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SUICIDE
PROBLEM
• Why do people commit suicide?
• What are the factors that trigger
their decision?
• What gender is more prone to
suicide attempts?
• What are the effects of suicide to
the individuals, family and
friends, and the society?
• What are the possible solutions
or preventions in suicide
attempts?
DEFINITION
• Suicide is defined as the intentional taking of one's own
life.
• Suicide is considered a major public health problem aro
und the world as well as a personal tragedy.
According to the National Instituteof
Mental Health (NIMH), suicide wasthe
eleventh leading cause of
death in the United States in 2000,an
d the third leading cause of
deathfor people between the ages of
15 and 24.
http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Suicide
STATISTICS
•The World Health
Organisation (WHO)
estimates that each year
approximately one million
people die from suicide,
which represents a global
mortality rate of 16 people
per 100,000 or one death
every 40 seconds. It is
predicted that by 2020 the
rate of death will increase to
one every 20 seconds.
http://www.befrienders.org/suicide-statistics
http://www.befrienders.org/suicide-statistics
•In the Philippines the statistics of the suicidal rate
per 100,000 the attempt of suicide ranges from 2.5
for male and 1.7 for female. According to the WHO
(World Health Organization) year 2000 the
Philippines has the lowest suicidal rate among its
South East Asian countries. In
which it shows 1.8 per 100,000
have inflicted themselves
(committed suicide). Filipino
female suicidal rate range age of
15 -24 yrs. Old 1.09 per 100,000
commit suicide.
STATISTICS: PHILIPPINE SETTING
STATISTICS: PHILIPPINE SETTING
http://www.befrienders.org/suicide-statistics
CAUSES/FACTO
RS•Research studies would
point to the following
being major factors
triggering people to
attempt to kill
themselves. Note that
more than 90 percent of
people who die by
suicide have the top two
risk factors:
•Depression (especially if
exhibiting extreme
hopelessness, lack of
interest in activities that
were previously
pleasurable, heightened
anxiety and/or panic
attacks) and other mental
disorders
http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Suicide/Pages/Causes.aspx
 Relationship difficulties
(either with an existing
partner, or due to
divorce, being
widowed or a
relationship break-up)
These are the things that are
most likely to push someone
over the edge from
considering suicide, to actually
trying it. The table below is
from a study in Oxford (UK),
where suicide survivors were
asked what factor was causing
them current distress and/or
contributed to them making
their attempt. It is interesting
to note the variations between
men and women:
Problem Both sexes Men Women
Other family member 42.1% 35.7% 45.6%
Partner 40.8% 39.6% 41.5%
Alcohol 33.9% 45.9% 27.4%
Employment/studies 25.7% 31.1% 22.8%
Financial 23.5% 30.0% 20.0%
Social isolation 18.6% 21.4% 17.1%
Housing 17.8% 22.2% 15.4%
Friends 10.6% 7.6% 12.2%
Bereavement 10.0% 9.5% 10.3%
Childhood sexual abuse 8.2% 3.8% 10.6%
Physical health 8.1% 8.1% 8.1%
Drugs 7.9% 13.2% 5.0%
The study in Oxford is by no means a definitive list
though. The American Association of Suicidology (AAS)
published a factsheet3 on the risk factors for suicide,
and had the items below as things that can increase the
short term risk of suicide:
• Excessive or increased use
of substances (alcohol or
drugs)
• Severe feelings of confusion
or disorganization
• Command hallucinations
urging suicide
• Intense affect states (e.g.
desperation, intolerable
aloneness, self-hate)
• Recent diagnosis of terminal
condition
• Sense of purposelessness or
loss of meaning; no reasons
for living.
• Recklessness or excessive
risk-taking behaviour,
especially if out of character
or seemingly without
thinking of consequences,
tendency toward impulsivity.
