9 Paying customer Concept 10 works_for studys_in receives Copy Concept 12 Budget Concept 13 has owns provides Item Concept 14-N of Book Concept 15 Periodical Concept 16 Document Concept 17 Loan Concept 18 Catalogue search Concept 19 of Paying service Concept 21 Ordered loan Concept 22 Video conferences Concept 23 Copying of material Concept 24 Purchasing material Concept 25 Electronic item Concept 26 has State Concept 27 in Return datehas
  93. 93. CDD  Enterprise modelling  Concepts modelling Example Extracted from España, S., González, T., Grabis, J., Jokste, L., Juanes, R., Valverde, F. "Capability-driven development of a SOA platform: a case study", in ASDENCA 2014, pp. 100-111
  94. 94. CDD  Enterprise modelling  Concepts modelling Create a concepts model of the case you selected or of the swimming pool reservation case. • The municipalities want to allow citizens to book a swimming pool so they can have a bath. • The citizen should be able to choose the swimming pool among the ones in the municipality, but the ones closest to the citizen should be recommended. • Each swimming pool has a limit of swimmers. • The system should inform the citizen of the weather forecast in the swimming pool, if it is an outdoor swimming pool. Exercise: create a concepts model
  95. 95. Conferencia Latinoamericana en InformáticaCLEI 2014 Capability-driven development Desarrollo dirigido por capabilidades Agenda Introduction Enterprise modelling with 4EM Capability design Capabilities in runtime Case studies Conclusion Motivation Goal modelling Concepts modelling Business rules modelling Business process modelling Stakeholder modelling Technical requirements
  96. 96. CDD  Enterprise modelling  Business rules modelling Contains elements from a presentation by Janis Stirna Purpose Purpose:  to define and maintain explicitly formulated business rules, consistent with the Goals Model.  Business Rules may be seen as operationalisation or limits of goals  Business Rule Model usually clarifies questions, such as: which rules affect the organisation’s goals, are there any policies stated, how is a business rule related a goal, how can goals be supported by rules.
  97. 97. CDD  Enterprise modelling  Business rules modelling Contains elements from a presentation by Janis Stirna Purpose  Are there stated rules and policies within the company that may influence this model?  By which rules goals of enterprise can be achieved?  Does this rule relate to a particular goal?  How can this rule be decomposed?  How can the enterprise conform to the specification of the rule?  How do you validate that a rule is enforced?  Which process(es) triggers this rule?  Can this rule be defined in an operational way?
  98. 98. CDD  Enterprise modelling  Business rules modelling Contains elements from a presentation by Janis Stirna Example To establish paying services Goals 3 To achieve a top class standard of service Goals 6 supports To offer additional benefits for paying customers Goal 19 supports Service should be free of charge for students and academics Constraint 1 hinders To achieve high precision in all library transactions Goal 5 supports To minimise customer's waiting in the queue Goal 4 supports To keep the library catalogue regularly updated Goal 20 supports A customer is a bad customer id he/she does not follow library rules Rule 1 There should be no priority in waiting line for paying customers Rule 2 supports supports hinders supports A customer is a bad customer is he/she has overdue books twice consecutively Rule 3 A customer is bad customer is he/she delays books for more than 4 weeks Rule 4 Update library catalogue as soon as changes occur Rule 5 supports Notify all customers about all changes in library services immediately as changes occur Rule 6 supports Update library catalogue after each loan transaction Rule 5.1 Update library catalogue when new items and/or copies are acquired Rule 5.2 Update library catalogue when copy of item changes its state to "missing", or "in repair", "out of stock" Rule 5.3Every day check for delayed books Rule 10 supports Check physical condition of each copy when it is returned to library Rule 9 supports
  99. 99. CDD  Enterprise modelling  Business rules modelling Contains elements from a presentation by Janis Stirna Example When Check_for_delayed_books If Today - Loan.Return_day >= 28 then Report_customer_as_bad(Loan.Customer_ID) Rule 4 Check for delayed loans Process 24 supports Report customer as bad Process 29 triggers Service Entity 12 Customer Entity 4 Bad customer Entity 10 refers_to Loan Entity 16 refers_to receives
  100. 100. Conferencia Latinoamericana en InformáticaCLEI 2014 Capability-driven development Desarrollo dirigido por capabilidades Agenda Introduction Enterprise modelling with 4EM Capability design Capabilities in runtime Case studies Conclusion Motivation Goal modelling Concepts modelling Business rules modelling Business process modelling Stakeholder modelling Technical requirements
  101. 101. CDD  Enterprise modelling  Business process modelling Contains elements from a presentation by Janis Stirna Purpose Purpose:  used to define enterprise processes, the way they interact and the way they handle information as well as material.  In general, the BPM is similar to what is used in traditional Data-Flow Diagram models. HOW?
