Chapter 6 Assessment of Educational Ability:  Survey Battery, Diagnostic,  Readiness, and Cognitive Ability Tests
Defining Assessment  of Educational Ability <ul><li>Purposes of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To determine how well a student is ...
Tests of Educational Ability <ul><li>Educational Ability: Survey Batter, Diagnostic, Readiness, and Cognitive Ability  </l...
Defining Tests of Educational Ability <ul><li>Survey Battery Tests : Measure broad content areas. Often used to assess pro...
Survey Battery Achievement Testing   <ul><li>Increasingly important as the result of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No Child Left ...
Survey Battery Achievement Testing <ul><li>Helpful in following ways: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can help a student, his or her...
Use of Survey Battery Testing <ul><li>National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not used to...
Types of Survey Battery Tests <ul><li>Stanford Achievement Test (SAT10) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dates back to 1923  </li></u...
Types of Survey Battery Tests <ul><li>Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS)  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dates back to 1935 </li></ul...
Types of Survey Battery Tests <ul><li>Metropolitan Achievement Test </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First published in 1930s </li></...
Diagnostic Testing <ul><li>Used to assess problems in learning </li></ul><ul><li>PL 94-142 and IDEIA have made these types...
Types of Diagnostic Tests <ul><li>Wide Range Achievement Test 4 (WRAT 4)  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Screening test for learnin...
Types of Diagnostic Tests <ul><li>Wide Range Achievement Test 4 (WRAT 4)  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spelling and Math can be g...
Types of Diagnostic Tests <ul><li>Key Math Diagnostic Test (KeyMath-3) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assesses student’s knowledge ...
Types of Diagnostic Tests <ul><li>Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broad academic screenin...
Readiness Testing <ul><li>Sometimes helpful in deciding whether a child is “ready” to move onto next level (usually kinder...
Types of Diagnostic Tests <ul><li>Kindergarten Readiness Test  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to determine if a child is ready...
Types of Readiness Tests <ul><li>Metropolitan Readiness Test, sixth edition (MRT6)  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assesses beginni...
Types of Diagnostic Tests <ul><li>Gesell School Readiness Test   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assesses personal and social skills...
Cognitive Ability Tests <ul><li>Used to assess what an individual is capable of doing </li></ul><ul><li>Should not be conf...
Types of Cognitive Ability Tests <ul><li>Otis-Lennon School Ability Test (OLSAT 8) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>K – 12 </li></ul>...
Types of Cognitive Ability Tests <ul><li>The Cognitive Ability Test (CogAT) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constructed with two mod...
Types of Cognitive Ability Tests <ul><li>College and Graduate School Admission (ACT) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Designed to ass...
Types of Cognitive Ability Tests <ul><li>College and Graduate School Admission (SAT) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Areas: reading,...
Types of Cognitive Ability Tests <ul><li>College and Graduate School Admission ( GRE General Test) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>T...
Types of Cognitive Ability Tests <ul><li>College Admissions Tests (GRE Subject Tests) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biochemistry, ...
Types of Cognitive Ability Tests <ul><li>College Admissions Tests (Miller Analogy Test) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>120 analogie...
Types of Cognitive Ability Tests <ul><li>College Admissions Test (LSAT) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assesses: reading comprehens...
The Role of Helpers in the Assessment of Educational Ability  <ul><li>School counselors, school psychologists, learning di...
Final Thoughts on  Assessment of Educational Ability <ul><li>Down side: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers forced to teach to ...
Final Thoughts on  Assessment of Educational Ability <ul><li>Up side: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tests allow us to identify chi...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Chapter 6

1,554 views

Published on

0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,554
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
18
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Chapter 6

