5 barriers to effective communication


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5 barriers to effective communication

  1. 1. Barriers to Effective Communication Dr. Eduardo Bustos Farías
  2. 2. Process Barriers <ul><li>Sender barrier </li></ul><ul><li>Encoding barrier </li></ul><ul><li>Message barrier </li></ul><ul><li>Medium barrier </li></ul><ul><li>Decoding barrier </li></ul><ul><li>Receiving barrier </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback barrier </li></ul>
  3. 3. Missed communication As Purchasing ordered it. As the Art Dept. designed it. As the Supervisor implemented it. As the Manager Requested it. As Marketing wrote it up. What the Employee really wanted!
  4. 4. Communication <ul><li>Barriers to Successful Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability of the sender – how much the sender understands of the message they are trying to send </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content – including technicalities and jargon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Method of communication – including style and body language where appropriate! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skills and attitude of the receiver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organisational factors – complexity of the organisation, scope of the organisation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural attitudes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceptions, prejudices and stereotypes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inappropriate target for the message </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical capabilities – ICT! </li></ul></ul>
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  6. 6. Barriers to Effective Communication <ul><li>Process Barriers: involve all components of the perceptual model of communication </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Barriers: involve components of an individual’s communication competence and interpersonal dynamics between people communicating </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Barriers: pertain to the physical distance between people communicating </li></ul><ul><li>Semantic Barriers: relate to the different understanding and interpretations of the words we use to communicate </li></ul><ul><li>For class discussion: Which of the barriers to effective communication is the most difficult to deal with? Explain. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Personal Barriers <ul><li>Ability to effectively communicate </li></ul><ul><li>Way people process and interpret information </li></ul><ul><li>Level of interpersonal trust between people </li></ul><ul><li>Stereotypes and prejudice </li></ul><ul><li>Egos </li></ul><ul><li>Poor listening skills </li></ul><ul><li>Neutral tendency to evaluate or judge a sender’s message </li></ul><ul><li>Inability to listen with understanding </li></ul>
  8. 8. Barriers to Effective Communication Filtering A sender’s manipulation of information so that it will be seen more favorably by the receiver. Selective Perception People selectively interpret what they see on the basis of their interests, background, experience, and attitudes. Information Overload A condition in which information inflow exceeds an individual’s processing capacity.
  9. 9. Barriers to Effective Communication (cont’d) Emotions How a receiver feels at the time a message is received will influence how the message is interpreted. Language Words have different meanings to different people. Communication Apprehension Undue tension and anxiety about oral communication, written communication, or both.
  10. 10. Communication Barriers Between Men and Women <ul><li>Men talk to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasize status, power, and independence. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complain that women talk on and on. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offer solutions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To boast about their accomplishments. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Women talk to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish connection and intimacy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Criticize men for not listening. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speak of problems to promote closeness. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Express regret and restore balance to a conversation. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Knowledge Management (KM) Why KM is important: Intellectual assets are as important as physical assets. When individuals leave, their knowledge and experience goes with them. A KM system reduces redundancy and makes the organization more efficient. Knowledge Management A process of organizing and distributing an organization’s collective wisdom so the right information gets to the right people at the right time.
  12. 12. Choice of Communication Channel <ul><li>Characteristics of Rich Channels </li></ul><ul><li>Handle multiple cues simultaneously. </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate rapid feedback. </li></ul><ul><li>Are very personal in context. </li></ul>Channel Richness The amount of information that can be transmitted during a communication episode.
  13. 13. “ Politically Correct” Communication <ul><li>Certain words stereotype, intimidate, and insult individuals. </li></ul><ul><li>In an increasingly diverse workforce, we must be sensitive to how words might offend others. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Removed: handicapped , blind , and elderly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Replaced with: physically challenged , visually impaired , and senior . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Removing certain words from the vocabulary makes it harder to communicate accurately. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Removed: death , garbage, quotas , and women . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Replaced with terms: negative patient outcome , postconsumer waste materials , educational equity , and people of gender . </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Cross-Cultural Communication <ul><li>Cultural Barriers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Semantics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Word connotations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tone differences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Differences among perceptions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cultural Guide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assume differences until similarity is proven. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasize description rather than interpretation or evaluation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practice empathy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treat your interpretations as a working hypothesis. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Communication Techniques for Problem Solving <ul><li>1. To the person involved in the problem: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relate the facts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give your interpretation of them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain how you feel about it </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Listen to their response: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How does the other person feel, see, interpret? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3. Questions to ask: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is it possible to change the situation or to compromise? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If the situation cannot be changed, can you or the other person accept it? </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Communication Techniques for Problem Solving <ul><li>4. When a solution is agreed upon by both parties, either through a willingness to change on one person’s part or through a compromise by both parties, put the agreement in writing so that both are aware of the terms of the agreement. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Expect improvements to happen in small increments. During the early stages encourage changes with positive feedback, avoid criticism for falling short. </li></ul><ul><li>6. When you know the person is capable of keeping their agreement and they continue to break it, state the consequences and most importantly, follow through! </li></ul>
  17. 17. Communication Barriers and Cultural Context High-Context Cultures Cultures that rely heavily on nonverbal and subtle situational cues to communication. Low-Context Cultures Cultures that rely heavily on words to convey meaning in communication.