Mental or physical
disorders
•Psychiatric disorders,
especially:
•Mood disorder (particularly
depression)
•Anxiety disorder
•Schizophrenia
•Substance use disorder (alcohol
abuse or drug
abuse/dependence)
• Eating disorders
• Body dysmorphic disorder (an anxiety disorder where
someone is excessively concerned about and
preoccupied by a perceived defect in their physical
features)
Conduct disorder (a pattern
of repetitive behaviour
where the rights of others
or social norms are violated
- symptoms include verbal
and physical aggression,
cruel behaviour toward
people and pets,
destructive behaviour,
lying, truancy, vandalism,
and stealing)
• More than one psychiatric disorder at the same time
(depression and alcohol misuse being particularly
dangerous)
• A psychiatric disorder and an Axis II personality
disorder (especially if the Axis II disorder is antisocial or
borderline personality disorders) or an Axis III medical
disorder
• Axis II personality disorder,
especially category B (Category
A: paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal;
Category B: antisocial, borderline,
histrionic, narcissistic; Category C:
avoidant, dependant, obsessive-
compulsive). See Axis II
personality disorders for more
information.
• Axis III medical disorders (brain injuries and other
medical/physical disorders which may aggravate
existing diseases or present symptoms similar to other
disorders, especially if it involves functional impairment
and/or chronic pain)
• Traumatic brain injury
• Low self-esteem/high self-hate
 Tolerant/accepting attitude
toward suicide
 Lack of acceptance by
someone or their family of
their sexual orientation
 Smoking
 Perfectionism (especially in
context of depression)
CAUSES/FACTORS
•Signs of Suicidal Intent
•Most of the people who complete suicide give warning
signs such as talking about suicide or a wish to die;
drawing, writing story, poems and essay about death;
statements of helplessness, worthlessness.
Unexplained changes in behavior is also a sign. Most
suicides can be prevented because the suicidal state of
mind is usually temporary.
http://lostallhope.com/whats-behind-suicide
CAUSES
• Major psychiatric illness - in particular, mood
disorders (e.g., depression, bipolar disorder,
schizophrenia)
• Substance abuse (primarily alcohol abuse)
• Family history of suicide
• Long term difficulties with relationships with
friends and family
• Losing hope or the will to live
• Significant losses in a person's life, such as the
death of a loved one, loss of an important
relationship, loss of employment or self-esteem
• Unbearable emotional or physical pain
http://lostallhope.com/whats-behind-suicide
F
A
C
T
O
R
S
Most of the people who complete
suicide give warning signs such as
talking about suicide or a wish to die;
drawing, writing story, poems and
essay about death; statements of
helplessness, worthlessness.
Unexplained changes in behavior is
also a sign. Most suicides can be
prevented because the suicidal
state of mind is usually temporary.
http://lostallhope.com/whats-behind-suicide
METHODS
Firearms
Hanging
Plastic bag and Gas
Drug Poisoning
Jumping off a high building
Jumping under a train
Chemical Poisoning
Wrist Cutting
Drowning
FIREARMS
HANGING
PLASTIC BAG AND GAS
DRUG POISONING
JUMPINGOFF A HIGHBUILDING
JUMPING UNDER A TRAIN
CHEMICAL POISONING
WRISTCUTTING
DROWNING
http://lostallhope.com/suicide-methods
The statistics on thenumber of successful suicides by method
• Lethality: How likely is the method to cause
death (where 0% is no chance, and 100% is
absolute certainty)
• Time: An opinion on the length of time the
method will require to produce death
• Agony: The amount of pain and discomfort
you would expect from the use of the particular
method (ranked on scale of 0 to 100 where 0 is
no pain/discomfort and 100 is the most
pain/discomfort possible)
http://lostallhope.com/suicide-methods
http://lostallhope.com/suicide-methods
To the
SURVIVORs.
http://www.survivorsofsuicide.com/faq_suicide.shtml
To the partner.
http://www.survivorsofsuicide.com/faq_suicide.shtml
To the family and
friends.
http://www.answers.com/Q/What_is_the_causes_and_effect_of_suicide
To the family and
friends.
http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/suicide/consequences.html
To the
society.
