Gestation in mares

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Gestation in mares

  1. 1. Equine Reproduction Gestation and parturition in Mares
  2. 2. Gestation In Mares <ul><li>Duration of gestation </li></ul><ul><li>11 months , 5 days </li></ul><ul><li>Range 335-342 days </li></ul><ul><li>Can be as short as 305 days and as long as 400 days. </li></ul><ul><li>Foals are not normally capable of extra uterine survival until day day 300 of Gestation </li></ul>
  3. 3. Gestation in Mares <ul><li>Gestation Length are affected by </li></ul><ul><li>Breed </li></ul><ul><li>Season </li></ul><ul><li>Sex of the foal </li></ul><ul><li>Age of Mare </li></ul><ul><li>Twinning </li></ul><ul><li>Dam and Sire </li></ul><ul><li>Management </li></ul><ul><li>Disease </li></ul>
  4. 4. Gestation in Mares <ul><li>Breed </li></ul><ul><li>Shorter in TB and SB (325-340 days) </li></ul><ul><li>Draft horses (330-340 days) </li></ul><ul><li>Crosses (350-375 days) </li></ul><ul><li>Season </li></ul><ul><li>Mares bred in late winter and early spring have gestation lengths on average10 days longer than those bred in the summer </li></ul>
  5. 5. Gestation in Mares Management of Pregnant Mares <ul><li>Confirm pregnancy at 42 days </li></ul><ul><li>Re examine at 150 and 210 days to ensure normal progression </li></ul>
  6. 6. Gestation in Mares Feeding <ul><li>Adequate and balanced diet </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in the last 3 months enough to increase maternal body weight by 15%. </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive feeding can increase the risk of laminitis and OCD in the foal. </li></ul><ul><li>In the last week add laxative feed such as bran . </li></ul>
  7. 7. Gestation in Mares Vaccinations <ul><li>EVR@ 5,7and 9 months </li></ul><ul><li>Use a killed vaccine if possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Tetanus 30-60 days before full term. </li></ul><ul><li>All other vaccines should be done 4-6 weeks before foaling. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Signs of Approaching Parturition <ul><li>Mammary Glands </li></ul><ul><li>Abdomen </li></ul><ul><li>Pelvic Ligaments </li></ul>
  9. 9. Signs of Parturition <ul><li>Swelling of mammary glands </li></ul><ul><li>Waxing as early as 4 days but usually 24-48 hrs before due to colostrum </li></ul><ul><li>Some mares bag up and leak colostrum this should be controlled so that there is plenty of colostrum for the foal. </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in pre foaling mammary secretion are used to determine fetal maturity and readiness for birth </li></ul><ul><li>Ca levels increase dramatically when foaling is imminent. </li></ul><ul><li>When Ca CO3 in udder secretion reaches >200ppmthe mare will foal within 72 hours. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Four Phases of Labor Stage 1
  11. 11. Phase 1 stage1 <ul><li>Restlessness </li></ul><ul><li>Anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of appetite </li></ul><ul><li>Tail swishing </li></ul><ul><li>Kicking at her belly </li></ul><ul><li>Sweating </li></ul><ul><li>Looking at or biting her flanks </li></ul><ul><li>Cramping </li></ul><ul><li>Passing small amounts of loose manure </li></ul><ul><li>Lying down and getting up </li></ul><ul><li>The discomfort viewed at this stage is from uterine contractions </li></ul><ul><li>In the last few weeks before the birth the mare may lay down and grunt every 5 seconds this may fool you into thinking she is going into labor however this is a result of the abdomen pressing against the diaphragm and as the horse normally breathes at 12 breathes per minute a breath every 5 seconds is normal </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>As we come to the end of this stage a small portion of the placenta is visible this is known as the </li></ul><ul><li>“ Cervical Star” </li></ul><ul><li>When the cervix has opened wide enough for this to be visible it will bulge and burst this is the breaking of the water. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Stage 2
  14. 14. <ul><li>After the water has broken the inner sack (Amnion ) should advance and become visible ,this will be delicate ,translucent,and milky white in color. </li></ul><ul><li>The first sighn of a foal should be one fore foot with the soles facing down. With the second fore foot appearing withen one or two more contractions. </li></ul><ul><li>It is not uncommen for the mare to get up a lie down during this time. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>When the foal has its head and shoulders in the pelvic cavity the amniotic membrane will burst </li></ul><ul><li>Assistance should only be offered if it is abslutely necessary.Traction on the foals forelimb should be in rythem with the mares contractions . </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>After the foal’s hips have exited the the pelvis the mae will ussually rest for 15-20 minutes . </li></ul><ul><li>CARE must be tacken not to disturb the mare and foal so that the umbiliacal cord does not break prematurely ,the mare will stand and break the cord naturealy . When this is done we will step in an adminaster oxygen to the foal . </li></ul><ul><li>The umbilical stump shoud be disinfected with chlorahexadine or iodine solution </li></ul>

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