  102. 102. CDD  Enterprise modelling  Business process modelling Contains elements from a presentation by Janis Stirna Purpose  Which business activities and processes are there, or should be there, in order to manage the organisation in agreement with the goals?  How should the business processes, tasks, etc. be performed (work-flows, process models)?  Which are their information needs? Related concepts?  Which are the material flows?  How are the processes related to organisational actors?
  103. 103. CDD  Enterprise modelling  Business process modelling Contains elements from a presentation by Janis Stirna Components Process is a collection of activities that:  consumes input and produces output in terms of information and/or material,  is controlled by a set of rules, indicating how to process the inputs and produce the outputs,  has a relationship to the Actors and Resources Model, in terms of the performer of, or responsible for a process, and  as an instance of a Business Processes Model is expected to consume, when initiated, a finite amount of resources and time.
  104. 104. CDD  Enterprise modelling  Business process modelling Contains elements from a presentation by Janis Stirna Components  External process is a collection of activities that are:  located outside the scope of the organisational activity area,  communicating with processes or activities of the problem domain area and  are essential to document.  External processes sometimes can be considered as sources or terminators for some information or material flows. A typical example of external process may be customer who requests for certain library service or receives the service.  Information or Material set is a set of information or material sent from one Process or External Process to another.
  105. 105. CDD  Enterprise modelling  Business process modelling Contains elements from a presentation by Janis Stirna Example Order acknowledgment Process 12.1 Search library's all copies Process 12.2 Library response to customer Process 12.5Deliver books to customer Process 12.6 Negotiation with customer Process 12.3 Update queue Process 12.7 Register loan transaction Process 12.4 Customer Ext.process1 Customer order for a book Inf.Set 1 Rejected order Inf.Set 2 Library accepted order Inf.Set 3 Book catalogue Inf.Set 4 Ongoing loans Inf.Set 5 Book is available Inf.Set 6 Book is not available Inf.Set 7 Book is borrowed by another customer Inf.Set 8 Book checked out to customer Inf.Set 9 Book Inf.Set 10 Book is not available Inf.Set 11 Customer refuses wait in queue Inf.Set 12 Customer elects to wait in queue Inf.Set 13 Queue Inf.Set 14 Queue acceptance Inf.Set 15 Book Entity 20 refers_to Loan Entity 16 refers_to Library clerk Role 1 Customer Role 2 performs performs performs State of a copy Inf.Set 31 Ongoing loans Inf.Set 5
  106. 106. CDD  Enterprise modelling  Business process modelling Contains elements from a presentation by Janis Stirna Guidelines for process modelling Process is not decomposed: Decomposed process: Customer's address verification Process 32 Address Inf.Set1 Invalid address Inf.Set2 Valid address Inf.Set3 Process 32 Customer's address verification Verify street number Process 32.1 Verify City Process 32.3 Verify ZIP code Process 32.2 Verify Country Process 32.4 Street No. Inf.Set 1.1 ZIP code Inf.Set 1.2 City Inf.Set 1.3 Country Inf.Set 1.4 Address Inf.Set1 Invalid address Inf.Set2 Valid address Inf.Set 3
  107. 107. CDD  Enterprise modelling  Business process modelling Contains elements from a presentation by Janis Stirna Guidelines for process modelling Analysis of surrounding world Information BA1 Market situation Information BA2 Competitor analysis Information BA3 Vattenfall objectives Information BA4 Business Area´s competency section in the business plan Information 19 -comprehensive actions. -comprehensive needs - Business Area competency goals - Business Areas' strategy Information 27 The Business Area Competence Planning and Management Process (Duration: Jan-Dec) Process BA0 Business areas' implemented activities regarding competency Information BA33 Policy / guideline for the supply of competency (describes the requirements for the competency supply process) Information A1 Plan of action related to improvement within the Business Areas Information A2 Proposals for improvement of the VF Group's competence supply process Information A3 Plan of action for activities at the VF Group level related to competency Information A5 Compiling of Business Area/ company surplus/ shortaget of competence. Overall view of