  1. 1. Chapter 6 Assessment of Educational Ability: Survey Battery, Diagnostic, Readiness, and Cognitive Ability Tests
  2. 2. Defining Assessment of Educational Ability <ul><li>Purposes of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To determine how well a student is learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To assess class, grades, schools, school systems, or states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To detect learning problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To identify giftedness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To see if a child is ready to move to the next grade level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To assess teacher effectiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For placement in college, grad or professional schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To determine mastery of knowledge for professional advanced (e.g., credentialing exams) </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Tests of Educational Ability <ul><li>Educational Ability: Survey Batter, Diagnostic, Readiness, and Cognitive Ability </li></ul>
  4. 4. Defining Tests of Educational Ability <ul><li>Survey Battery Tests : Measure broad content areas. Often used to assess progress in school </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnostic Tests: Assess problem areas of learning (e.g., learning disabilities) </li></ul><ul><li>Readiness Tests: Measure readiness for moving ahead in school. Often readiness to enter First grade </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Abilities Tests: Often based on what has learned in school. Measure broad range of cognitive ability. Useful in making predictions (e.g., success in school or in college) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Survey Battery Achievement Testing <ul><li>Increasingly important as the result of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act mandated by the Federal government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NCLB: states must show that “adequate yearly progress” is being made toward all students achieving at state-specified academic standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>States have to identify a test to show that this is happening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>See Box 6.1, p. 112 </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Survey Battery Achievement Testing <ul><li>Helpful in following ways: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can help a student, his or her parents, and his or her teachers, identify strengths and weaknesses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Classroom, school, or school system profile reports, helps teachers, principals, administrators, and the public see how students are doing at all these levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally used to show success toward “Adequate Yearly Progress” </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Use of Survey Battery Testing <ul><li>National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not used to show progress of NCLB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is used to compare states to one another </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Called “The National Report Card” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All states required to participate every two years on math and reading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes also take other subjects (not mandatory) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs at 4 th and 8 th grade levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>See Table 6.1, p. 114 </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Types of Survey Battery Tests <ul><li>Stanford Achievement Test (SAT10) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dates back to 1923 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offers Individual Profile Sheets, Class Grouping Sheets, Grade Grouping Sheets, and School System Grouping Sheets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>See Figures 6.2 and 6.3 (pp. 113, 116) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most sub-tests in the mid .80s to low .90s using KR-20 internal consistency estimates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliability estimates fell for the open-ended sections to mid .50 through the .80s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sound content, criterion, and construct validity </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Types of Survey Battery Tests <ul><li>Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dates back to 1935 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geared for grades K through 8 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sub-tests depending on the grade level: language, reading, vocabulary, listening, word analysis, math, social studies, science and sources of information (e.g., uses of maps, dictionaries, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evidence of content validity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliability: middle .80s to low .90s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Correlates well with CogAT </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Types of Survey Battery Tests <ul><li>Metropolitan Achievement Test </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First published in 1930s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>K-12 for a broad range of subjects such as reading, language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple choice questions and open-ended items, which are scored a 0 to 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some criticism: data too heavily weighted for rural classrooms and under represents urban classrooms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good reliability and validity </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Diagnostic Testing <ul><li>Used to assess problems in learning </li></ul><ul><li>PL 94-142 and IDEIA have made these types of tests crucial </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Laws assert that individuals (age 3 – 21) who are suspected of having a disability that interferes with learning has right to be tested at school system’s expense </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used in development of IEP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students with a disability have the right to an education within the least restrictive environment . </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Types of Diagnostic Tests <ul><li>Wide Range Achievement Test 4 (WRAT 4) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Screening test for learning problems. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assesses: Basic reading, spelling, arithmetic skills, and sentence comprehension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attempts to eliminate effects of comprehension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual is asked to: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Read” (pronounce) words </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spell words </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Figure out math problems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide a missing word or words to simple sentences </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Types of Diagnostic Tests <ul><li>Wide Range Achievement Test 4 (WRAT 4) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spelling and Math can be given in group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reading and Sentence Comprehension must be administered individually </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For ages 5 – 75 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal consistency reliability in .90s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rationale for content validity and evidence of construct and criterion-related validity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>See Table 6.2, p. 118 </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Types of Diagnostic Tests <ul><li>Key Math Diagnostic Test (KeyMath-3) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assesses student’s knowledge and understanding of basic mathematics and provides diagnostic information to teachers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>K – 9 or (4.5 – 21 yrs based on cognitive ability) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comprehensive test for learning problems in math </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes 30-90 minutes to take </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliability often in the mid .90s, and evidence of content and concurrent validity </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Types of Diagnostic Tests <ul><li>Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broad academic screening for children K – 12 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Median reliability estimates: .94 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evidence of content, construct, and criterion-related validity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>See Table 6.3, p. 121 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other Diagnostic Tests: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Wechsler Individual Achievement Test – Second Edition (WIAT-II) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Woodcock-Johnson (WJ III) </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Readiness Testing <ul><li>Sometimes helpful in deciding whether a child is “ready” to move onto next level (usually kindergarten or first grade) </li></ul><ul><li>Some problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Children’s cognitive functioning changes rapidly at young ages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross-cultural biases exist in some of these tests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When English is not first language children will tend not to do as well on these tests </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Types of Diagnostic Tests <ul><li>Kindergarten Readiness Test </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to determine if a child is ready to begin kindergarten </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age 4-6 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Covers Reasoning, Language, Auditory and Visual Attention, Numbers, Fine Motor Skills, and several other cognitive and sensory-perception areas. