1. What are the major distinctionsbetweens plants and algae Apical meristems Multicellular embryos dependent on the parent plant Alternation of generations Sporangia that produce walled spores Gametangia that produce gametes
2. Summarize the general process ofAlternation of Generations Male and female gametophytes produce gametes by mitosis Fertilization results in a diploid zygote The zygotes undergoes mitosis and develops into the diploid sporophyte The sporophyte produces haploid spores by meiosis A spore develops by mitosis into a gametophyte
3. What are the four majordivisions of plants? Bryophytes; seedless vascular plants; gymnosperms; angiosperms
4. Name and describe two reproductivestructures of angisperms. An angiosperm has its gametophytes in its flowers and its seeds packaged inside fruits Anther- sac on stamen in which pollen grains develop Carpel- female; consists of a stalk an ovary at the base and a sticky tip known as the stigma
5. Name three types of plant tissue. Dermal, Vascular, Ground
6. Name and describe three types ofplant cells. Parenchyma cells- most abundant; throughout plant; perform most metabolism Collenchyma cells- grouped in cylinders; help support growing parts of plant Schlerenchyma cells- exist where plant is no longer growing; tough cell walls
12. Why is nitrogen important tothe plant? Where does it comefrom?
13. What is double fertilization? Two sperm nuclei of a pollen grain unite with nuclei of the embryo sac of an angiosperm One sperm nucleus unites with the egg to form the triploid, primary endosperm nucleus The other sperm unites with the two nuclei located in a single cell at the center of the embryo sac. Double fertilization is unique to angiosperms.
15. Name two adaptations that aid inthe uptake of water by roots.
16. Explain the purpose of phloem andhow it moves substances. Sugar transport The phloem transports the organic products of photosynthesis throughout the plant via translocation Source to Sink
17. What is the largest organelle inmost mature plant cells? Vacuole
18. What is vascular cambium? The vascular cambium is a type of meristem in the vascular tissue of plants. The vascular cambium is the source of both the secondary xylem (inwards, towards the pith) and the secondary phloem (outwards), and is located between these tissues in the stem and root. A few leaves have a vascular cambium Found in Dicots and gymnosperms
19. Name adaptations important forterrestrial plants. Vascular tissue Must protect gametes, zygotes, and embryos from drying out Produces gametes in gametangium Most release their offspring to the air or rely on animals
20. Summarize the results of thetranspiration lab.