the VF Group Information A4 The Competence Audit Process (Performed when possible) Process AUDIT0 Other input Information 11 Description of current situation of 'competency mass' (O+AO) Information 10 Design and finalize strategic plan year 0) Design CEO's preconditions for Business planning work (Duration: Jan-Sept, Year 0) Process K1 Initiative for scorecard year 1-5 Information 1 CEO's preconditions for Business planning work Information 3 Formulate strategic plan within the competency field including the scorecards' employee goals/indicators and identification of important areas for competency development (O+BA) Accounting for, and examination of strategic plan within the personell field of Ooch VL (Duration: Jan-May, Year 0) Process K5 Proposal for strategic plan within the personell field including competency Information 17 Strategic plan within the personell field Information 14 Satisfied Employee Index Information 25 Benchmarking with other companies Information 20 Description of important areas for competency development at an overall level -adressed and non-adressed Information 18 Business Areas' finalised scorecard Information 4 Business Areas' finalised business plan ( with competency section) and financial forecast) Information 5 Finalize the Group's scorecard in KL planning meeting and base data for the Board of Directors Finalize Business Areas' and the Group's scorecard and economic forecasts including competency in the Board of Directors (Duration: Dec-Jan, Year 0-1) Process K2 Finalised scorecard and economic forecast for resp BA and VF Group incl. section regarding employee/ competency Information 7 Quarterly follow up of BA goals and checking off against scorecard(A) (Jan, Apr, July, Oct, Year 1) Process K3 Financial report for part of the year and Business Area result Information 8 Results of measurement of implemented actions Information 9 Business Goals for Business areas Information BA5 Current situation regarding attitude Information BA6 Current situation regarding competence Information BA7 Strategic plan within the competency field Information 11 Dialogue, workshops "The Folder" Design competency plans for non adressed needs (O) (Duration: Sept - Nov, Year 0) Process K6 Competency plan for non-adressed needs Information 26 part_of Planning and implementation of competency related actions at the Group level (O) (Duration: Jan-Jan, Year 1) Process K4 part_of Corrections to the competency plan Information BA32 Controllingof Business Area business plan regarding competency (Duration: Sept-Nov, Year 0) Process K7 Current situation in respectiveBusiness Area´s competency section in the business plan Information BA31 Results of implemented competency related actions Information 21 part_of part_of part_of Jan year 1Jan year 0 Continuing Business Area actions related to competence (when needed) (Duration: Jan- Dec) Process BA 3 Design and finalize the Business Areas' business plan with proposal for Balanced Scorecard (Duration: Sept-Nov) Process BA 14 Identify competency needs in -personell plan (number of people) -Recruitment plan (Duration:Jan) Process BA 17 Gap analysis (Duration: April) Process BA 18 Competence section within the Business Areas' business plan Information 19 Analysis of surrounding world Information BA 1 Market situation Information BA 2 Vattenfalls objectives Information BA 4 Business goals for Business Areas Information BA 5 Competitor analysis Information BA 3 Current situation regarding attitude Information BA 6 Current situation regarding available competency Information BA 7 CEO's preconditions for Business planning work Information 3 Identify the Business Areas' area of control (CSFs) (soft hard goals) (Competence is an area of control ) (Duration: Sept-Nov) Process BA 4 Choice of key indicators, measurements such as SIQ, SEI (Duration: Sept-Nov) Process BA 6 Identify competency needs for overall area (Duration: Sept-Nov) Process BA 5 Objectives for competence area of control X % Y items (Duration: Sept-Nov) Process BA 7 Formulate a strategy to achieve business goals (Duration: Sept-Nov) Process BA 2 Carry out a SWOT analysis for amongst other things competency (Duration: Sept-Nov) Process BA 1 SWOT analysis for competency Information BA 8 High-level strategy to achieve business goals Information BA 10 Identified area of control, amongst others; competence Information BA 12 Overall competency need for example: -Traders -Project leaders -Product developers Information BA 13 Strategy to achieve competency goals Information BA 16 Measurement Information BA 14 