Effects of Suicide Attempts
Suicide attempts can result in a multitude of negative physical
effects. The effects experienced depend on the method used
during the attempt. These can include:
Total organ failure
Specific organ failure
Brain damage
Paralysis
Coma
Death
http://chealth.canoe.ca/channel_condition_info_details.asp?disease_id=206&channel_id=155&relation_id=54534
Members:
• Acasio, Geordette
• Cambaliza, Josephine Jeric
• Manalo, Zandro
• Permalino, Janelle
• Rabia, Ronnel
• Reyes, Karen Nikole
• Sagadal, John Paul
• Tabo, Raymond San
• Torres, Sharenz Risnny

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Causes, Effects & Prevention of Suicide: A Comprehensive Guide

  • 2. PROBLEM • Why do people commit suicide? • What are the factors that trigger their decision? • What gender is more prone to suicide attempts? • What are the effects of suicide to the individuals, family and friends, and the society? • What are the possible solutions or preventions in suicide attempts?
  • 3. DEFINITION • Suicide is defined as the intentional taking of one's own life. • Suicide is considered a major public health problem aro und the world as well as a personal tragedy. According to the National Instituteof Mental Health (NIMH), suicide wasthe eleventh leading cause of death in the United States in 2000,an d the third leading cause of deathfor people between the ages of 15 and 24. http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Suicide
  • 4. STATISTICS •The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that each year approximately one million people die from suicide, which represents a global mortality rate of 16 people per 100,000 or one death every 40 seconds. It is predicted that by 2020 the rate of death will increase to one every 20 seconds. http://www.befrienders.org/suicide-statistics
  • 6. •In the Philippines the statistics of the suicidal rate per 100,000 the attempt of suicide ranges from 2.5 for male and 1.7 for female. According to the WHO (World Health Organization) year 2000 the Philippines has the lowest suicidal rate among its South East Asian countries. In which it shows 1.8 per 100,000 have inflicted themselves (committed suicide). Filipino female suicidal rate range age of 15 -24 yrs. Old 1.09 per 100,000 commit suicide.
  • 7.
  • 10. CAUSES/FACTO RS•Research studies would point to the following being major factors triggering people to attempt to kill themselves. Note that more than 90 percent of people who die by suicide have the top two risk factors:
  • 11. •Depression (especially if exhibiting extreme hopelessness, lack of interest in activities that were previously pleasurable, heightened anxiety and/or panic attacks) and other mental disorders http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Suicide/Pages/Causes.aspx
  • 12.  Relationship difficulties (either with an existing partner, or due to divorce, being widowed or a relationship break-up)
  • 13. These are the things that are most likely to push someone over the edge from considering suicide, to actually trying it. The table below is from a study in Oxford (UK), where suicide survivors were asked what factor was causing them current distress and/or contributed to them making their attempt. It is interesting to note the variations between men and women:
  • 14. Problem Both sexes Men Women Other family member 42.1% 35.7% 45.6% Partner 40.8% 39.6% 41.5% Alcohol 33.9% 45.9% 27.4% Employment/studies 25.7% 31.1% 22.8% Financial 23.5% 30.0% 20.0% Social isolation 18.6% 21.4% 17.1% Housing 17.8% 22.2% 15.4% Friends 10.6% 7.6% 12.2% Bereavement 10.0% 9.5% 10.3% Childhood sexual abuse 8.2% 3.8% 10.6% Physical health 8.1% 8.1% 8.1% Drugs 7.9% 13.2% 5.0%
  • 15. The study in Oxford is by no means a definitive list though. The American Association of Suicidology (AAS) published a factsheet3 on the risk factors for suicide, and had the items below as things that can increase the short term risk of suicide: • Excessive or increased use of substances (alcohol or drugs)
  • 16. • Severe feelings of confusion or disorganization • Command hallucinations urging suicide • Intense affect states (e.g. desperation, intolerable aloneness, self-hate) • Recent diagnosis of terminal condition
  • 17. • Sense of purposelessness or loss of meaning; no reasons for living. • Recklessness or excessive risk-taking behaviour, especially if out of character or seemingly without thinking of consequences, tendency toward impulsivity.
