Introduction• This comprises organs that break down and digest food, and remove unabsorbed wastes from the body. Its main feature is the alimentary canal (gut) measuring about 30 feet (9m) in length.
Anatomical Structure Overview 1• Mouth cavity: Teeth, tongue, salivary glands, and other structures begin processing food for swallowing.• Esophagus: Connects the throat and the stomach. Food is moved by an action called “peristalsis”.• Stomach: Food is churned, disinfected, and begins to digest.
Anatomical Structure Overview 2• Sphincters: Rings of muscle that close at the junction of the stomach, the duodenum, and the anus.• Digestive juices: Saliva, gastric, sm. Intestine, and pancreatic juices contain enzymes for digesting specific food substances.• Small intestine: Approx 21 ft (6.5m) in length, and connects the stomach and lg. intestine. Subdivisions (beginning from the stomach) are the duodenum, the jejunum, and ileum. Most digestion occurs here.
Anatomical Structure Overview 3• Large intestine: Approximately 5 ft (1.5m) in length, and runs from the ileum to the rectum. Main sections are the cecum, the ascending, transverse, and descending colon, and the sigmoid flexure.• Appendix: A narrow tube projecting from the cecum.• Rectum: Extends from the sigmoid flexure and ends at the anus.
Anatomical Structure Overview 4• Liver: This large organ in the upper part of the abdomen secretes bile and stores vitamins.• Gall bladder: This sac, located behind the liver, stores bile to be released into the duodenum.• Pancreas: A large gland that secretes insulin and pancreatic juice into the duodenum.
DIGESTIVE JUICES1. Mouth: Chewing helps to break down food2. Stomach: Enzymes in gastric juice further break food down3. Sm. Intestine: Enzymes in pancreatic and intestinal juices convert proteins into amino acids4. Absorption through intestinal lining into the portal (liver) system5. Portal vein6. Liver: Amino acids made into useful proteins, stored as fat, or excreted as urine
INTESTINAL STRUCTURES1. Sm. Intestine1a. Duodenum1b. Jejunum1c. Ileum2. Lg. Intestine2a. Cecum2b. Appendix2c. Ascending colon2d. Transverse colon2e. Descending colon2f. Anus
GALL & BILIARY TREE1. Esophagus2. Liver3. Stomach4. Hepatic duct5. Cystic duct6. Gall bladder7. Common bile duct8. Pancreas9. Pancreatic duct10. Duodenum