Objectives for competence area of control Information BA 15 -Comprehensive need -Business Area competency goals -Business Area´s strategy -Comprehensive actions Information BA 18 Bring forward strategy to achieve competency goals (Duration: Sept-Nov) Process BA 8 Formulate/summarize comprehensive competence section within the Business Areas' business plan (Duration: Sept-Nov) Process BA 11 Balancing of the companies' scorecard/competence plans ("bottom-up" applicable for P och N) Process BA 10 Plan comprehensive actions for achieving competency goals (Duration: Sept-Nov) Process BA 9 Quarterly and annually follow up measurements and indicators Process BA 21 Planned comprehensive actions Information BA 17 Base data for Business Area personell function business plan Information BA 20 Finalized business plan and scorecard for Business Areas Information BA 24 Market plan Div/company or -production plan - business plan at P and company Information BA 25 Decomposition to market plan (Duration: Jan) Process BA 15 Formulate competence - goal profiles at an individual -group level (Duration: Feb) Process BA 16 Need of Competence Information 26 Dialogue between manager and employee to map competency (Duration: Mar-Apr) Process BA 12 Identify internal and external available competence (Duration: April) Process BA 13 Bring forward actions to achieve competency goals (Divisions) (Duration: April) Process BA 19 Individual developm ent plan Information BA 21 Goal contract Information BA 22 Activity goal/individual Information BA 23 Available competence Information BA 27 Competens overlapping / underlapping Information BA 28 Actions for competency Information BA 29 Implement planned actions (Duration: April Year 1 - Mar Year 2) Process BA 20 Measurement of implemented actions and results of measuring Information 9 Follow-up values: indicators goal measurements Information BA 9 Strategic plan within the competency field Information 11 part of Business Areas planning at the activity level. Detailed planning (Business Areas common development activities) (Duration: Feb) Process 22 Competency planning at the Business Area level Proposal for strategic plan within the competency field Information 17 - Personell plans (number of people) -Recruitment plan Comprehensive need of competency from finalized business plan Current situation in resp. Business Areas' competence section in the business plan Information BA 31 Controlling of Business Areas' business plan related to competence Process K7 Corrections of competency plan Information BA 32 Formulate business goals for Business Areas (Duration:Sept- Nov) Process BA35 Implement Satisfied Employee Index Finalize Vattenfall's scorecard in KL planning meeting and compile base data for the Board of Directors (dec year 0); Finalize BA´s and the Group's scorecard and economic forecast incl competencies in the Board of Directors (jan year 1) Process K2 Quarterly follow up of Business Area goals and checking off against scorecard Process K3 Plan of actions regarding improvements of Business Areas The Competence Audit Process Process AUDIT0 Business areas' implemented activities regarding competency Information BA 33 Dialogue between O and BA about surplus/shortage Reports on actions Information BA 34 Decomposition Business area´s finalised Balanced Scorecard Information 4 Adjust scorecard for the Group(Q) (Duration: Nov) Process K2.1 Adjusted scorecard for the Group Finalise Balanced Scorecard for the Group in the KL planning meeting (Duration: Dec) Process K2.2 Compile base data for board of directors (Q,E,A) (Duration: Dec- Jan) Process K2.3 Finalise Balanced Scorecard for the VF Group Compiled base data for board of directors Initiative to scorecard for years 1-5 Information 1 Design and finalize strategic plan (A+Q+BA (jan-aug year 0); Design the CEO's preconditions for Business planning work Process K1 The Business Area Competence Planning and Management Process Process BA0 Finalise Balanced Scorecard and financial forecast for resp. Business Area and the Group (incl. competence) (Duration: Jan) Process K2.4 Finalized scorecard by board of directors and economic forecast for respective Business area and for the group, including section about employees/competence Information 7 Business area´s finalized business plan (with competency section) and economic forecast Information 5 Finalize scorecard for Business Area and Group (Decomposition of Process K2) Decomposition Annual auditing for respective Business Area -ensure the process -oversupply/shortage of competency -output of supply of