General Health Ans 41507


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General Health Ans 41507

  1. 1. First-Aid, Diseases & Parasites
  2. 2. Risk Assessment <ul><li>Boarding & training facilities have a high volume of horses with a rapid turnover rate. </li></ul><ul><li>Breeding farms have a high number of horses with a high turnover rate. </li></ul><ul><li>Farm & ranch settings have working horses that remain in the same facility until sold or deceased. </li></ul><ul><li>High performance horses have a high workload and are exposed to many other horses from different backgrounds </li></ul>
  3. 3. General Farm Practices Breeding Farms <ul><li>Foaling represents a significantly higher disease risk period for both the mare and the foal. </li></ul><ul><li>During late gestation the mare’s immune system is reduced. </li></ul><ul><li>The neonatal foal has limited immune capabilities for many months. </li></ul>
  4. 4. General Farm Practices Breeding Farms <ul><li>Provide a clean, hygienic foaling environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Disinfect the navel soon after birth. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure every foal ingests an adequate amount of quality colostrum. </li></ul><ul><li>Test the foal for adequate blood IgG levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Limit contact between very young foals and older animals. </li></ul>
  5. 5. General Farm Practices Weaning <ul><li>One of the greatest periods of stress & disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Stall or small paddock results in increased stocking density, enhancing the transmissibility of disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Ideally, the mare is removed and the foal is left in familiar surroundings. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limits the exposure of the foal to new pathogens. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. General Farm Practices Geriatric Horses <ul><li>Increased disease susceptibility. </li></ul><ul><li>Four main factors: decreased nutrient absorption, poor teeth, decreased immune response and age-related disease. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased absorption of phosphorus, vitamins, and protein. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Antibody response to vaccination is decreased and T cell function is lowered. </li></ul><ul><li>Prone to develop age-related disorders such as liver failure, kidney disease, tumors, and anemia. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Health Protocols <ul><li>The greatest impact on disease management is determined by the measures directly taken to prevent and treat disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a standard (and preferably written) health protocol. </li></ul><ul><li>Define goals and outline specific means of ensuring the objectives are achieved. </li></ul><ul><li>Include SOP for: identifying, examining, separating and treating sick animals; administration of routine health procedures and schedules (vaccinations, deworming, castration, etc.); and general husbandry procedures. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Vaccination <ul><li>All horses should be vaccinated for diseases that are prevalent in the area. </li></ul><ul><li>Not all diseases can be vaccinated against. </li></ul><ul><li>Vaccines are not 100% effective for disease prevention. </li></ul><ul><li>Vaccination protocols should be reviewed annually. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Currently there are equine vaccines available for: <ul><li>Tetanus : injection of modified toxin (toxoid) </li></ul><ul><li>Eastern, Western , Venezuelan Viral Encephalomyelitis : injection of killed virus </li></ul><ul><li>West Nile Viral Encephalomyelitis : killed virus (Fort Dodge) / modified live canarypox vectored (Merial) </li></ul><ul><li>Influenza , many different strains : injection / intranasal </li></ul><ul><li>Herpesvirus-1 : abortion, respiratory, and neurological disease </li></ul><ul><li>Herpesvirus-4 : respiratory disease and abortion </li></ul>
  10. 10. Currently there are equine vaccines available for: <ul><li>Strangles : injection of killed bacterin / intranasal vaccine (Fort Dodge) </li></ul><ul><li>Rabies : injection of killed virus </li></ul><ul><li>Uncommon Vaccines Given </li></ul><ul><li>Potomac Horse Fever : killed rickettsia </li></ul><ul><li>Equine protozoal Myelitis (EPM): killed protozoan </li></ul><ul><li>Botulism : injection of modified toxin (toxoid) </li></ul><ul><li>Equine Viral Arteritis </li></ul><ul><li>Anthrax </li></ul><ul><li>Endotoxemia </li></ul><ul><li>Rotavirus </li></ul>
  11. 11. Should You Vaccinate? <ul><li>How serious is this disease? </li></ul><ul><li>How well does the vaccine work? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the frequency and seriousness of the side effects of the vaccine? </li></ul><ul><li>Does protecting the horse also protect other horses or the horse owner from contracting the disease? </li></ul><ul><li>Does vaccination result in persistence of the disease in the population? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the vaccine create a diagnostic enigma or cause export restrictions? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the vaccine create export or transport restrictions </li></ul>
