Entry into Jerusalem Title: Entry into Jerusalem Artist: Giotto di Bondone Date: 1,267-1,337 CE Medium: Oil Painting Jesus, riding an ass, and his disciples enter Jerusalem in triumph. Crowds honor them, spreading clothes and palm fronds in their path.
The Last Supper During the Passover meal, Jesus reveals his impending death to his disciples. Instructing them to drink wine (his Blood) and eat bread (his Body) in remembrance of him, he lays the foundation for the Christian Eucharist (Mass): Artist: Leonardo da Vinci Title: The Last Supper Date: 1,495-1,498 CE
Jesus Washing the Apostles’ Feet After the Last Supper, Jesus washes the apostles’ feet to set an example of humility. Peter, embarrassed, protests. Title: Jesus Washing Peter's Feet from The Small Passion Series Artist: Albrecht Dürer Date: 1,508-1,509 CE Medium: Small Woodcut Source: British Museum, London.
In the Garden of Gethsemane on the Mount of Olives, Jesus struggles between his human fear of pain and death and his divine strength to overcome them ( agon is Greek for “contest”). The apostles sleep nearby, obliviously. Artist: El Greco Title: The Agony in the Garden. Date: 1,605-1,610 CE Museum: Oil Painting Source: Szepmuveseti Muzeum, Budapest, Hungary The Agony in the Garden
Betrayal (The Arrest) Judas Iscariot, a disciple, accepts a bribe to point Jesus out to his enemies. Judas brings an armed crowd to Gethsemane and kisses Jesus (a prearranged signal). Peter attempts to defend Jesus from the Roman soldiers who seize him. Title: Betrayal of Jesus Artist: Duccio di Buoninsegna Date: 1,308-1,311 CE Source: the Maesta Altarpiece, Siena Cathedral Medium: Tempera and Gold on Wood Panel
Jesus is taken to the Jewish high priest, Caiaphas, to be interrogated for claiming to be the Messiah. Peter follows, and there he three times denies knowing Jesus, as Jesus had predicted. Title: Peter Denying Christ Artist: Rembrandt Date: 1,660 CE Medium: Oil on Canvas The Denial of Peter
Jesus Before Pilate <ul><li>When Jesus is taken to Pontius Pilate, Roman governor of Judaea, and is charged with treason after calling himself the King of the Jews. Herod Antipas, ruler of Galilee, then scorns him. Pilate tries to save him, but the mob shouted at him. The mob wanted Jesus to be crucified. Pilate washed his hands symbolizing that Jesus’ blood was not on his hands. </li></ul>Title: Christ in front of Pilate Artist: Mihály Munkácsy Date: 1,881 CE Medium: Oil on Canvas Source: Déri Museum, Debrecen
The Flagellation (The Scourging) Jesus is whipped by his Roman captors. Title: The Flagellation of Our Lord Jesus Christ Artist: William-Adolphe Bouguereau Date: 1,880 CE
Pilate’s soldiers torment Jesus. They dress him in royal robes, crown him with thorns and kneel before him, sarcastically hailing him as king of the Jews. Title: From f.51r of MS K.21, Canticles, Hymns and Passion of Christ Date: late 13 th – early 14 th century CE Medium: Vellum Source: St. Augustine's Canterbury Jesus Crowned with Thorns (The Mockery of Jesus)
The Bearing of the Cross (The Road to Calvary) <ul><li>Jesus bears the cross from Pilate’s house to Golgotha where he will be crucified. The events that happened on the road to Golgotha have come to be known as the Stations of the Cross. There are 14 stations. </li></ul>Painted Decoration: Anatole Dauvergne Date: 1,859 CE Source: Capital from the choir of the church Saint-Austremonius of Issoire (12th century), Auvergne, France.
