3 models of communication

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3 models of communication

  1. 1. Models of Communication Dr. Eduardo Bustos Farías
  2. 2. Models of Communication <ul><li>Linear Models </li></ul>
  3. 3. Models of Communication <ul><li>Linear Models </li></ul>
  4. 4. Models of Communication <ul><li>Linear Models </li></ul>
  5. 5. Models of Communication <ul><li>Linear Models </li></ul>
  6. 6. Models of Communication <ul><li>Linear Models </li></ul>
  7. 7. Models of Communication <ul><li>Linear Models </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive </li></ul>
  8. 8. Models of Communication <ul><li>Linear Models </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive </li></ul><ul><li>Transaction </li></ul>Models of Communication http://www.sfc.keio.ac.jp/~masanao/Mosaic_data/com_model.html
  9. 9. Models of communication <ul><li>Aristotle (384 BC – 322 BC) </li></ul><ul><li>The study of communication can be organised into three categories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The sender </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The message </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The listener </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Aristotle’s model Sender Receiver Message
  11. 11. Mass communications Sender Message
  12. 12. Communications research 1920-40 <ul><li>Level A </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The technical problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How accurately can the symbols of communication be transmitted? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Level B </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The semantic problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How precisely do the transmitted symbols convey the desired meaning? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Level C </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The effectiveness problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How effectively does the received meaning affect behaviour in the desired way? </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Mathematical Theory of Communication <ul><li>Claude Shannon (1948) </li></ul><ul><li>Telecommunications engineer at Bell labs </li></ul><ul><li>How much information is in a message? </li></ul>
  14. 14. Main People <ul><li>Claude Shannon – Developed the initial theory of communication. With Warren Weaver developed the Shannon-Weaver model of Communication Theory </li></ul><ul><li>W. Scramm – Added concept of field of experience to Shannon-Weaver model </li></ul><ul><li>David Berlo – Developed SMCR ( Sender Message Channel Receiver) model, stressing relationship between source and receiver </li></ul><ul><li>Howard Lasswell – Introduced content analysis </li></ul>
  15. 15. Information Theory Model (Shannon) Source Destination encode decode channel
  16. 16. The Objective Model Speaker A Speaker B Purpose is understanding Step 1 Step 2
  17. 17. Shannon & Weaver Model of Communication Information Sources Transmitter Receiver Destination Signal Received Noise Source Message Message
  18. 18. Shannon’s model <ul><li>Information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not the same as meaning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Function of the number of message choices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Entropy is the amount of uncertainty in a message </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Channel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Medium over which the message is sent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximum capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Noise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unwanted distortion </li></ul></ul>Information source Destination Transmitter Receiver Message Message Signal Received signal Noise Noise source
  19. 19. MODEL #1: CONTINUOUS LOOP MODEL <ul><li>This is the EARLIEST model of communication that has been presented and accepted by others who study the field. </li></ul><ul><li>It is also the SIMPLEST model (though it might not look like it at first). </li></ul><ul><li>It includes all of the basic parts/players in the communication process. </li></ul><ul><li>There are still a few problems, though! </li></ul>
  20. 20. Continuous Loop Model
  21. 21. Continuous Loop Model CONTENT
  22. 22. Continuous Loop Model M MESSAGE CONTENT
  23. 23. Continuous Loop Model M Channels MESSAGE CONTENT
  24. 24. Continuous Loop Model S M Channels SENDER MESSAGE CONTENT
  25. 25. Continuous Loop Model S M Info Source Channels SENDER MESSAGE CONTENT
  26. 26. Continuous Loop Model S M R Info Source Channels SENDER MESSAGE RECEIVER CONTENT
  27. 27. Continuous Loop Model S M R Info Source Channels Break = diff. Message received = confusion SENDER MESSAGE RECEIVER CONTENT
  28. 28. Continuous Loop Model S M R F Info Source Channels Break = diff. Message received = confusion SENDER MESSAGE RECEIVER FEEDBACK CONTENT
  29. 29. Continuous Loop Model S M R F Info Source Channels Break = diff. Message received = confusion SENDER MESSAGE RECEIVER FEEDBACK Break = diff info sent to Sender = improper reactions CONTENT
