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Reproduction06

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Reproduction06

  1. 1. EQUINE REPRODUCTION
  2. 2. TERMINOLOGY <ul><li>BOOK </li></ul><ul><li>BOOKING FEES </li></ul><ul><li>STUD FEE </li></ul><ul><li>FOAL GUARANTEE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Live Foal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Return </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Color </li></ul></ul><ul><li>WET/DRY CARE </li></ul><ul><li>BREEDER </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thoroughbred </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other breeds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DEATH & SALES CLAUSE </li></ul><ul><li>CHUTE FEE </li></ul>
  3. 3. Stallion Physiology 1-2 days Survival time with fertilizing capacity 6 # sperm/ejaculate X 10 9 30-800 ml Sperm concentration X 10 6 20-100 ml Semen volume/ejaculate Sperm output 2-4 days Life span of sperm in female tract 10-24 mo Onset of sexual maturity
  4. 4. Sperm Production <ul><li>Sperm Output and Production is influenced by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Season </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Testicular size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency of ejaculation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Number of Sperm Depends On: <ul><li>Seasonal Influences (Photoperiod) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effected Areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ejaculate volume </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sperm numbers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Total sperm/ejaculate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sperm motility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Willingness to breed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mounts before breeding </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scrotal size </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Testosterone production </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Mare Anatomy <ul><li>Vulva </li></ul><ul><li>Vagina </li></ul><ul><li>Cervix </li></ul><ul><li>Uterus </li></ul><ul><li>Oviducts </li></ul><ul><li>Ovaries </li></ul>Left Ovary Oviduct Left Uterine Horn Uterine Body Cervix Vagina
  7. 7. <ul><li>TERMS </li></ul><ul><li>Anestrus </li></ul><ul><li>Diestrus </li></ul><ul><li>Estrous </li></ul><ul><li>Estrus </li></ul><ul><li>MARE CLASSIFICATION </li></ul><ul><li>Pregnant </li></ul><ul><li>Open </li></ul><ul><li>Barren </li></ul><ul><li>Maiden </li></ul><ul><li>Wet </li></ul><ul><li>Dry </li></ul>MARES
  8. 8. The Open Mare <ul><li>Evaluate reproductive history </li></ul><ul><li>Establish the time of year to breed </li></ul><ul><li>Mare Plan: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diagnose possible problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implement problem management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish estrus calendar </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Mares Cycle Percent
  10. 10. Photoperiod Effect <ul><li>Reproductive activity in spring is stimulated by an increasing photoperiod </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alteration of hormone secretion by the pineal gland and hypothalamus </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Receptors in eye Pineal gland Hypothalamus Anterior pituitary Ovaries Increasing day length Decreasing day length Neuropathway Neuropathway Decreasing melatonin Increasing melatonin Increasing GnRH Decreasing GnRH Increasing gonadotropins Decreasing gonadotropins J F M A M J J A S O N D
  12. 12. Transition Period <ul><li>Increased photoperiod stimulates the hypothalamus and pituitary </li></ul><ul><li>Pituitary hormones (especially FSH) induce follicular development </li></ul>
  13. 13. Transition <ul><li>1-3 waves of follicles develop & regress </li></ul><ul><li>Estrogens produced by developing follicles </li></ul><ul><li>Irregular/prolonged estrus exhibited </li></ul><ul><li>1 follicle eventually ovulates </li></ul><ul><li>Thereafter, mares ovulate at ~21-day intervals </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>21-day estrous cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Estrus 5-7 d </li></ul><ul><li>Diestrus 14-16 d </li></ul>
  15. 15. Estrous Cycle 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Sat Fri Thu Wed Tue Mon Sun
  16. 16. Estrus <ul><li>Follicular Development & </li></ul><ul><li>Ovulation </li></ul><ul><li>Anterior Pituitary – FSH - follicular growth </li></ul><ul><li>Pituitary – LH – maturation of follicle & ovulation </li></ul><ul><li>Follicles reach 20-25 mm in diameter, secrete estrogen. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Prediction of Ovulation <ul><li>Number of days in heat </li></ul><ul><li>Growth rate of largest follicle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Average 3-5 mm/day </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Size of largest follicle </li></ul><ul><li>Softness of preovulatory follicle </li></ul><ul><li>Ultrasound image </li></ul>
  18. 18. Diestrus <ul><li>Corpus Luteum Formation </li></ul><ul><li>Corpus luteum - secretion of progesterone. </li></ul><ul><li>Progesterone - responsible for keeping the mare out of heat and for maintaining pregnancy. </li></ul><ul><li>Prostaglandin Release </li></ul><ul><li>Prostaglandin (PGF) - released from the uterus of a non-pregnant mare 14-16 days after ovulation </li></ul>
