Mexican Political History

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  • Mexican Political History

    1. 1. Country Study: Mexico Unit III: Developing Democracies
    2. 2. Introduction-a seat at the table <ul><li>Get into groups of whatever size you please </li></ul><ul><li>Send one or multiple representatives to Mr. To </li></ul><ul><li>You will attempt to get Mr. To’s attention to earn EXTRA CREDIT QUIZ points based on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need of the group members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal rapport with Mr. To </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal character and charisma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outspokenness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bribery? </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Introduction-a seat at the table <ul><li>You will be placed into 4 different groups </li></ul><ul><li>Select a leader to represent your group </li></ul><ul><li>Each group leader will enter into negotiations to receive extra credit QUIZ points for the entire group </li></ul><ul><li>Get into groups of whatever size you please </li></ul>
    4. 4. Lecture Outline <ul><li>Mexico—SAP </li></ul><ul><li>Aztec and Spanish Conquest </li></ul><ul><li>Mexican Revolutions and Conquest </li></ul><ul><li>Single-Party Rule </li></ul><ul><li>Democratization? </li></ul>
    5. 5. I. Sovereignty, Authority and Power <ul><li>Historical Traditions </li></ul><ul><li>Political Culture: National Identities </li></ul><ul><li>Political Culture: Geographic Influences </li></ul>
    6. 6. A. Historical Traditions <ul><li>Authoritarianism : Long history of dictators </li></ul><ul><li>Populism : Peasant-based rebellions (Revolutions of 1810, 1910, Zapatistas) </li></ul><ul><li>Power plays/Divisions within the elite (i.e., between caudillos; tecnicos vs. politicos ) </li></ul><ul><li>Instability and Legitimacy Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>36 presidents in 20 years (1833-55) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assassination in 1994 (Luis Donaldo Colosio, PRI) </li></ul></ul>Lázaro Cárdenas Dec 1 , 1934 Nov 30 , 1940 Party of the Mexican Revolution (PRM) Manuel Ávila Camacho Dec 1 , 1940 Nov 30 , 1946 Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) Miguel Alemán Valdés Dec 1 , 1946 Nov 30 , 1952 PRI Adolfo Ruiz Cortines Dec 1 , 1952 Nov 30 , 1958 PRI Adolfo López Mateos Dec 1 , 1958 Nov 30 , 1964 PRI Gustavo Díaz Ordaz Dec 1 , 1964 Nov 30 , 1970 PRI Luis Echeverría Dec 1 , 1970 Nov 30 , 1976 PRI José López Portillo Dec 1 , 1976 Nov 30 , 1982 PRI Miguel de la Madrid Dec 1 , 1982 Nov 30 , 1988 PRI Carlos Salinas de Gortari Dec 1 , 1988 Nov 30 , 1994 PRI Ernesto Zedillo Dec 1 , 1994 Nov 30 , 2000 PRI Vicente Fox Dec 1 , 2000 Nov 30 , 2006 National Action Party (PAN) Felipe Calderón Dec 1 , 2006 PAN
    7. 7. B. Political Culture—National ID <ul><li>Importance of Catholicism </li></ul><ul><li>Patron-Client networks ( camarillas ): PRI rule held by corruption </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Dependency </li></ul>
    8. 8. C. Political Culture—Geography <ul><li>Mountains/Deserts  Regionalism </li></ul><ul><li>Varied Climates  North/South Divide </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Resources: oil, silver—enriched nation, but not populace </li></ul><ul><li>Border with the U.S.  conflict, migration and dependency </li></ul><ul><li>100 million and urbanization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mexico City (18 million) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rural-to-Urban migration </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. II. The Aztec and Spanish Conquest <ul><li>Vast Aztec Empire destroyed by Spanish conquest/diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Heterogeneity </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish/Catholic Church dominance over mestizaje </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vast haciendas created </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unequal distribution of land and wealth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dependency upon Spain </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. III. Mexican Revolutions and Constitutions <ul><li>Rebellion in 1810 under Father Miguel Hidalgo; Independence in 1821 </li></ul><ul><li>Instability (1821-1876) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>36 presidents in 20 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Military rule (Santa Anna) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Foreign Interventions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US “steals” half of Mexico </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>French invasion in 1864 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rule of Porfirio Diaz (1876-1911) </li></ul>
    11. 11. D. The “Porfiriato” (1876-1911) <ul><li>Stability </li></ul><ul><li>Authoritarianism: small elite empowered </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. and European FDI  economic growth </li></ul><ul><li>Growing gap between rich and poor </li></ul>
    12. 12. IV. Single-Party Rule (PRI) <ul><li>Revolution of 1911 overthrows Diaz </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Caudillos”—military/political strongmen vie for control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emiliano Zapata </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pancho Villa </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Created local patron-client networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cristeros Rebellion—caused by repression of Catholicism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Liberal Constitution of 1917 (amended, but still enacted) </li></ul>
    13. 13. C. Institutional Revolutionary Party <ul><ul><li>Formed in 1929 and “institutionalized” revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cardenas Reforms (1934-40) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Land redistribution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Import Substitution (ISI) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nationalization of key sectors such as oil (PEMEX) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Investment in public works </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Authoritarian corporatist system (peasant and labor org.) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Providing regular elections (some competition, but PRI always wins; i.e., PAN) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The Mexican Miracle”—based on natural gas/oil sales </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. “ Mexican Miracle”
    15. 15. Economic Turmoil?
    16. 16. V. Democratization? <ul><li>Olympic massacre (1968) </li></ul><ul><li>Earthquake of 1985 – local organizations formed </li></ul><ul><li>Decline in oil prices leads to economic downturn </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of opposition parties (pro-technocrat/business PAN) </li></ul><ul><li>PRI loses local elections (Baja California, Mexico City, etc…) </li></ul><ul><li>Vicente Fox’s electoral victory leading the PAN to power </li></ul><ul><li>State of democratization today? (see articles) </li></ul>

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