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Gr 7 honors science final review 2015 filled in


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Gr 7 honors science final review 2015 filled in

  1. 1. SPS Grade 7 Honors Science Final Review 2015 Page 1 of 10 Science Content  Studying People Scientifically  Controlgroup, Constantvariable, Independent Variable, Dependent Variable, Qualitative, Quantitative, Sample size, Hypothesis o List 4-5 components ofa good experimental design. Large Sample Size Well written Procedure Control group  s (IV/DV/ Control) o What is the difference between qualitative vs. quantitative data? Provide some examples. Qualitative Data – descriptive; uses words Quantitative Data- number data Qualitative Data- Tall, Green, Healthy, Bumpy Quantitative data- 50 ml., 5 inches tall, 38ºF o Using “Feel the Beat” and “Dig In”; identify the independent, dependent and constant variables (be able to identify variables when reading other experiments as well). IV – the factor you are studying; in feel the beat it is the change you made to affect the heart rate…push-ups/eating candy etc. DV- the data you are collecting; in Feel the Beat it was the heart rate data. Constant variables- the factors you keep the same during each Trial… like the number of reps, location of experiment etc.
  2. 2. SPS Grade 7 Honors Science Final Review 2015 Page 2 of 10  Body Works  Heart, Lungs, Mouth, Esophagus, Large Intestine, Small Intestine, Pulse Rate, Alveoli o List the organs of the respiratory system and explain gas exchange.  Nose/Mouth -> Trachea -> Bronchial Tubes -> Alveoli (grape like clusters in your lungs) - Oxygen and Carbon dioxide are exchanged in the alveoli which are surrounded by capillaries. CO2 out/ O2 in! o What is the order of the organs in the digestive system through which food passes? Mouth Esophagus    e  o Explain whether mechanical or chemical breakdownis occurring in each organ of the digestive system.  Mouth – Mechanical and Chemical Esophagus – Neither Stomach- Mechanical and Chemical Small Intestine – Chemical Large Intestine – Slight chemical 
  3. 3. SPS Grade 7 Honors Science Final Review 2015 Page 3 of 10 o Describe the structure and function of the respiratory and circulatory systems and their relationship to each other.  The respiratory system brings air carrying oxygen into the lungs where it reaches the alveoli. In the alveoli oxygen from the air enters the blood stream through capillaries and carbon dioxide from the blood is dropped off in the lungs to be exhal ed. This is how the respiratory and circulatory system work together. o Describe how the pulse changes during exercise and explain why this change is taking place.  Your pulse (heart rate) increases in order to bring more oxygen to your muscles during exercise.  Cell Biology & Disease  Nucleus, Cytoplasm, Chloroplast, Mitochondria, Cell Membrane, Cell Wall, Magnification, Vacuole, Microscope, DNA o Given various ocular and objective lens magnifications, calculate the total magnification of using each objective lens. Forexample, Calculate the total magnification for a 15X ocular and 40X objective (15x) x (40x) = 600x eyepiece times the objective = total magnification o Explain the function of the four most commonorganelles. - Nucleus- controls all of the activities of the cell; contains the genetic material (DNA) - Cell Membrane- controls what enters and leaves the cell - Mitochondria – powerhouse of the cell - Cytoplasm – jelly like substance that organelles float in
  4. 4. SPS Grade 7 Honors Science Final Review 2015 Page 4 of 10 o Compareand contrastbacteria vs. animal cell organelles. - Bacteria- No nucleus, cell wall, single celled organism - Animal Cell- Nucleus, no cell wall, - Both have cell membranes, cytoplasm, mitochondria o Compare and contrastsingle vs. multi-celled organisms and provide examples of each. - Multi cellular organisms are larger, have specialized cells and live longer. - Single celled organisms are microscopic and live short lives  Genetics  Genes, Genotype, Phenotype, Generation, Probability, chromosome o Calculate the probability of future offspring using a Punnett Square. Forexample, Gg X gg Results in: Genotype: (Gene combinations.) 50% Gg (heterozygous) and 50% gg (recessive) Phenotype: (What it looks like.) 50% Dominant trait G and 50% recessive trait g
  5. 5. SPS Grade 7 Honors Science Final Review 2015 Page 5 of 10 o Be able to distinguish genotypes that result in the dominant phenotype from genotypes which; result in the recessive phenotype. o Describe the important facts about asexual reproduction.  Results in offspring that are identical to the parent (clones) , there is one parent o Describe the important facts about sexual reproduction.  Results in offspring that are unique, there are two parents, o What is the importance of genes and where are they located?  Genes are located on the chromosomes which are found in the nucleus of every animal and plant cell. Genes determine the traits of an organism. o Describe what is occurring in meiosis and describethe cells which are produced.  Meiosis produces gamete cells (Sperm and Egg cells) that chromosomesas normal body cells. In humans, sperm and egg cells contain 23 chromosomes. Body cells contain 46 chromosomes.
  6. 6. SPS Grade 7 Honors Science Final Review 2015 Page 6 of 10 o Describe what is occurring in mitosis and describethe cells which are produced.  Mitosis produces body cells that contain the normal number of chromosomes. (46 in humans)  All cells that are not gametes (sperm or egg cells) are produced by mitosis.  Erosion & Deposition  Weathering, Erosion, Deposition o Describe how weathering, erosion and depositioncreate and change landforms.  Weatheri ng : h ice, heat breaking down rocks into smaller particles. • Erosion: The movement of particles (weathered material) by wind or water. • Deposition: The re-location of accumulation of particles to a new place….where it is deposited. (Mouth of a river, Delta or Marsh)  Dig-In/Studying Soils Scientifically  Absorbency, Percolation Rate o How particle size affects percolation rate.  The larger the particle size, the bigger the spaces between them. This results in faster percolation. Smaller particle sizes have slower percolation. (Sand  Silt  Clay ) o Describe absorbencyand how it affects the soil  hasincreased absorbency that water will not move through it well. This is because it is absorbing the liquid. This could prevent the plant roots from getting water. A clay like soil would have this problem.
  7. 7. SPS Grade 7 Honors Science Final Review 2015 Page 7 of 10  Plate Tectonics  Ring of Fire, Convergent plate boundary, Divergent plate boundary, Transform plate boundary o Differentiate between the three plate boundaries, their movement and what can occurat each boundary. Divergent boundary – is when two plates move apart. Examples: The Great Rift Valley and Mid-Atlantic Ridge Transform boundary – is when two plates slide past each other. This area marked by cracking of the crust; many shallow earthquakes. Example: San Andreas Fault. Convergent boundary - Two pieces of crust collide. There are three types of Convergent boundaries. o Describe similarities and differences between Continental Drift and Plate Tectonics.  Plate Tectonics - The Earth’s crust and upper mantle are broken into sections. These sections are called plates. They move together (convergent), apart (divergent) and past each other (transform).  • Continental Drift - The thought that the continents used to be together (Pangaea) and they moved apart. It really wasn’t that the continents were moving apart but that the plates were moving (Converging, Diverging and Transforming) , which then moved the continents!