  30. 30. CONTINUOUS LOOP <ul><li>This model is based upon the concept that language is a system or a machine. </li></ul><ul><li>In this machine, communication acts as the “gears” for the machine to work properly. </li></ul><ul><li>Any breakdowns hurt efficiency! </li></ul>
  31. 31. CONTINUOUS LOOP <ul><li>While this is the EARLIEST model of communication, it is not known who the developer or the creator of the model was. </li></ul><ul><li>The only thing we know for sure is that it was most-likely developed in the 1920s or 1930s. </li></ul>
  32. 32. CONTINUOUS LOOP <ul><li>One of the flaws of the model is that it assumes “continuous” communication. </li></ul><ul><li>There are times when we choose to stop communicating. </li></ul><ul><li>In other words, this is good on paper, but it does not fit all situations. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Models of Communication <ul><li>“ Model” = “theory” </li></ul><ul><li>Mathematical theory of communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Claude Shannon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ linear” model of communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also known as “information theory” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Concepts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information, Message, Information source, Signal, Channel, Transmitter, Noise source, Received signal, Receiver, Destination </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Main Points – Shannon Weaver Model <ul><li>A linear view of communication: messages are encoded by a source and sent through a channel. Messages are then decoded by a receiver, who then sends the source feedback. Messages may be disrupted by noise. </li></ul><ul><li>Schramm adds the factor of fields of experience of the sender and receiver, life experiences which can enhance communication when they overlap. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Mathematical theory of communication - 1 <ul><li>Information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not to be confused with meaning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>log 2 of of the number of possible messages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is called entropy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Information source </li></ul><ul><li>Message: transmitted by information source </li></ul><ul><li>Signal: physical form of message </li></ul>
  36. 36. Mathematical theory of communication - 2 <ul><li>Channel: physical medium for signal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g., air in spoken communication </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transmitter </li></ul><ul><li>Noise source </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unintended (by information source) changes to the signal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Receiver </li></ul><ul><li>Received signal: signal + noise </li></ul><ul><li>Destination: recipient of message </li></ul>
  37. 37. Entropy Example <ul><li>Let’s say you want to send one of eight possible messages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All messages with same possible frequency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g., A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H are the possible messages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How many bits do you need to transmit a single message? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use the entropy calculation </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. An Aspect of Shannon’s Model <ul><li>Information sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where is the information source when using a CD-ROM? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Giving the computer human qualities can ease identification of source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Crafting the interactive portion of a multimedia production so that it appears that the user is communicating more with a human than with an inanimate computer may be quite complex and costly in terms of development time and effort. However, the benefits in terms of user acceptance, satisfaction, and enjoyment may justify the expense” (p. 259) </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. MODEL #2: SHANNON & WEAVER <ul><li>This model was created in 1949. </li></ul><ul><li>It is not certain if this pair of researchers had seen the “Continuous Loop” model, but they were probably at least familiar with it. </li></ul><ul><li>This model was designed to be practical! </li></ul>
  40. 40. MODEL #2: SHANNON & WEAVER <ul><li>Just as the “Loop” model was more “academic,” the Shannon & Weaver Model is more “down-to-earth.” </li></ul><ul><li>The basis for this model was a study of telephone conversations over a very lengthy 2-year time. </li></ul>