  19. 19. Postpartum Estrus <ul><li>Foal Heat </li></ul><ul><li>Fertile as compared to other species. </li></ul><ul><li>Breeding may be necessary to maintain the 12 mo. Foaling interval. </li></ul><ul><li>May be necessary to back up foaling. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Signs of Estrus <ul><li>Most consistent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elevated tail raise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Winking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other supporting signs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Squatting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standing still </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urinating </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Manipulation Methods <ul><li>Artificial lighting </li></ul><ul><li>Shortening Late Transition </li></ul><ul><li>Inducing Ovulation </li></ul><ul><li>Estrus synchronization </li></ul><ul><li>Estrus Synchronization & Ovulation Induction </li></ul>
  22. 22. Light Stimulus <ul><li>16 hrs daylight per day </li></ul><ul><li>30-60 days </li></ul>
  23. 23. Progesterone or related compounds <ul><li>Regumate – most common </li></ul><ul><li>Normalization of estrus </li></ul><ul><li>Regulation of estrus </li></ul><ul><li>Estrus synchronization </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term suppression of estrus </li></ul><ul><li>Delay foal heat </li></ul><ul><li>Pregnancy maintenance </li></ul>
  24. 24. PGF 2  Lutalayse or Estrumate <ul><li>Shorten the interval between estrous periods </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment of a maintained corpus luteum </li></ul><ul><li>After foal heat </li></ul><ul><li>Estrous synchronization with prostaglandins </li></ul>
  25. 25. Breeding Methods <ul><li>Pasture Breeding </li></ul><ul><li>Hand Breeding </li></ul><ul><li>Artificial Insemination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fresh semen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooled, shipped semen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frozen semen </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Cooled Shipped Semen <ul><li>ADVANTAGES </li></ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><li>Genetics </li></ul><ul><li>Disease </li></ul><ul><li>DISADVANTAGES </li></ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><li>Technology/management </li></ul><ul><li>Stallion variability </li></ul><ul><li>Common Problems </li></ul><ul><li>Inability to obtain semen </li></ul><ul><li>Poor quality semen </li></ul><ul><li>Reordering semen </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to predict ovulation </li></ul>
  27. 27. Frozen Semen <ul><li>Success of Frozen Semen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fertility of stallion’s semen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fertility of the mare </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skill of the veterinarian/technician </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maximum Success </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Client communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose ideal candidate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>History of stallion </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Embryo Transfer <ul><li>Synchronization of donor and recipient mare </li></ul><ul><li>Embryo flushing </li></ul><ul><li>Embryo transfer procedure </li></ul>
  29. 30. TEN FACTORS INFLUENCING PREGNANCY & PREGNANCY LOSS PER CYCLE <ul><li>MARE AGE </li></ul><ul><li>BARREN REPRODUCTIVE STATUS </li></ul><ul><li>EARLY BREEDING DATE </li></ul><ul><li>LATE BREEDING DATE </li></ul><ul><li>BREEDING FREQUENCY </li></ul><ul><li>PROSTAGLANDIN FACTOR </li></ul><ul><li>UTERINE CULTURE & CYTOLOGY </li></ul><ul><li>EFFECT OF SEMEN EXTENDER </li></ul><ul><li>POST-BREEDING ANTIBIOTIC INFUSIONS </li></ul><ul><li>TWINS </li></ul>
  30. 31. Pregnancy Evaluation <ul><li>Ultrasound, 14-18 days </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ID twins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ID placental development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Re-evaluate, 40 days </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor Placental function & fetal growth </li></ul>
  31. 32. Gestation Length <ul><li>Normal: 335-342 days </li></ul>
  32. 33. GROWTH CURVE Gestation age in days CR in cm
  33. 34. Late Pregnancy <ul><li>Abdomen greatly enlarged </li></ul><ul><li>Ventral edema </li></ul><ul><li>Mammary gland enlargement – 2-4 wk </li></ul><ul><li>Gluteal muscles relax – 7-10 d </li></ul><ul><li>Teats fill with milk – 4-7 d </li></ul><ul><li>Waxing of teat ends – 1-4 d </li></ul><ul><li>Vulva soft & relaxed – 1-2 d </li></ul>
  34. 35. Stages of Parturition <ul><li>Stage 1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Onset: initial uterine contractions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>End: rupture of chorioallantois (water bag) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stage 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Onset: rupture of chorioallantois </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>End: delivery of fetus </li></ul></ul>
  35. 36. Stages of Parturition <ul><li>Stage 3 ( < 3 hrs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Onset: delivery of fetus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>End: passage of the fetal membranes </li></ul></ul>
  36. 37. Foals and Immunity <ul><li>Colostrum (first milk) - antibodies </li></ul><ul><li>1-2 pts of high quality colostrum </li></ul><ul><li>If adequate passive transfer occurs there will be over 400-800 mg/dl IgG in foal’s blood </li></ul><ul><li>Takes ~ 12 hours for all antibodies ingested in colostrum to show up in the blood </li></ul>
  37. 38. Key points <ul><li>First two weeks- lay the groundwork by ensuring adequate colostrum </li></ul><ul><li>Preventative health program in place </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Problems must be addressed rapidly when they arise. No time for a “wait and see” attitude </li></ul>

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