  12. 12. EQUINE VIRAL ARTERITIS <ul><ul><li>Fever </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Edema (or swelling especially in the legs, genitals and around the eyes), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abortion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nasal discharge, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skin rash (localized or generalized) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of appetite. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>BECAUSE EVA IS A VIRUS, ONCE CONTRACTED, THERE IS NO direct treatment for it. Treatment is focused on alleviating symptoms to ease the horse’s recovery. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Equine Viral Arteritis <ul><li>Equine viral arteritis is an infection by the equine arteritis virus (EAV). T estosterone-dependent virus </li></ul><ul><li>EVA is not usually lethal to adult horses. </li></ul><ul><li>The greatest danger of EVA is abortion in mares. </li></ul><ul><li>EVA is transmittable via respiratory and venereal paths. </li></ul><ul><li>Once infected, mares, geldings and sexually immature stallions recover within a few weeks. They shed the virus and become immune, but will test seropositive the rest of their lives. </li></ul><ul><li>Sexually mature stallions can become carriers the rest of their lives and might shed the virus in their semen. The virus can survive being cooled and frozen. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Equine Viral Arteritis <ul><li>There is a vaccine available for EVA. It is safe for almost all horses. </li></ul><ul><li>Horses exposed to EVA, including mares bred to EVA-positive stallions, must be properly quarantined to prevent the spread of the virus. </li></ul><ul><li>Horses and semen testing positive for EVA may not be allowed to be exported to other countries. Before vaccinating, discuss the risks with your veterinarian. </li></ul>
  15. 15. AQHA to Store Equine Viral Arteritis Vaccination Documentation <ul><li>EARLY JULY: NEW MEXICO SIRE DASH TA Fame, along with numerous other horses at MJ Farms in Veguita, New Mexico, was infected with equine viral arteritis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By mid-July, the farm has lost about 50 percent of its pregnancies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stallion shed the virus - During this year’s (2005) breeding season, the farm has bred nearly 200 mares and shipped semen to 16 states. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ There was an outbreak last year in New Mexico on a nearby breeding farm that was not reported,” </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Vesicular Stomatitis <ul><li>Caused by a virus </li></ul><ul><li>Transmitted by insect vectors </li></ul><ul><li>Once introduced to herd, can be transmitted by animal to animal contact </li></ul>
  17. 17. Vesicular Stomatitis <ul><li>Excessive salivation </li></ul><ul><li>Blanched raised or broken vesicles of various sizes in the mouth: </li></ul><ul><li>Horses: upper surface of the tongue, surface of the lips and around nostrils, corners of the mouth and the gums. </li></ul><ul><li>Cattle: tongue, lips, gums, hard palate, and sometimes muzzle and around the nostrils </li></ul><ul><li>Pigs: snout. </li></ul><ul><li>Lesions involving feet of horses and cattle are not exceptional. </li></ul><ul><li>Teat lesions occur in dairy herds. </li></ul><ul><li>Foot lesions and lameness are frequent in pigs. </li></ul><ul><li>Recovery in around 2 weeks. </li></ul><ul><li>Complication: loss of production and mastitis in dairy herds due to secondary infections, lameness in horses. </li></ul>
  18. 18. PARASITES <ul><li>Strongyles (bloodworms) </li></ul><ul><li>Ascarids (roundworms) </li></ul><ul><li>Bots </li></ul><ul><li>Pinworms </li></ul><ul><li>Strongyloides (threadworms </li></ul>
  19. 19. Signs of Parasitism <ul><li>Dull, rough hair coat </li></ul><ul><li>Lethargy </li></ul><ul><li>Wt. Loss </li></ul><ul><li>Coughing &/or nasal discharge </li></ul><ul><li>Tail rubbing </li></ul><ul><li>Colic </li></ul><ul><li>Summer sores </li></ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul><ul><li>Anorexic </li></ul><ul><li>Unthriftiness </li></ul><ul><li>Diarrhea </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance to bit </li></ul>
  20. 20. MANAGEMENT FOR CONTROL OF INTERNAL PARASITES <ul><li>Proper manure disposal </li></ul><ul><li>Pastures </li></ul><ul><li>Feed </li></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>Drug control </li></ul>
  21. 21. Lameness <ul><li>Grade 1 – Difficult to observe; not consistently apparent </li></ul><ul><li>Grade 2 – Difficult to observe at walk or trot on straight line; consistently apparent under certain circumstances </li></ul><ul><li>Grade 3 – Slight to moderate & consistently observable at a trot under all circumstances </li></ul><ul><li>Grade 4 – Obvious lameness; marked nodding, hitching or shortening stride </li></ul><ul><li>Grade 5 – Minimal weight-bearing in motion and/or at rest, inability to move </li></ul>