CRUCIFIXION Title: Page from the Rabbula Gospels , from Beth Zagba, Syria. Date: 586 CE Medium: Illuminated Manuscript Source: Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana, Florence. Earliest representations show either a cross alone or a cross and a lamb. Later depictions include some or all of the following details: 2 criminals (1 penitent, the other not) are crucified alongside Jesus; Virgin Mary, John the Evangelist; Mary Magdalene, and others mourn at the foot of the cross; Roman soldiers torment Jesus – one extends a sponge on a pole with vinegar instead of water for him to drink, another stabs him in the side with a spear, and other gamble for his clothes; a skull identifies the execution ground as Golgotha, “the place of the skull” where Adam was buried, symbolizing the promise of redemption.
The Descent from the Cross (The Deposition) <ul><li>Jesus' followers take his body down from the cross. Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus wrap it in linen with myrrh and aloe. Also present are the grief-stricken Virgin, John the Evangelist, and (in some accounts) Mary Magdalene, other disciples, and angels. </li></ul>Artist: Max Beckmann Title: The Descent from the Cross Date: 1,917 CE Medium: Oil on Canvas Source: The Museum of Modern Art, New York
Jesus' sorrowful followers gather around his body. An image of the Virgin mourning alone with Jesus across her lap is known as a pietá (from the Latin pietas , “compassion”). Artist: Giotto di Bondone (1,267- 1,337 CE) Title: Lamentation Date: 1,304-1,306 CE Medium: Fresco Size: 200 x 185 cm Location: Cappella Scrovegni (Arena Chapel), Padua The Lamentation (Pietá)
The Entombment Jesus’ mother and friends place his body in a nearby sarcophagus, or rock tomb. This is done hastily because the Jewish Sabbath is near. Title: The Entombment Artist: Peter Paul Rubens Date: 1,612 CE Medium: Oil on Canvas Source: The Getty Center Los Angeles This is the moment after the Crucifixion and before the Resurrection when Christ is being laid to rest in the tomb. He is being supported by those closest to him: John the Evangelist, in the red robe (bearing the weight of Christ); Mary Magdalene cries in the background; while Mary, the mother of James the Younger and Joseph, bows her head in sorrow. Mary, the mother of Christ, cradles his head and looks heavenward for divine intercession.
The Descent into Limbo (The Harrowing of Hell/Anastasis) <ul><li>No longer in mortal form, Jesus, now called Christ, descends into limbo, or hell, to free deserving souls, among them Adam, Eve and Moses </li></ul>Title: The Descent into Limbo Artist: Andrea Mantegna Date: 1,430-1,506 CE Medium: Tempera and Gold on Panel Location: Metropolitan Museum of Art
The Resurrection Title: Resurrection of Christ Artist: Raphael Date: 1,499 – 1,502 CE Medium: Oil on Wood Panel Source: Museu de Arte de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Three days after his death, Christ walks from his tomb while the soldiers guarding it sleep.
The Marys at the Tomb (The Holy Women at the Sepulcher) <ul><li>Christ’s female followers-usually including Mary Magdalene and Mary the mother of the apostle James-discovery his empty tomb. An angel announces Christ’s Resurrection. The soldiers guarding the tomb look on terrified. </li></ul>Title: Resurrection of Christ and Women at the Tomb Artist: Fra Angelico (1400-1455) Date: 1,440 – 1,441 CE Medium: Fresco Source: Convento di San Marco, Florence
Noli Me Tangere (“Do Not Touch Me”), Supper at Emmaus & Doubting Thomas <ul><li>Christ makes a series of appearances to his followers in the 40 days between his Resurrection and his Ascension. He first appears to Mary Magdalene as she weeps at his tomb. She reaches out to him, but he warns her not to touch him. Christ tells her to tell the Apostles of his Resurrection. At Emmaus, Christ and his disciples share a meal. Christ invites Thomas, who doubts his Resurrection, to touch his wound in his side in order to convince him. </li></ul>Title: Doubting Thomas Artist: Caravaggio Date: 1,602 – 1,603 CE Medium: Oil on Canvas Source: Sanssouci, Potsdam.
The Ascension Christ ascends to heaven from the Mount of Olives, disappearing in a cloud. His disciples, often accompanied by the Virgin, watch. Title: The Ascension Artist: Page from the Rabbula Gospels Date: 586 CE Medium: Illuminated Manuscript