Chapter 2 <ul><li>Ethical, Legal, and  </li></ul><ul><li>Professional Issues in Assessment </li></ul>
Ethical Issues in Assessment <ul><li>ACA and APA Code Review </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Choosing Appropriate Instruments </li><...
Ethical Issues in Assessment (Cont’d) <ul><li>Choose appropriate instruments: test worthiness </li></ul><ul><li>Competence...
Ethical Issues in Assessment (Cont’d) <ul><li>Cross-cultural sensitivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Know potential biases of as...
Ethical Issues in Assessment (Cont’d) <ul><li>Test administration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Properly administer as they were s...
Ethical Issues in Assessment (Cont’d) <ul><li>Test security </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep integrity of test content </li></ul...
Standards for  Responsible Testing Practices* <ul><ul><ul><li>Standards of Qualification of test Users </li></ul></ul></ul...
Making Ethical Decisions <ul><li>Moral Model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Autonomy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beneficence </li></...
Making Ethical Decisions (Cont’d) <ul><li>Corey, et al.’s Problem Solving Model: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify problem </...
Making Ethical Decisions (Cont’d) <ul><li>Cognitive Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive development probably affec...
Legal Issues in Assessment <ul><li>Family Education Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Applies to all sc...
Legal Issues in Assessment <ul><li>Freedom of Information Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows access to federal records </li>...
Legal Issues in Testing <ul><li>Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEIA)  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chi...
Professional Issues: Associations <ul><li>ACA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Association for Assessment in Counseling and Education...
Professional Issues: Accreditation <ul><li>Professional organizations created curriculum standards to ensure adequate trai...
Professional Issue: Forensic Evaluations <ul><li>Addresses need of accurate assessments for courts </li></ul><ul><li>Areas...
Professional Issue:  Assessment As A Holistic Process <ul><li>Avoid using one test score in making decisions </li></ul><ul...
Professional Issue: Cross Cultural  Issues in Assessment (Cont’d) <ul><li>Examine Quality and Usefulness of Assessment Ins...
Professional Issue: Cross Cultural  Issues in Assessment (Cont’d) <ul><li>Examine Quality and Usefulness of Assessment Ins...
Embracing Testing  and Assessment Procedures <ul><li>If you have an aversion assessment procedures, and you act on it, the...
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Chapter 2