competency process. (feb-may) Process Audit 1 Feedback to Business Areas for process improvement (sept) Process Audit 2 Feedback to cO about how the process is functioning (sept) Process Audit 3 O collects information from audits- Totals- Business Area/Company (sept) Process Audit 4 Planning of actions for co- ordinated activities related to competence (O together with BA) Process Audit 5 Business areas' executed actions relating to competency Information BA 33 Proposals for improvements in the group's supply of competency process Information A3 Information according to PM by A.Sandberg (assesment of results) Information A7 Audit report -feedback from the process -score(process evaluation) Information A6 Compiling of Business Area/ company surplus/ shortage of competence. Overall view of the group Information A4 Policy / guidelines for the supply of competencies (describes the requirements for the process of the supply of competencies) (section the policy folder) Information A1 Vattenfall's CEO's preconditions for Business Planning work Information 3 Plan of action for activities at the Vattenfall Group level related to competency Information A5 Plan of action related to improvements within the Business Areas Information A2 Formulate goals for, and needs of, competency related actions as a part of the Business Areas' businessplan (cBA) (sept-nov) Part of Process BA0 The Business Area Competence Planning and Management Process Process BA0 Formulate strategic plan within the competency domain including scorecards' employee goals/indicators and identification of important areas for competence development at an overall level. (Functions and Business Areas) (Jan- May year 0)(O+BA) Process K5 Design and finalize the strategic plan (A+Q+BA) (jan-aug år 0) Process K1 Planning and execution of competency related actions for the Group level Process K4 "The Folder" Decomposition Top level busines s process
  108. 108. CDD  Enterprise modelling  Business process modelling Extracted from http://www.bpmn-tool.com/en/tutorial/ Using BPMN for process modelling Do not worry :) Only workflow engines deal with all these modelling primitiv
  109. 109. CDD  Introduction  Motivation Create a business process model of the case you selected or of the swimming pool reservation case. • The municipalities want to allow citizens to book a swimming pool so they can have a bath. • The citizen should be able to choose the swimming pool among the ones in the municipality, but the ones closest to the citizen should be recommended. • Each swimming pool has a limit of swimmers. • The system should inform the citizen of the weather forecast in the swimming pool, if it is an outdoor swimming pool. Exercise: create a business process model
  110. 110. Conferencia Latinoamericana en InformáticaCLEI 2014 Capability-driven development Desarrollo dirigido por capabilidades Agenda Introduction Enterprise modelling with 4EM Capability design Capabilities in runtime Case studies Conclusion Motivation Goal modelling Concepts modelling Business rules modelling Business process modelling Stakeholder modelling Technical requirements
  111. 111. CDD  Enterprise modelling  Stakeholders modelling Contains elements from a presentation by Janis Stirna Purpose Purpose:  used to describe how different organisational actors and resources are related to each other,  how they are related to components of the Goals Model, Business Processes Model, and Business Rules Model. WHO?
  112. 112. CDD  Enterprise modelling  Stakeholders modelling Contains elements from a presentation by Janis Stirna Purpose  What types of actors are there?  Which are their relationships, organisational structure?  Which goals are actors related to? How?  Who is/should be performing processes and tasks?  How is the reporting and responsibility structure defined?  Which dependencies exist between actors?
  113. 113. CDD  Enterprise modelling  Stakeholders modelling Contains elements from a presentation by Janis Stirna Components  Individual denotes a person in the enterprise.  Organisational unit can represent every organisational structure in the enterprise such as group, department, division, section, project, team, subsidiary, etc.  Non-human resources can be types of machines, systems of different kinds, equipment, etc.  Roles may be played by the Individuals and Organisational units in different contexts. An organisational unit may for instance play the roles of administrator and authoriser in the same context. It may be important to identify requirements depending on the role they have.