  • 18. Mental or physical disorders •Psychiatric disorders, especially: •Mood disorder (particularly depression) •Anxiety disorder •Schizophrenia •Substance use disorder (alcohol abuse or drug abuse/dependence)
  • 19. • Eating disorders • Body dysmorphic disorder (an anxiety disorder where someone is excessively concerned about and preoccupied by a perceived defect in their physical features) Conduct disorder (a pattern of repetitive behaviour where the rights of others or social norms are violated - symptoms include verbal and physical aggression, cruel behaviour toward people and pets, destructive behaviour, lying, truancy, vandalism, and stealing)
  • 20. • More than one psychiatric disorder at the same time (depression and alcohol misuse being particularly dangerous) • A psychiatric disorder and an Axis II personality disorder (especially if the Axis II disorder is antisocial or borderline personality disorders) or an Axis III medical disorder • Axis II personality disorder, especially category B (Category A: paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal; Category B: antisocial, borderline, histrionic, narcissistic; Category C: avoidant, dependant, obsessive- compulsive). See Axis II personality disorders for more information.
  • 21. • Axis III medical disorders (brain injuries and other medical/physical disorders which may aggravate existing diseases or present symptoms similar to other disorders, especially if it involves functional impairment and/or chronic pain) • Traumatic brain injury • Low self-esteem/high self-hate  Tolerant/accepting attitude toward suicide  Lack of acceptance by someone or their family of their sexual orientation  Smoking  Perfectionism (especially in context of depression)
  • 22. CAUSES/FACTORS •Signs of Suicidal Intent •Most of the people who complete suicide give warning signs such as talking about suicide or a wish to die; drawing, writing story, poems and essay about death; statements of helplessness, worthlessness. Unexplained changes in behavior is also a sign. Most suicides can be prevented because the suicidal state of mind is usually temporary. http://lostallhope.com/whats-behind-suicide
  • 23. CAUSES • Major psychiatric illness - in particular, mood disorders (e.g., depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia) • Substance abuse (primarily alcohol abuse) • Family history of suicide • Long term difficulties with relationships with friends and family • Losing hope or the will to live • Significant losses in a person's life, such as the death of a loved one, loss of an important relationship, loss of employment or self-esteem • Unbearable emotional or physical pain http://lostallhope.com/whats-behind-suicide
  • 24. F A C T O R S Most of the people who complete suicide give warning signs such as talking about suicide or a wish to die; drawing, writing story, poems and essay about death; statements of helplessness, worthlessness. Unexplained changes in behavior is also a sign. Most suicides can be prevented because the suicidal state of mind is usually temporary. http://lostallhope.com/whats-behind-suicide
  • 25. METHODS Firearms Hanging Plastic bag and Gas Drug Poisoning Jumping off a high building Jumping under a train Chemical Poisoning Wrist Cutting Drowning
  • 35. http://lostallhope.com/suicide-methods The statistics on thenumber of successful suicides by method • Lethality: How likely is the method to cause death (where 0% is no chance, and 100% is absolute certainty) • Time: An opinion on the length of time the method will require to produce death • Agony: The amount of pain and discomfort you would expect from the use of the particular method (ranked on scale of 0 to 100 where 0 is no pain/discomfort and 100 is the most pain/discomfort possible)
  • 38.
  • 41. To the family and friends. http://www.answers.com/Q/What_is_the_causes_and_effect_of_suicide
  • 42. To the family and friends. http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/suicide/consequences.html
  • 44. Effects of Suicide Attempts Suicide attempts can result in a multitude of negative physical effects. The effects experienced depend on the method used during the attempt. These can include: Total organ failure Specific organ failure Brain damage Paralysis Coma Death
  • 45.
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  • 48. Members: • Acasio, Geordette • Cambaliza, Josephine Jeric • Manalo, Zandro • Permalino, Janelle • Rabia, Ronnel • Reyes, Karen Nikole • Sagadal, John Paul • Tabo, Raymond San • Torres, Sharenz Risnny

Editor's Notes

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