  41. 41. MODEL #2: SHANNON & WEAVER <ul><li>The team studied only what they deemed to be “important” or “significant” calls of some length. </li></ul><ul><li>Quick calls to a neighbor or a store were not considered for the study. </li></ul><ul><li>The focus was on the “mechanics” of the messages. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Shannon and Weaver Model T Transmitter = Phone
  43. 43. Shannon and Weaver Model T R Transmitter = Phone Receiver = Phone
  44. 44. Shannon and Weaver Model S T R Transmitter = Phone Receiver = Phone Sender = Info Source
  45. 45. Shannon and Weaver Model S T R R Sender = Info Source Transmitter = Phone Receiver = Phone
  46. 46. Shannon and Weaver Model S T R R N Sender = Info Source Transmitter = Phone Receiver = Phone NOISE
  47. 47. Shannon and Weaver Model S T R R N Sender = Info Source Transmitter = Phone Receiver = Phone NOISE Static or Connection
  48. 48. Shannon and Weaver Model S T R R N Sender = Info Source Transmitter = Phone Receiver = Phone NOISE Static or Connection Mental or Electronic
  49. 49. Shannon and Weaver Model S T R R N ? Sender = Info Source Transmitter = Phone Receiver = Phone NOISE Static or Connection Mental or Electronic
  50. 50. Shannon and Weaver Model S T R R N ? Sender = Info Source Transmitter = Phone Receiver = Phone Altered Message = Confusion NOISE Static or Connection Mental or Electronic
  51. 51. Berlo’s Model of Communication - 1 <ul><li>Communication as a process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous, dynamic phenomenon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arises as the interaction between communicating parties </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Channel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical conductor of message (e.g., air) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Form of energy carrying message (e.g., sound waves) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanism for encoding/decoding (e.g., vocal chords, ears) </li></ul></ul>
  52. 52. Berlo’s Model of Communication - 2 <ul><li>Fidelity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>effectiveness in achieving senders purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sender and receiver issues </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Factors in fidelity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attitudes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Position within a sociocultural system </li></ul></ul>
  53. 53. Relevant Questions <ul><li>What sorts of materials should be presented spoken form? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What in writing? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What sorts of sounds (music, sound effects, etc.) are most effective in various situations? </li></ul><ul><li>What types of images (still, drawings, animations, video) are most efficient and effective for different purposes? </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 7 of text has some relevant guidelines </li></ul>
  54. 54. Other Guidelines <ul><li>Simultaneous use of multiple channels often enhance effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>“ Words alone cannot convey a message with anywhere near the efficiency of words and images together” </li></ul><ul><li>“ The receiver will be more likely to decode a message accurately if he can see it and hear it at the same time. We know, too, that the receiver cannot retain as much oral information as he can visual, other things being equal” (Berlo, 1960, p. 68) </li></ul>
  55. 55. Views of Communication <ul><li>Transmission view </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sending, giving, imparting information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear aspects of mechanistic view; computer and information processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Directed towards achieving goals, purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ritual view </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication to transmit the “social reality as perceived by that society” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symbols as representations both for and of reality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not directed towards achieving goals? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Part of learning to communicate? </li></ul></ul>
  56. 56. MODEL #3: BERLO’S “MODEL” <ul><li>This is the MOST RECENT model of communication study. </li></ul><ul><li>An exact date is not given for the study, but it is believed to have been completed in the late 1970s or the early 1980s. </li></ul><ul><li>This one is not designed to be “academic” or “practical.” It is designed to be “ALL-INCLUSIVE” </li></ul>
  57. 57. MODEL #3: BERLO’S “MODEL” <ul><li>Even with all of the good things that this “model” illustrates and tries to describe, there is still one little issue to remember… </li></ul>
  58. 58. MODEL #3: BERLO’S “MODEL” <ul><li>IT’S NOT REALLY EVEN A TRUE MODEL IN THE FIRST PLACE! </li></ul>
  59. 59. MODEL #3: BERLO’S “MODEL” <ul><li>It is NOT a model because it was never actually tested. </li></ul><ul><li>Berlo designed what he thought would be the ideal system to describe communication, but never had a chance to put it to the test in real life. </li></ul>