  114. 114. CDD  Enterprise modelling  Stakeholders modelling Contains elements from a presentation by Janis Stirna Example KTH Main Library O.Unit. 1 ELECTRUM Library Budget Capital 1 ELECTRUM Library O.Unit. 2 Library Clerk Role 1 Customer Role 2 John Smith Individual 1 Non-paying Customer Role 3 Paying Customer Role 4 Bad Customer Role 5 cuts uses provides_ service_for Library Information System Role 12 support_work_of works_for Library manager Role 9 accounts_to is_managing Ericsson Radio AB O.Unit. 3 playsplays
  115. 115. CDD  Enterprise modelling  Stakeholders modelling Example Extracted from España, S., González, T., Grabis, J., Jokste, L., Juanes, R., Valverde, F. "Capability-driven development of a SOA platform: a case study", in ASDENCA 2014, pp. 100-111
  116. 116. CDD  Enterprise modelling  Stakeholders modelling Create a stakeholders model of the case you selected or of the swimming pool reservation case. • The municipalities want to allow citizens to book a swimming pool so they can have a bath. • The citizen should be able to choose the swimming pool among the ones in the municipality, but the ones closest to the citizen should be recommended. • Each swimming pool has a limit of swimmers. • The system should inform the citizen of the weather forecast in the swimming pool, if it is an outdoor swimming pool. Exercise: create a stakeholders model
  117. 117. Conferencia Latinoamericana en InformáticaCLEI 2014 Capability-driven development Desarrollo dirigido por capabilidades Agenda Introduction Enterprise modelling with 4EM Capability design Capabilities in runtime Case studies Conclusion … Concepts modelling Business rules modelling Business process modelling Stakeholder modelling Technical requirements
  118. 118. CDD  Enterprise modelling  Technical requirements Contains elements from a presentation by Janis Stirna Purpose Purpose:  to aid in defining requirements for the development of an information system.  to focus attention on the technical system that is needed in order to support the goals, processes, and actors of the enterprise.  to define the overall structure and properties of the information system to support the business activities, as defined in the BPM.  to structure the information system in a number of subsystems, or technical components.
  119. 119. CDD  Enterprise modelling  Technical requirements Contains elements from a presentation by Janis Stirna Purpose  Which general goals hold for the information system?  Which IS development problems can be conceived?  What requirements on the information system to be developed are generated by the business processes?  Definition of functional requirements  Definition of non-functional (quality) requirements  Which potential has emerging information and communication technology for process improvement? ...
  120. 120. CDD  Enterprise modelling  Technical requirements Contains elements from a presentation by Janis Stirna Components  Information System Goal is used for expressing high level goals regarding the information system and/or subsystems or components. They may be expressed with measurable or non-measurable properties, aims, visions, or directions.  Information System Problem is used for expressing undesirable states of the business or of the environment, or problematic facts about current situation with respect to the information system to be developed.  Information System Requirement expresses a requirement for a particular property of the information system to be designed.  Information System Functional Requirements are used to express definite requirements regarding a functional property of the information system or some of its subsystems. Functional requirements must be clearly defined with reference to the Concepts Model. Functional requirements can be directly supported by information system goals, but they are more often seen as refinements of the stated information system requirements.  Information System Non-Functional Requirements are used for expressing any kind of requirements, constraints, or restrictions, other then functional, regarding the information system to be built or the process of building it.
  121. 121. CDD  Enterprise modelling  Technical requirements Contains elements from a presentation by Janis Stirna Example To maintain all kinds of information within the library IS Goal 1 To maintain information about book resources IS Goal 2 To maintain information about customer loans and transactions IS Goal 3 To maintain information about requests and customer waiting list IS Goal 4 To maintain information about the most popular and newly published books IS Goal 5 To provide a 24 hours a day library catalogue search IS Req 1 supports Catalogue search engine should be connected to Internet IS FReq 2 supports Catalogue search engine should have a WWW interface IS FReq 3 Library catalogue should be exportable on CD ROM IS FReq 4 supports supports Library IS should use as much existing software as possible IS FReq 5 supports Catalogue search engine should be connected to other library search systems IS FReq 4 supports To setup a library information system Goal 26 supports Library stock maintenance and update Process 11 supports Library catalogue update Process 13 requires To provide search services in catalogues of other libraries Goals 24 motivates motivates Catalogue search Process 3 supports To make the library organisation more cost-effective Goal 7 supports