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Chapter 2

  1. 1. Chapter 2 <ul><li>Ethical, Legal, and </li></ul><ul><li>Professional Issues in Assessment </li></ul>
  2. 2. Ethical Issues in Assessment <ul><li>ACA and APA Code Review </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Choosing Appropriate Instruments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confidentiality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross-cultural Sensitivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Informed Consent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ACA and APA Code Review </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Invasion of Privacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper Diagnosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Release of Test Data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Test Administration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Test Security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Test Scoring and Interpretation </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Ethical Issues in Assessment (Cont’d) <ul><li>Choose appropriate instruments: test worthiness </li></ul><ul><li>Competence: Level A, B, and C; Read p. 22 </li></ul><ul><li>Confidentiality--When to Break: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Danger of harming self or other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If parents have a right to information (usually they do) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If client asks you to break confidentiality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If bound by law (e.g., hired by courts to assess capacity to stand trial) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For supervision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Written agreement from your client to reveal information </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Ethical Issues in Assessment (Cont’d) <ul><li>Cross-cultural sensitivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Know potential biases of assessment procedures when selecting, administering, and interpreting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Obtain Informed consent </li></ul><ul><li>Invasion of privacy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All tests do this, minimize by obtaining informed consent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Proper diagnosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be aware of repercussions of diagnosis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Release of test data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only release to individuals who have the right to the data and won’t misuse it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use signed release form </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Ethical Issues in Assessment (Cont’d) <ul><li>Test administration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Properly administer as they were standardized </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Ethical Issues in Assessment (Cont’d) <ul><li>Test security </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep integrity of test content </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Test scoring and interpretation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When scoring and interpret, understand limitations of test info. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>See Appendix A for list of ethical code websites </li></ul><ul><li>See Appendix B for Assessment Sections of ACA’s and APA’s Codes of Ethics </li></ul>
  7. 7. Standards for Responsible Testing Practices* <ul><ul><ul><li>Standards of Qualification of test Users </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Responsibilities of Users of Standardized Tests </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Standards for Multicultural Assessment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Code of Fair Testing Practices (see Appendix C) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rights and Responsibilities of Test Takers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Competencies in Assessment and Evaluation for School Counselors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing </li></ul></ul></ul>* See Purpose, Developed by, and Reference for on pp. 25-26
  8. 8. Making Ethical Decisions <ul><li>Moral Model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Autonomy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beneficence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonmalficence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Justice or fairness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fidelity (loyalty) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Veracity </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Making Ethical Decisions (Cont’d) <ul><li>Corey, et al.’s Problem Solving Model: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify potential issues involved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Review relevant ethical guidelines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Know relevant laws and regulations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obtain consultation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider possible courses of action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>List consequences of various decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decide best course of action. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Making Ethical Decisions (Cont’d) <ul><li>Cognitive Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive development probably affects how one makes a decision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People on a continuum from: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>rigid, non-reflective manner of looking at decision making, to </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>open, deeply reflective decision-making process </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People can become more relativistic (less dualistic) over time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>See Box 2.1, p. 27 </li></ul><ul><li>Do Box 2.5, p. 36 </li></ul>
  11. 11. Legal Issues in Assessment <ul><li>Family Education Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Applies to all schools that receive federal funds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People have right to educational records, including test records </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Restricts info shared without client consent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows clients access to their records except for process notes used in counseling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Privileged communication laws </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Licensed professional has right to keep info confidential </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jaffee v. Redmond (Box 2.2, p. 29) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Legal Issues in Assessment <ul><li>Freedom of Information Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows access to federal records </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>States have adopted similar laws </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Civil Rights Acts (1964 and amendments) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tests used for employment or promotion must be shown to be suitable and valid for the job in question </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>See Box 2.3 (p. 30): Civil Rights and High Stakes Testing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Americans with Disabilities Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accommodations must be made for individuals with disabilities who take tests for employment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Testing must be relevant to job in question </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Legal Issues in Testing <ul><li>Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEIA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Children 3 to 21 suspected of having disability must be tested at school’s expense </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Child Study Team: Individuals Education Plan (IEP) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Testing for federally funded programs must be a reflection of individual’s ability, not disability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Carl Perkins Act of 2006 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assures rights of select disenfranchised groups to access vocational assessment, counseling, and placement for “special populations.” </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Professional Issues: Associations <ul><li>ACA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Association for Assessment in Counseling and Education (AACE) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Journal: Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>APA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Division 5: Evaluation, Measurement, and Statistics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Journals: Psychological Assessment; Psychological Methods </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Professional Issues: Accreditation <ul><li>Professional organizations created curriculum standards to ensure adequate training in assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Organizations w/ standards: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>American Psychological Association </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Association of School Psychologists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Council for the Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Professional Issue: Forensic Evaluations <ul><li>Addresses need of accurate assessments for courts </li></ul><ul><li>Areas addressed: See Box 2.4, p. 34 </li></ul><ul><li>Forensic psychologists and forensic evaluators credentialing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Counselors and Social Workers: Certification through National Board of Forensic Evaluators (NBFE) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychologists: Diplomate in the Am. Board of Forensic Psychology </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Professional Issue: Assessment As A Holistic Process <ul><li>Avoid using one test score in making decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Remember: individual's motivation, intention, and focus will affect scores </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment not a static process—ongoing </li></ul><ul><li>People do change! </li></ul>
  18. 18. Professional Issue: Cross Cultural Issues in Assessment (Cont’d) <ul><li>Examine Quality and Usefulness of Assessment Instruments and remember following ten points: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assume that all tests hold some bias. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be in touch with your own biases and prejudices. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only use tests that have been shown to be constructed using sound research procedures. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only use tests that have good validity and reliability. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Know there are times when it is appropriate to test and times when it is not. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Professional Issue: Cross Cultural Issues in Assessment (Cont’d) <ul><li>Examine Quality and Usefulness of Assessment Instruments and remember following ten points (Cont’d): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Know how to choose good tests that are relevant to the situation at hand. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Know how to administer, score, and interpret tests within the cultural context of the client. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Know and consider the implications that testing may have for the client. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advocate for clients when tests are shown to be biased. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treat people humanely during the assessment process. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Embracing Testing and Assessment Procedures <ul><li>If you have an aversion assessment procedures, and you act on it, then you are not being fair to your clients. </li></ul><ul><li>If clients are to get the most out of counseling all avenues to increased self-knowledge should be made available to them (including assessment!) </li></ul>

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