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Questionable reliability and validity </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Types of Readiness Tests <ul><li>Metropolitan Readiness Test, sixth edition (MRT6) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assesses beginning educational skills for preschoolers, kindergarteners, and first graders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Level 1: Assesses: literacy development for preschoolers and beginning kindergarteners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Level 2: Assesses: reading and mathematics for k – beginning first graders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>80-100 minutes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Composite reliability estimates: .90s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subtest reliability: .53 through .77 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some question its validity </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Types of Diagnostic Tests <ul><li>Gesell School Readiness Test </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assesses personal and social skills, neurological and motor growth, language development, and adaptive behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arnold Gesell spent years examining the normal development of children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As far as Gesell was concerned, “achievement” was more than how one scores on a reading or math test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Questionable Reliability and Validity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Read Box 6.2 (p. 123) </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Cognitive Ability Tests <ul><li>Used to assess what an individual is capable of doing </li></ul><ul><li>Should not be confused with intelligence tests </li></ul><ul><li>Often look more like achievement tests—but measure broad content areas </li></ul><ul><li>Good for identifying students not succeeding in school due to learning disabilities, motivation, problems at home or school, self-esteem issues </li></ul>
  21. 21. Types of Cognitive Ability Tests <ul><li>Otis-Lennon School Ability Test (OLSAT 8) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>K – 12 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assesses abstract thinking and reasoning skills via verbal and non-verbal sections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Given in large group format, 60-75 minutes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Achievement/Ability Index (AAC): How students are doing compared to their potential </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content validity: “Each user must determine if the content fits the population they are testing” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliability high for composite scores, lower for subtests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>See Figures 6.4 and 6.5 (pp. 125, 126) </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Types of Cognitive Ability Tests <ul><li>The Cognitive Ability Test (CogAT) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constructed with two models of intelligence: Vernon’s hierarchy and Cattell’s fluid and crystallized abilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides verbal, quantitative, nonverbal ability, and composite score </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scores: Standard age score with mean of 100, SD of 16; percentile ranks, and stanines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good reliability estimates: .80s & .90s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offers rationale for content validity but difficult to defend this type of test as it is used to measure future. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good concurrent validity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>See Box 6.3, p. 127 </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Types of Cognitive Ability Tests <ul><li>College and Graduate School Admission (ACT) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Designed to assess educational development and ability to complete college level work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most Popular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Four skill areas: English, math, reading, and science. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scores range from 1 – 36, (M = 18, SD = 5) for all high school students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mean for college bound students about 21 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Composite score has reliability estimate of .96 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predictive validity: is .43 with first year GPA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>See Box 6.4, p. 129 </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Types of Cognitive Ability Tests <ul><li>College and Graduate School Admission (SAT) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Areas: reading, mathematics, and writing (multiple choice and essay) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scores: 200 to 800 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can compare means to 1990 group whose mean was set at 500 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Percentile score: compares examinees within past 3 yrs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Writing score: 1 and 6 by two or three evaluators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliability: low .90s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Math and verbal scores: .44 to .61 with college grades </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Types of Cognitive Ability Tests <ul><li>College and Graduate School Admission ( GRE General Test) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Three sections: verbal reasoning, quantitative reasoning, and analytical writing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal and quantitative sections scores range: 200-800 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has floating mean and SD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Percentiles compare students who took the test in recent years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For analytical rating. Scores ranked from 0 to 6 by two or three evaluators (Mean has been 4.1, SD: 0.9) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderate reliability for predicting grades </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliability for verbal and quantitative—low .90s, .72 for analytical writing </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Types of Cognitive Ability Tests <ul><li>College Admissions Tests (GRE Subject Tests) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biochemistry, cell and molecular biology; biology; chemistry; computer science; literature in English, mathematics; physics; and psychology. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scores range between 200 and 990 with a floating SD and mean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Correlations with grad grades run between .33 and .47 </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Types of Cognitive Ability Tests <ul><li>College Admissions Tests (Miller Analogy Test) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>120 analogies measure “measures your ability to recognize relationships between ideas, your fluency in the English language, and your general knowledge of the humanities, natural sciences, mathematics, and social sciences” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixed results of predictive validity (one study, .27 with grad GPA) </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Types of Cognitive Ability Tests <ul><li>College Admissions Test (LSAT) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assesses: reading comprehension, analytical reasoning, logical reasoning and a writing sample </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predictive validity estimates average at .33, and when combined with GPA, increase to .47 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>College Admissions Test (MCAT) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assesses physical sciences, biological sciences, verbal reasoning, and a writing sample </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scores 1-15 (except for writing section) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Writing: J – T (higher the better) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research seems to support some predictive validity, but more research needed </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. The Role of Helpers in the Assessment of Educational Ability <ul><li>School counselors, school psychologists, learning disabilities specialists, and school social workers are members of the school’s special education team </li></ul><ul><li>School psychologists and learning disability specialists are testing experts who assess for learning problems </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical and counseling psychologists do additional assessments or act as a second opinion to the school’s assessment person </li></ul><ul><li>School counselors often only testing expert permanently house in school. Can consult with teacher and disaggregate data to find students with learning problems </li></ul><ul><li>Licensed professionals often need to consult with schools about their clients </li></ul>
  30. 30. Final Thoughts on Assessment of Educational Ability <ul><li>Down side: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers forced to teach to tests—not being allowed to be creative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Testing leads to labeling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some tests (e.g., readiness tests and cognitive ability tests) are a mechanism for majority children to move ahead and keep minority children down </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Testing causes competition and peer pressure </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Final Thoughts on Assessment of Educational Ability <ul><li>Up side: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tests allow us to identify children, classrooms, schools, and schools systems, which are performing poorly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Testing allows us to identify children with learning problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Testing allows a child to be accurately placed in grade level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Testing helps children identify what they are good at and helps to identify weak areas they can focus upon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>See Box 6.5, p. 133 </li></ul></ul>

×