  122. 122. CDD  Enterprise modelling  Technical requirements Contains elements from a presentation by Janis Stirna Example ELECTRUM Library Information System Book cataloging system To maintain all kinds of information within the library IS Goal 1 To maintain information about book resources IS Goal 2 To maintain information about customer loans and transactions IS Goal 3 To maintain information about requests and customer waiting list IS Goal 4 To maintain information about the most popular and newly published books IS Goal 5 To provide a 24 hours a day library catalogue search IS Req 1 supports Catalogue search engine should be connected to Internet IS FReq 2 supports Catalogue search engine should have a WWW interface IS FReq 3 Library catalogue should be exportable on CD ROM IS FReq 4 supports supports Library IS should use as much existing software as possible IS FReq 5 supports Loan Transaction System Catalogue search system Customers requests system Queue registration system communicates commu- nicates communicates Information System RequirementsTechnical Components relates_to
  123. 123. CDD  Enterprise modelling  Technical requirements Contains elements from a presentation by Janis Stirna Remember that models are interconnectedGoal 4 To provide advanced services to library customers Goal 1 To minimise library's operational costs Goal 2 Deliver items electronically Goal 3 High stock availability Goal 4 Copyright and ownership of electronic material Problem1 Advanced communication and information technology Opportunity 1 supports supports supports hinders hinders Requests for electronic material must be satisfied within 3 days Rule 1 supports Electronic Service assistant Role 2 Librarian Role 1 is_respon- sible_for Library item Entity1 Magazine Entity2 Information Entity3 Book Entity4 refers_to Management of electronic information Process1 Customers Ext.Process1 requests for electronic information responses to requests for electronic info. performs is_reponsible_for Part of a Goals Model (GM) Part of a Business Processes Model (BPM) Part of a Business Rules Model (BRM) Part of a Concepts Model (CM) Part of an Actors and Resources Model (BPM)
  124. 124. CDD  Enterprise modelling  Technical requirements Contains elements from a presentation by Janis Stirna Remember that models are interconnected Copy Entity 12 State Entity 27 in Available Entity 27.1 Borrowed Entity 27.2 Missing Entity 27.3 In repair Entity 27.4 Out of stock Entity 27.5 Loan Entity 18 Return date hasuntil until Book repair should be recorded as loan with no charge Rule 20 affects State of a copy Inf.Set 31 refers_to
  125. 125. Conferencia Latinoamericana en InformáticaCLEI 2014 Capability-driven development Desarrollo dirigido por capabilidades Agenda Introduction Enterprise modelling with 4EM Capability design Capabilities in runtime Case studies Conclusion Introduction Context modelling Capability modelling Variability modelling Capability design tool support
  126. 126. CDD  Capability design  Introduction The context platform developed by Portugal Telecom What do we mean by capability? Capability is the ability and capacity that enable an enterprise to achieve a goal in a certain context. Capability definition template Capacity: IT infrastructure, monitoring tool, developers, technicians. Ability: being able to deploy a maintenance portal. Enterprise: everis Goal: keep services available despite platform errors. Context: loss of connectivity w. other subsystems. Goal KPI: time service available / time error in platform
  127. 127. CDD  Capability design  Introduction GoalCapability requires Indicator requires influences Context Set requires Context Type measured by Pattern requires Process motivates Process Variant Resource Context Element Measurable Property KPI Context Indicator requires defines supported by requires related_to Context Situation has value requires has Context Element Range consists of Contex Element Value consists of The metamodel
  128. 128. CDD  Capability design  Introduction A vision of the methodology
  129. 129. Conferencia Latinoamericana en InformáticaCLEI 2014 Capability-driven development Desarrollo dirigido por capabilidades Agenda Introduction Enterprise modelling with 4EM Capability design Capabilities in runtime Case studies Conclusion Introduction Variability modelling Context modelling Capability modelling Capability design tool support
  130. 130. CDD  Capability design  Variability modelling Process of variability modelling 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 7 8 6 1 2 3 4 9 10 11 6 + + (A or B) and C D and E F and G and H 1 2 3 4 x 5 7 8 9 10 11 6 + + x (A or B) and C D and E F and G and H
  131. 131. CDD  Capability design  Variability modelling Process of variability modelling 1 2 3 4 6 PRODUCT READY TO BE 6-ED PRODUCT JUST 4-ED OPTION1 INSERT START 5 END START PRODUCT JUST 4-ED OPTION2 INSERT START 7 END START PRODUCT JUST 4-ED 8 OPTION3 INSERT START END START PRODUCT JUST 4-ED END PRODUCT JUST 4-ED 9 10 11 + + END PRODUCT JUST 4-ED END PRODUCT JUST 4-ED (A or B) and C D and E F and G and H
  132. 132. CDD  Capability design  Variability modelling Process of variability modelling END PRODUCT JUST 4-ED END PRODUCT JUST 4-ED 1 2 3 4 6 PLACEMENT 5 7 8 9 10 11 + + PLACEMENT REPLACEMENT1 REPLACEMENT2 REPLACEMENT3 (A or B) and C D and E F and G and H
  133. 133. CDD  Capability design  Capability modelling Relationships among models
  134. 134. Conferencia Latinoamericana en InformáticaCLEI 2014 Capability-driven development Desarrollo dirigido por capabilidades Agenda Introduction Enterprise modelling with 4EM Capability design Capabilities in runtime Case studies Conclusion Introduction Variability modelling Context modelling Capability modelling Capability design tool support Unless stated differently, this section is based on work by Felix Timm, Hasan Koç, Kurt Sandkuhl, Tania González, Sergio España and others, for project CaaS
  135. 135. CDD  Capability design  Context modelling Motivation
  136. 136. CDD  Capability design  Context modelling Motivation “Any information that can be used to characterize the situation of any entity” (Dey and Abowd, 2000). “Something is context because of the way it is used in interpretation, not due to its inherent properties” (Winograd, 2001, p. 405). “The context acts like a set of constraints that influence the behaviour of a system (a user or a computer) embedded in a given task” (Mena et al., 2007, p. 57).
