Migration

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Migration of population for A level students

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Migration

  1. 1. Migration A2 Geography
  2. 2. Definition <ul><li>Population moves from one administrative area to another </li></ul><ul><li>The result of a change of address </li></ul><ul><li>All others are types should be termed ‘Circulation’ </li></ul>
  3. 3. Motives <ul><li>The Push and Pull factors </li></ul><ul><li>5 categories </li></ul><ul><li>Physical </li></ul><ul><li>Demographic </li></ul><ul><li>Economic </li></ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul><ul><li>Political </li></ul>
  4. 4. Types <ul><li>The Scale (Regional, National, International) </li></ul><ul><li>The Cause (Forced or voluntary) </li></ul><ul><li>The Area (Rural to Urban, LEDC-MEDC) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Forced Migration <ul><li>Religious or political persecution, war, natural disaster, forced labour or famine </li></ul>
  6. 6. Voluntary <ul><li>Climate </li></ul><ul><li>Employment </li></ul><ul><li>Family </li></ul><ul><li>Better services </li></ul>
  7. 7. Internal Migration <ul><li>Migration within countries </li></ul><ul><li>Moving house </li></ul><ul><li>Urban to urban </li></ul><ul><li>Urban to rural </li></ul><ul><li>Rural to urban </li></ul><ul><li>Such as Pioneer advances across USA 1800’s + </li></ul>
  8. 8. International Migration <ul><li>Voluntary </li></ul><ul><li>Colonisation of countries such as the USA upto around 1924 </li></ul><ul><li>Most is now forced due to the tightening of immigrant policy </li></ul>
  9. 9. Area <ul><li>LEDC to MEDC (West Indies to UK in the 20 th century </li></ul><ul><li>LEDC too LEDC – refugees moving because of wars (Africa, Rwanda, Mozambique) </li></ul><ul><li>MEDC – MEDC (Brain drains) </li></ul><ul><li>MEDC – LEDC (Missionaries, charity workers, explorationists, Penal settlements) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Models of Migration <ul><li>Newton’s Gravity model </li></ul><ul><li>Lee’s Model </li></ul><ul><li>Ravenstein’s model </li></ul>
  11. 11. Newton’s Gravity model <ul><li>The number of people moving from between places A and B is equal to the population of A multiplied by the population of B and divided by the square of the distance between them. </li></ul><ul><li>A x B </li></ul><ul><li>Squared Dist </li></ul><ul><li>Not a particularly successful model </li></ul>
  12. 12. Lee’s Model 1966
  13. 13. <ul><li>Does not isolate push pull factors </li></ul><ul><li>Looks at attributes for each place </li></ul><ul><li>Decisions based on personal factors reliant on </li></ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><li>Marital Status </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Socio-economic class </li></ul><ul><li>Some are positive factors some are seen as negative others as neutral all this influences personal decision making process </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Lee’s model introduces a refinement to push pull factors </li></ul><ul><li>Intervening Obstacles Both real or perceived </li></ul><ul><li>International boundaries, language, anxieties etc. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Ravenstein's Migration Laws (1870's-1880's) <ul><li>Most migrants go only a short distance (gravity law) </li></ul><ul><li>Longer-distance migration favours big-city destinations </li></ul><ul><li>Most migration proceeds step by step </li></ul><ul><li>Most migration is rural to urban </li></ul><ul><li>Each migration flow produces a counter flow (i.e. return to place of birth) </li></ul><ul><li>Most migrants are adults--families are less likely to make international moves </li></ul><ul><li>Most international migrants are young males </li></ul>
  16. 16. Two way Nature of Migration <ul><li>Often movement in population between two places is both ways, but unequal </li></ul><ul><li>The stronger one is called Dominant </li></ul><ul><li>The weaker is the reverse or counter migration </li></ul><ul><li>The Total volume is called the Gross Interchange whilst the difference is the net migration Balance </li></ul>
  17. 17. Pakistan to UK 1997 <ul><li>6000 Pakistanis entered the UK </li></ul><ul><li>2000 Pakistanis returned to Pakistan. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Stouffer's law of intervening opportunities (1940) <ul><li>the amount of migration over a given distance is directly proportional to the number of opportunities at the place of destination, </li></ul><ul><li>This is inversely proportional to the number of opportunities between the place of departure and the place of destination. </li></ul><ul><li>The intervening opportunities may persuade a migrant to settle in a place en route rather than proceeding to the originally planned destination. </li></ul><ul><li>Stouffer argued that the volume of migration had less to do with distance and population totals than with the opportunities in each location. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Differential Migration <ul><li>Based on the principle that some people are more likely to migrate than others </li></ul><ul><li>Significant factors include: </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Occupation </li></ul><ul><li>In most countries young males seem the most migratory </li></ul><ul><li>Gender depends on the countries development </li></ul><ul><li>In LEDC’s men make up the majority of migratory streams </li></ul><ul><li>Education has a direct bearing on occupation and therefore possibly mobility. Professionals are more migratory than unskilled. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Consequences of Migration Overview
  22. 22. Demographic Consequences <ul><li>Changes in the numbers and distribution of people within a region are changed. </li></ul><ul><li>Intermarriages are created, leading to a new group of people. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Social Consequences <ul><li>Migration brings different people together leading to conflicts. </li></ul><ul><li>Migration however also creates understanding between different groups of people. </li></ul><ul><li>Rural-Urban migration creates ghettoes in cities. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Economic Consequences <ul><li>This depends on the &quot;quality&quot; of the migrants and the economic needs of the origin and destination. Quality refers to skills, age, educational attainment, health etc. </li></ul><ul><li>In overpopulated areas, emigration is beneficial because it reduces the pressure on the land. </li></ul><ul><li>In underpopulated areas, emigration may slow down development. </li></ul>

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