  60. 60. MODEL #3: BERLO’S “MODEL” <ul><li>Since it was never “field-tested,” the “model” that Berlo developed has to take on a new title… </li></ul>
  61. 61. MODEL #3: BERLO’S “MODEL” <ul><li>IT HAS TO BE CALLED A “THEORY” </li></ul>
  62. 62. Berlo’s Listening Theory
  63. 63. Berlo’s Listening Theory CONTENT
  64. 64. Berlo’s Listening Theory CONTENT CODE
  65. 65. Berlo’s Listening Theory CONTENT CODE Sender: Emotions Knowledge Background Biases Ability
  66. 66. Berlo’s Listening Theory CONTENT CODE Sender: Emotions Knowledge Background Biases Ability Receiver: Emotions Knowledge Background Biases Ability
  67. 67. (SMCR) Sender Message Channel Receiver Sender Message Receiver Channel 1
  68. 68. (SMCR) Sender Message Channel Receiver Sender Message Receiver Channel noise 2
  69. 69. (SMCR) Sender Message Channel Receiver Perceptions capsule Sender Message Receiver Channel noise encode decode 3
  70. 70. (SMCR) Sender Message Channel Receiver Perceptions capsule Sender Message Receiver Channel noise Soft data Hard data encode decode 4
  71. 71. (SMCR) Sender Message Channel Receiver Perceptions capsule Sender Message Receiver Channel noise Soft data Hard data Senses: Sight Hearing Touch Smell Taste encode decode 5
  72. 72. (SMCR) Sender Message Channel Receiver Perceptions capsule Sender Message Receiver Channel noise Soft data Hard data Senses: Sight Hearing Touch Smell Taste encode decode Feedback 6
  73. 73. (SMCR) Sender Message Channel Receiver Perceptions capsule Sender Message Receiver Channel noise Soft data Hard data Senses: Sight Hearing Touch Smell Taste encode decode Feedback Uncertainty Uncertainty 7
  74. 75. Schramm’s Model of Communication - 1 <ul><li>Source & destination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Include both encoding and decoding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And an interpretation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Sign” is output of decoding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>And input to interpretation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Responses to sign are the meaning of the sign </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpreted on basis of context & experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Response choice initiates a new message </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Need overlap in “field of experience” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ common ground” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A shared language can be the shared field of experience </li></ul></ul>
  75. 76. Schramm’s Model of Communication - 2 <ul><li>Feedback </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Message originator acts as recipient of messages resulting directly from first message </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sources of feedback </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From recipient(s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Head nods, frowns, thumbs up, thumbs down </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-monitoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Through sender’s own senses: ears (speech) & eyes (writing) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.g., were the senders words pronounced correctly, was there a speech error? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  76. 77. Schramm’s model (1954) Field of experience Field of experience Signal Source Decoder Destination Message Message Feedback Feedback Encoder Interpreter Decoder Decoder Interpreter Encoder
  77. 78. Application to Multimedia Development <ul><li>Overlap of fields of experience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What do the signs used in the multimedia presentation mean to the user? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Text, images, and symbols used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Should overlap with fields of experience in the potential users of the Multimedia presentation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.g., icons for forward  & backward  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Icons assume shared experience </li></ul></ul></ul>
  78. 79. Watzlawick-Beavin-Jackson Communication Model 1 3 5 7 9 11 2 4 6 8 10 Person A Person B Messages
  79. 80. Communication (Baker S. J.) Psychic tensions A B A AB B No reciprocal identification Partial reciprocal identification Complete reciprocal identification Field of language S+ S-
  80. 81. References <ul><li>Aristotle (c. 350 BC) Rhetoric </li></ul><ul><li>Chomsky, Noam (1956). Three models for the description of language. IRE Transactions on Information Theory (2), 113–124. </li></ul><ul><li>Schramm, W. (1954) Procedures and effects of mass communication in Henry, N. B. (1954) Mass, media and education: The fifty-third yearbook of the national society for the study of education, Part II . University of Chicago Press: Chicago. </li></ul><ul><li>Shannon, C. & Weaver, W. (1949) The mathematical theory of communication . University of Illinois Press: Urbana. </li></ul>

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