  137. 137. CDD  Capability design  Context modelling Motivation The invariant characteristics of context Based on the work of (Mena et al., 2007)
  138. 138. CDD  Capability design  Context modelling State of the art • key-value modelling • mark-up scheme modelling and text-based (Comprehensive Structured Context Profiles, Pervasive Profile Description Language, ConteXtML, MLContext, etc.) • graphical modelling (UML, Object Role Modelling, ER, etc.) • object oriented modelling (cues, Active Object Model), • logic-based modelling • ontology-based modelling (Context Ontology Language, CONtext Ontology, etc.) For more information, see project CaaS task 5.1 report: S. Bērziša, S. España, et al. (2013) State-of-the-art in relevant methodology areas
  139. 139. CDD  Capability design  Context modelling Purpose of context modelling Purpose:  Linguistic context is used for disambiguating the meaning of words in texts  Relational context includes any information pertinent to characterizing the relation of an entity to other entities, where this information is judged according to a given purpose  The organizational context describes mostly static information about a person. Such an information includes things like roles, positions, tasks, titles etc.  Situational context characterises the state or situation of a person, object or location for the purpose of understanding or being relevant for the interaction between a user and an application.
  140. 140. CDD  Capability design  Context modelling Components of the of context model Components pertaining to other models but involved in context modelling:  Process A Business Process is a series of actions that are performed in order to achieve a particular result. E.g. Reserve Swimming Pool.  Capability. A Capability is the ability and capacity that enable an enterprise to achieve a Business Goal in a certain Context. E.g. Dynamic Swimming Pool Reservation Service.  Goal. A desired state of the affair that needs to be attained. E.g. To increase user satisfaction.  Process Variant. A part of the business process, which uses the same input and delivers the same outcome as the Business Process in another way. E.g. Provide List of Swimming Pools nearby or Provide List of all Swimming Pools.  Variation Point. An exact location in the Business Process Model, where Process Variants occur. E.g. An Exclusive Gateway in BPMN, which is dependent on whether the user’s location is available or not.  Variant Condition. Describes when a certain Process Variant is executed. It is related to the respective Context Elements influencing the Business Process in this Variation Point. E.g. < IF Weather = bad THEN Variant = V3.1 ELSE Variant = V3.2 >
  141. 141. CDD  Capability design  Context modelling Components of the of context model Components of the context model:  Measurable Property. Anything, which can be measured and is related to a Context Element. It has a sensor or a data source where the values come from. E.g. Temperature, Precipitation  Context Element. Represents an environmental factor, which can cause change in the Business Process Model. Weather, Geo-Location  Atomic. An Atomic Context Element is a Context Element that is not composed by any other Context Element. E.g. Geo-Location  Composite. A Composite Context Element compounds at least one Atomic or Composite Context Element. It can be reasoned about this composition by dint of Composition Rules. E.g. Weather, Social Feedback.  Context Element Range. Used to specify boundaries of permitted values for a specific Context Element and a certain Measurable Property. E.g. [warm, cold] (Temperature).  Context Rule. Defines for what values of the Measurable Property the Context Element is in a certain Context Element Range. In the case of Composite Context Elements its ranges are defined by the ranges of its components. E.g. < IF DegreeCentigrade > 20 THEN Temperature = warm ELSE Temperature = cold >
  142. 142. CDD  Capability design  Context modelling The process of context modelling Felix Timm tuned this context modelling method and applied it to the everis use case

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